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The New Pali Course Part II [8-4/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    (3) The last consonant of some roots is assimilated to t of the suffixes. (4) Strengthening of the first vowel sometimes takes place before these. (a) -tu.m
    Message 1 of 11 , Jul 15, 2008
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      (3) The last consonant of some roots is assimilated to t of the suffixes.
      (4) Strengthening of the first vowel sometimes takes place before these.

      (a) "-tu.m" with an additional i
      pacA + i + tu.m = pacitu.m (to cook)
      khaadA + i + tu.m = khaaditu.m (to eat)
      harA + i + tu.m = haritu.m (to carry)
      dhaavu + i + tu.m = dhaavitu.m (to run)

      (i) added to the bases
      su.na + i + tu.m = su.nitu.m (to hear)
      bujjha + i + tu.m = bujjhitu.m (to understand)
      jaana + i + tu.m = jaanitu.m (to know)
      chinda + i + tu.m = chinditu.m (to cut)

      (b) after the roots ending in aa
      daa + tu.m = daatu.m (to give)
      paa + tu.m = paatu.m (to drink)
      .thaa + tu.m = .thaatu.m (to stand)
      ~naa + tu.m = ~naatu.m (to know)
      yaa + tu.m = yaatu.m (to go)

      Root kara becomes kaa before these; then it is treated as a root
      ending in aa.
      kaa + tu.m = kaatu.m (to do)
      kaa + tava = kaatave (to do)

      (c) where assimilation occurs and the radical vowel is strengthened
      karA + tu.m = kattu.m (to do)
      chidA + tu.m = chettu.m (to cut)
      bhujA + tu.m = bhottu.m (to eat, to enjoy)
      padA + tu.m = pattu.m (to arrive or attain)
      harA + tu.m = hattu.m (to carry)
      vadA + tu.m = vattu.m (to say)
      gamU + tu.m = gantu.m (to go)
      labhA + tu.m = laddhu.m (to get)
      budhA + tu.m = boddhu.m (to perceive)

      In the last two examples both bh+t and dh+t have become ddh.

      (d) where "t" is not doubled and strengthening of the vowel takes place
      nii + tu.m = netu.m (to lead or carry)
      ji + tu.m = jetu.m (to conquer)
      su + tu.m = sotu.m (to hear)
      huu + tu.m = hotu.m (to be or become)

      156. To the causal bases, and the bases of the seventh conjugation,
      ending in a, these suffixes are joined with the help of an i. They are
      directly added to those bases ending in e.

      Causal bases
      kaare + tu.m = kaaretu.m,
      kaaraya + i + tu.m = kaarayitu.m (to cause to do)
      maaraape + tu.m = maaraapetu.m,
      maaraapaya + i + tu.m = maaraapayitu.m (to cause to kill)
      gaahe + tu.m = gaahetu.m,
      gaahaapaya + i + tu.m = gaahaapayitu.m (to cause to take)

      Bases of the seventh conjugation
      core + tu.m = coretu.m,
      coraya + i + tu.m = corayitu.m (to steal)
      paale + tu.m = paaletu.m,
      palaya + i + tu.m = paalayitu.m (to protect or govern)
      dese + tu.m = desetu.m,
      desaya + i + tu.m = desayitu.m (to preach)
    • Ong Yong Peng
      157. Indeclinable active past participles - or gerunds or absolutives, according to some modern grammarians - are formed with the suffixes -tvaa, -tvaana,
      Message 2 of 11 , Jul 21, 2008
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        157. Indeclinable active past participles - or gerunds or absolutives,
        according to some modern grammarians - are formed with the suffixes
        -tvaa, -tvaana, -tuuna, -ya and -tya.

        (1) These may be joined to the roots or bases by means of a connecting i.
        (2) Sometimes the last consonant of the root is dropped before these.
        (3) The final long vowel of a root is sometimes shortened or
        strengthened before these.
        (4) t of the suffixes is dropped or changed together with the last
        consonant of the root in a few cases.

        (a) joined to the roots by means of i
        pacA + i + tvaa = pacitvaa (having cooked)
        karA + i + tvaana = karitvaana (having done)
        vandA + i + tuuna = vandituuna (having bowed down)

        (i) joined to the bases
        bhu~njA + i + tvaa = bhu~njitvaa (having eaten)
        sayA + i + tvaana = sayitvaana (having slept)
        su.nA + i + tuuna = su.nituuna (having heard)
        jahA + i + tvaa = jahitvaa (having abandoned)

        (b) where the last consonant is dropped
        karA + tvaa = katvaa (having done)
        hanA + tvaa = hatvaa (having killed)
        bhujA + tvaa = butvaa (having eaten)
        padA + tvaa = patvaa (having come or arrived)
        cajA + tvaa = catvaa (having abandoned)
        chidA + tvaa = chetvaa (having cut or broken)
        bhidA + tvaa = bhetvaa (having broken or opened)

        (c) final vowel shortened or strengthened
        daa + tvaa = datvaa (having given)
        nii + tvaa = netvaa (having carried)
        huu + tvaa = hutvaa (having been)
        ~naa + tvaa = ~natvaa (having known)
        .thaa + tvaa = .thatvaa (having stood or stayed)

        (d) t of suffix is dropped or changed
        disa + tvaa = disvaa (having seen)
        labha + tvaa = laddhaa (having gotten)

        (e) where nothing but the elison of the final vowel of the root has
        taken place
        hanA + tvaa = hantvaa (having killed)
        manA + tvaa = mantvaa (having thought)
        nii + tvaa = niitvaa (having carried)
        yaa + tvaa = yaatvaa (having gone)
        paa + tvaa = paatvaa (having drunk)

        In gamU + tvaa = gantvaa (having gone), m is changed to n.

        158. -ya is assimilated, in many cases, to the last consonant of the
        root; it is directly added to the roots ending in a long vowel.

        (1) Directly added:
        aa + daa + ya = aadaaya (having taken)
        pa + haa + ya = pahaaya (having abandoned)
        aa + nii + ya = aaniiya (having brought)
        aa + ~naa + ya = a~n~naaya (having known)

        (2) Assimilated with the preceding consonant:
        aa + gamU + ya = aagamya = aagamma (having come)
        ni + sadA + ya = nisadya = nisajja (having sat)
      • freeyow
        ... absolutives, ... Hello, may I know where could I found for all pali course posted by you? thx in advance. Yow
        Message 3 of 11 , Jul 23, 2008
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          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Ong Yong Peng" <pali.smith@...> wrote:
          >
          > 157. Indeclinable active past participles - or gerunds or
          absolutives,
          > according to some modern grammarians - are formed with the suffixes
          > -tvaa, -tvaana, -tuuna, -ya and -tya.
          >
          >

          Hello, may I know where could I found for all pali course posted by
          you?

          thx in advance.

          Yow
        • ong.yongpeng
          Dear Yow, the posts in this series comes from Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta s book. The series is broken down in eight parts, and each part has a series of eight
          Message 4 of 11 , Jul 25, 2008
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            Dear Yow,

            the posts in this series comes from Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta's book. The
            series is broken down in eight parts, and each part has a series of
            eight posts.

            If you browse any post in this part, for example, on the web (i.e. on
            Yahoo! Groups), you will find all mails for the part by scrolling
            towards the bottom of the page.

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12657

            The same applies to all other topics and threads.

            This series is ending in two weeks' time. On the final post, I will
            include links to all eight parts, for those who like to revisit the
            individual postings again.


            metta,
            Yong Peng.

            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, freeyow wrote:

            Hello, may I know where could I found for all pali course posted by you?
          • ong.yongpeng
            aa + kamU + ya = akkamya = akkamma (having trodden) u + padA + ya = uppadya = uppajja (having been born or arisen) upa + labhA + ya = upalabbhya = upalabbha
            Message 5 of 11 , Jul 27, 2008
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              aa + kamU + ya = akkamya = akkamma (having trodden)
              u + padA + ya = uppadya = uppajja (having been born or arisen)
              upa + labhA + ya = upalabbhya = upalabbha (having got)
              pa + madA + ya = pamadya = pamajja (having delayed, being negligent)
              aa + rabhA + ya = aarabhya = aarabbha (having begun, on account of,
              concerning)
              pa + visA + ya = pavisya = pavissa (having entered)
              vi + bhajA + ya = vibhajya = vibhajja (having divided)

              (3) -y is interchanged with the last consonant if the latter is "h":

              aa + ruhA + ya = aaruhya = aaruyha (having ascended)
              gahA + ya = gahya = gayha (having taken)
              sa.m + muhA + ya = sammuhya = sammuyha (having forgotten)
              pa + gahA + ya = paggahya = paggayha (having raised or held up)

              (4) Sometimes -y is reduplicated:

              vi + nii + ya = vineyya (having removed)
              vi + ci + ya = viceyya (having considered)

              159. -tya is always changed to cca together or without the last
              consonant of the root.

              upa + hanA + tya = upahacca (having vexed)
              aa + hanA + tya = aahacca (having knocked or struck)
              pa.ti + i (to go or know) + tya = pa.ticca (following upon, on account of)
              anu + vidA + tya = anuvicca (having known or considered)
              ava + i + tya = avecca (having understood)
              upa + i + tya = upecca (having come near)
              ni + padA + tya = nipacca (having bowed down)
              ni + hanA + tya = nihacca (having knocked down)
              sa.m + karA + tya = sakkacca (carefully, respectfully)
              vi + vicA + tya = vivicca (having separated)

              Exercise 26

              Translate into English and point out the primary derivatives

              1. "Ra~n~naa pana vandite Bhagavanta.m avanditvaa .thaatu.m samattho
              naama eko pi Saakiyo naahosi." [J.Nidaana]

              2. Raajaa sa.mvigga-hadayo hatthena saa.taka.m sa.n.thapento
              turita-turita.m nikkhamitvaa vegena gantvaa Bhagavato purato .thatvaa
              aaha: ... Ki.m ettakaana.m bhikkhuuna.m na sakkaa bhatta.m laddhun ti
              sa~n~na.m karitthaa? ti." [Ibid.]

              3. "Andha-baala-pitara.m nissaaya evaruupa.m Buddha.m
              upasa`nkamiitvaa... daana.m vaa daatu.m dhamma.m vaa sotu.m
              naalattha.m; a~n~na.m kattabba.m natthii ti manam eva pasaadesi."
              [Dh.A.i.27]

              4. "Bhikkhuu tassa gharadvaarena gacchantaa ta.m sadda.m sutvaa
              vihaara.m gantvaa Satthusantike nisinnaa evam aaha.msu." [Ibid. i.127]

              5. "Tato so tatiye vasse
              Naagindo Ma.niakkhiko
              Upasa`nkamma Sambuddha.m
              Saha sa`ngha.m nimantayi." [Mahaava.msa i.71]
            • ong.yongpeng
              6. Bhuusaapetvaana nagara.m Gantvaa sa`ngha.m nimantiya, Gharan netvaana bhojetvaa Datvaa saama.naka.m bahu.m: Satthaaraa desito dhammo Kittako? ti
              Message 6 of 11 , Aug 2, 2008
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                6. "Bhuusaapetvaana nagara.m
                Gantvaa sa`ngha.m nimantiya,
                Gharan netvaana bhojetvaa
                Datvaa saama.naka.m bahu.m:
                Satthaaraa desito dhammo
                Kittako? ti apucchatha." [Ibid. V.76]

                7. "Bhavanaa abhinikkhamma
                Addasa.m Lokanaayaka.m." [Apa.]

                8. "Sac'aaya.m putto tumhe pa.ticca jaato, aakaase ti.t.thatu; no ce
                patitvaa maratuu ti." [J. Ka.t.thahaari]

                9. Vivicc'eva kaamehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi pa.thamajjhaana.m
                upasampajja viharati.

                10. "Sabbe sa`ngamma mantetvaa
                Maala.m kubbanti Satthuno." [Apa.56]

                New Words.

                addasa.m (v) [I] saw.
                andha-baala (adj) very foolish [lit. blindly].
                apucchatha (v) [he] asked.
                abhinikkhamma (abs) having come out.
                upasampajja (abs) having attained or been ordained.
                upasa`nkamma (abs) having approached.
                ettaka (adj) this much.
                evaruupa (adj) of this sort, such.
                kaama (m) sensual pleasure.
                kittaka (adj) how much.
                kubbati (v) does.
                turita-turita.m (adv) quickly.
                naaginda (m) Naaga chief.
                naalattha.m (v) [I] did not get.
                nimantayii (v) [he] invited.
                nimantiya (abs) having invited.
                bhavana (n) mansion.
                bhuusaapetvaa (abs) having caused to be decorated.
                mantetvaa (abs) having consulted.
                vandita (pp) worshipped.
                vegena (adv) speedily.
                sa`ngamma (abs) having gathered together.
                san.thapenta (pr.p) adjusting.
                sa~n~na.m karoti (v) thinks.
                saama.naka (adj) things that are suitable for the use of monks.

                Translate into Pali, using primary derivatives where it is possible

                1. The farmers having ploughed the field and sowed the paddy expected
                to have a good harvest.

                2. All righteous people should make up their minds to do justice even
                to their enemies.

                3. Having found no preceptor in that monastery, the monk approached
                the Master in order to obtain a topic for meditation.

                4. How much money should one have to make a mansion of seven storeys.

                5. Having fallen from the top of a tall tree, the lad broke his right
                arm, but there was none to take him to a physician.

                6. I shall make a strong determination to win the hearts of my friends.

                7. Calling him a fool and idiot the citizens drove him out of the capital.

                8. If you cannot be good, you should at least try not to be bad.

                9. Both, in this world and in the next, the sinner having suffered the
                results of his (evil) actions, courses through samsaara for a long time.
              • ong.yongpeng
                10. Leaving off doubt and increasing faith in the Exalted One, practise virtues in order to attain Arahatship. New Words. at least = antamaso (adv). calling [a
                Message 7 of 11 , Aug 8, 2008
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                  10. Leaving off doubt and increasing faith in the Exalted One, practise virtues in order to
                  attain Arahatship.

                  New Words.

                  at least = antamaso (adv).
                  calling [a fool] = [baalo ti] vadantaa (pr.p).
                  capital [city] = raajadhaani (f).
                  determination, strong = adhi.t.thaana (n).
                  doubt = ka`nkhaa, vicikicchaa (f).
                  expects = aagameti (v).
                  good, bad = [use here] dhammika, adhammika (adj).
                  harvest = dha~n~naphala (n).
                  having sowed = vapitvaa (abs).
                  having suffered = anubhavitvaa, vinditvaa (abs).
                  idiot = e.lamuuga (m).
                  increasing = va.d.dhenta (pr.p).
                  justice = yutti (f).
                  leaving off = [use here] vitaritvaa (abs).
                  practises = rakkhati, pa.tipajjati (v).
                  right [arm] = dakkhi.na-[baahu] (m).
                  righteous = dhammika (adj).
                  should have = labhitabba (pot.p).
                  should make up [the mind] = [citta.m] pa.nidahitabba.m or kaatabba.m (pot.p).
                  top = matthaka, agga (m).
                  topic for meditation = kamma.t.thaana (n).
                  to win the hearts = mana.m gahetu.m.

                  * The book ends here. Please consult the web version on tipitaka.net in coming weeks for
                  the complete text.

                  * All previous mail headings:
                  1-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11461
                  2-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11632
                  3-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11743
                  4-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11864
                  5-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12101
                  6-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12406
                  7-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12593
                  8-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12657
                • ong.yongpeng
                  Dear friends, the postings from the book is completed. The remaining vocabulary section will only be available on the web at a later date. If you are working
                  Message 8 of 11 , Aug 8, 2008
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                    Dear friends,

                    the postings from the book is completed. The remaining vocabulary section will only be
                    available on the web at a later date.

                    If you are working through the exercises, please check out postings from Florent and
                    myself for suggested solutions. I am also preparing a study guide as I work through the
                    book. The guide currently covers right through exercise 17, and is available in PDF format
                    on tipitaka.net.

                    Singapore celebrates National Day on August 9, so allow me to take this opportunity to
                    wish everyone, in Singapore and abroad, semoga bahagia (may you achieve happiness).


                    metta,
                    Yong Peng.


                    --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, ong.yongpeng wrote:

                    * The book ends here. Please consult the web version on tipitaka.net in coming weeks for
                    the complete text.

                    * All previous mail headings:
                    1-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11461
                    2-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11632
                    3-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11743
                    4-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11864
                    5-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12101
                    6-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12406
                    7-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12593
                    8-1/8 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12657
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