- Nina, Jon and all,
My profound apologies for the earlier posting. I have converted to Velthuis, but it still
suffers from the non-support of italics and tabs. I don't know what to do about that, but
in the translations of (3) through (10), the endings are intended to be displayed in four by
three arrays, and some of the later definitions presuppose such an arrangement.
--- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:
> Dear George,
> I appreciate very much all the trouble you took, but the diacrital
> signs are hopeless. On Email only Velthuis works. Please, can you
> transcribe all? The conversion pad is very convenient.
> Op 28-dec-2008, om 5:31 heeft gdbedell het volgende geschreven:
(1) Ito para.m pavakkhaami, sotuuna.m mati-va.d.dhana.m;
kriyaa-pada-kkama.m naama, vibhatt'-aadiini diipaya.m.
*I will explain, for the growth of my audience's wisdom,
the terminology of verbs, starting with endings.
(2) Tatra aakhyaatikassa kiriyaa-lakkha.n-atta-suucikaa ty-aadayo vibhattiyo,
taa a.t.tha-vidhaa vattamaanaa-pañcamii-sattamii-parokkhaa-hiyyattanii-
*Endings such as -ti, etc. indicate the character of the action (performed by)
a verb (C. 79), the eight sets: present (tense), imperative (mood), optative
(mood), perfect (aspect), imperfect (aspect), aorist (tense), future (tense)
and conditional (mood).
[As pointed out by C. (80), perfect and imperfect forms are not found in
early Paali literature. They may be due to later influences of Sanskrit on
Paali. The lists of endings which follow are found in all Paali grammars
beginning with Kaccaayana, with few variations. In the Suttamaalaa, the
same lists are given in suttas 896 to 903. The classification of these
'conjugations' into tenses, aspects and moods is a Western imposition.]
(3) Tattha ti anti, si tha, mi ma, te ante, se vhe, e mhe icc etaa vattamaanaa-
*These are called the present endings:
-ti -anti -te -ante
-si -tha -se -vhe
-mi -ma -e -mhe
[The term vattamaanaa means 'presently existing': an appropriate choice
for the present tense.]
(4) Tu antu, hi tha, mi ma, ta.m anta.m, su vho, e aamase icc etaa pañcamii-
*These are called the imperative endings:
-tu -antu -ta.m -anta.m
-hi -tha -su -vho
-mi -ma -e -aamase
[The term pañcamii means 'fifth', and reflects an earlier system. It is
used for the imperative mood in Kaatantra.]
(5) Eyya eyyu.m, eyyaasi eyyaatha, eyyaami eyyaama, etha era.m, etho
eyyaavho, eyya.m eyyaamhe icc etaa sattamii-vibhattiyo naama.
*These are called the optative endings:
-eyya -eyyu.m -etha -era.m
-eyyaasi -eyyaatha -etho -eyyaavho
-eyyaami -eyyaama -eyya.m -eyyaamhe
[The term sattamii means 'seventh', and reflects an earlier system. It is
used for the optative mood in Kaatantra. ]
(6) A u, e ttha, a.m mha, ttha re, ttho vho, i.m mhe icc etaa parokkhaa-
*These are called the perfect endings:
-a -u -ttha -re
-e -ttha -ttho -vho
-a.m -mha -i.m -mhe
(7) Aa uu, o ttha, a.m mhaa, ttha tthu.m, se vha.m, i.m mhase icc etaa
hiyyattanii- vibhattiyo naama.
*These are called the imperfect endings:
-aa -uu -ttha -tthu.m
-o -ttha -se -vha.m
-a.m -mhaa -i.m -mhase
(8) Ii u.m, o ttha, i.m mhaa, aa uu, se vha.m, a.m mhe icc etaa ajjatanii-
vibhattiyo naama. *These are called the aorist endings:
-ii -u.m -aa -uu
-o -ttha -se -vha.m
-i.m -mhaa -a.m -mhe
(9) Ssati ssanti, ssasi ssatha, ssaami ssaama, ssate ssante, ssase ssavhe,
ssa.m ssaamhe icc etaa bhavissantii-vibhattiyo naama.
*These are called the future endings:
-ssati -ssanti -ssate -ssante
-ssasi -ssatha -ssase -ssavhe
-ssaami -ssaama -ssa.m -ssaamhe
[The term bhavissantii is a participle meaning 'going to be'. It is
used for the future tense in Paa.nini, and also in Kaatantra.]
(10) Ssaa ssa.msu, sse ssatha, ssa.m ssaamhaa, ssatha ssisu, ssase
ssavhe, ssi.m ssaamhase icc etaa kaalaatipatti-vibhatti yo naama.
*These are called the conditional endings:
-ssaa -ssa.msu -ssatha -ssisu
-sse -ssatha -ssase -ssavhe
-ssa.m -ssaamhaa -ssi.m -ssaamhase
(11) Sabbaasametaasa.m vibhattii na.m yaani yaani pubbakaa ni cha
padaani, taani taani parassa-padaani naama. Yaani yaani pana paraani
cha padaani, taani taani attano-padaani naama. Tattha parassapadaani
vattamaa naa cha, pañcamiyo cha, sattamiyo cha, parokkhaa cha,
hiyyattaniyo cha, ajjataniyo cha, bhavissantiyo cha, kaalaatipattiyo chaa ti
a.t.tha-cattaalii sa- vidhaani honti, tathaa itaraani, sabbaani taani
*In each set of endings, the first six are called active, and the last six
are called middle. Thus in the active there are six present, six
imperative, six optative, six perfect, six imperfect, six aorist, six
future and six conditional endings, totalling forty-eight; the others
(i. e. the middle) are all grouped in the same way.
(12) Parassapadaanam-attanopadaanañ ca dve dve padaani pa.thama-
majjhim-uttama-purisaa naama. Te vattamaa n'-aa diisu cattaaro cattaaro,
a.t.thanna.m vibhattii na.m vasena dvatti.m sa, pi.n.ditaani parimaa.naan' eva.
*In both active and middle, the pairs are called third person, second
person and first person. Beginning with the present there are eight groups
of four endings totalling thirty-two.
(13) Dviisu dviisu padesu pa.thama.m pa.thama.m eka-vacana.m, dutiya.m
*In each pair, the first is singular, the second plural.
(14) Tatra vattamaanan-vibhattiina.m ti anti, si tha, mi ma icc etaani
parassapadaani. Te ante, se vhe, e mhe icc etaani attanopadaa ni.
Parassapada-'ttanopadesu pi ti anti iti pa.thamapurisaa, si tha iti
majjhimapurisaa, mi ma iti uttamapurisaa, te ante iti pa.thamapurisaa,
se vhe iti majjhimapurisaa, e mhe iti uttamapurisaa. Pa.thama- majjhim-
uttama-purisesu pi ti iti ekavacana.m, anti iti bahuvacanan ti eva.m
ekavacana-bahuvacanaani kamato ñeyyaani. Eva.m sesaasu vibhattisu
parassapada-'ttanopada-pa.thama-majjhim- uttama- puris'-ekavacana-
bahuvacanaani ñeyyaani. *Thus the present endings ti anti, si tha, mi ma
are active, and te ante, se vhe, e mhe are middle. Of the active and
middle, ti anti are third person, si tha are second person, mi ma are
first person, te ante are third person, se vhe are second person and
e mhe are first person. Of the third, second and first person, ti is singular
and anti is plural, and so for the others. The rest of the endings are
understood to be active or middle, third, second or first person and
singular or plural appropriately.
- Dear Mahinda,
Thanks! I agree with you on both of your objections. I also found a
'naamavibhattiihi' in the 6th pariccheda and the obvious meaning of 'noun
endings' there would also have to apply to a conjectured naama-vihbatt'- in
the 2nd pariccheda which, by the way, has something to say about the noun
endings or the absence thereof (see avibhattikaniddeso). In the case of your
objection regarding 'naama' and the cases of words that can precede it, I
was unsure about this to start with. Thanks for quoting the examples with
the accusative and genitive cases and thereby clearing up the matter for me.
> Dear Jim, George and others,
> With reference to Jim's exegesis, I see two possible objections:
> (1) Compounding naama with vibhattyaadiini will give the sense "I will
> explain the noun endings etc." (naama being a technical term in Pali
> grammar for noun) . This will not fit this chapter since it deals with
> kriyaavibhatti etc.
> (2) It is not mandatory that the referent of naama should be in the
> nominative case. Compare the following: (a) so gaama-vaasiihi saddhi.m
> agga-sassa-daana.m naama adaasi. (b) aha.m gotama-buddhassa naama
> saasane agga-savaka-.t.thaana.m patthesi.m. In these instances the
> referent is in the accusative and genetive cases. The examples are
> from The Aggasaavaka-vatthu of the Dhammapada commentary.