The New Pali Course Part II [8-3/8]
- 2. All beings, who live in land or in water, are not able to support
their lives without food.
3. Those who give food, clothes and other things to the beggars, are
praised by the other people living in those districts.
4. The Blessed One sat on a jewelled throne, given by the Naaga chiefs
of Ceylon, when He visited the island.
5. On the next day, when the priests entered the village, they saw
that the hall had not been swept, the mats had not been spread, and
the drinking water had not been placed.
6. "But now, surrounded by her children and her children's children,
she walks singing round and round the building." [B.T. 479]
7. "When Visaakhaa heard the word 'saints' she was greatly
delighted... But when she came to the place where they were eating,
and beheld them, she was angry with the treasurer." [B.T. 465]
8. "Long ago, Aananda, there was a king, by name Mahaa-Sudassana, a
king of kings... lord of the four quarters of the earth, conqueror,
the protector of his people." [L.G.B. 217]
9. "There they passed the day in paying honour, reverence, respect and
homage to the remains of the Exalted One with dancing and hymns, and
music, and with garlands and perfumes; and in making canopies." [Ibid.
10. "When he had thus spoken the venerable Aananda said to the
wanderer Subhadda: Enough, friend Subhadda, trouble not the
Tathaagata. The Exalted One is weary." [Ibid. 220]
artisan = sippii (m).
building = geha, paasaada (m).
district = padesa (m).
enough = ala.m (indec).
goldsmith = suva.n.nakaara (m).
[had been] swept = sammajjita, samma.t.tha (pp).
[had been] spread = atthata (pp).
[had been] placed = .thapita.
hymn = giita (n).
jewelled throne = ma.nipalla`nka (m).
mat = kila~nja (m).
not able = asamattha (adj).
paying honour = sakkaronta (pr.p).
paying respect = maanenta (pr.p).
remains [of the Exalted One] = [Tathaagata-]sariira (n).
round and round = parisamantato (indec).
singing = gaayanta (pr.p).
thing = upakara.na, bha.n.da (n).
to support = bharitu.m (inf).
troubles = viheseti (v).
wanderer = sa~ncaaraka, paribbaajaka (m).
weary = kilanta (adj).
(4) Primary Derivatives that are Indeclinable
155. "-tu.m" and "-tave" are suffixed to the roots or the bases in
order to form infinitives. (-tave is employed only in verse)
(1) They are joined with an additional i to the roots ending in a and u.
(2) They are directly added to the roots ending in aa.
- (3) The last consonant of some roots is assimilated to t of the suffixes.
(4) Strengthening of the first vowel sometimes takes place before these.
(a) "-tu.m" with an additional i
pacA + i + tu.m = pacitu.m (to cook)
khaadA + i + tu.m = khaaditu.m (to eat)
harA + i + tu.m = haritu.m (to carry)
dhaavu + i + tu.m = dhaavitu.m (to run)
(i) added to the bases
su.na + i + tu.m = su.nitu.m (to hear)
bujjha + i + tu.m = bujjhitu.m (to understand)
jaana + i + tu.m = jaanitu.m (to know)
chinda + i + tu.m = chinditu.m (to cut)
(b) after the roots ending in aa
daa + tu.m = daatu.m (to give)
paa + tu.m = paatu.m (to drink)
.thaa + tu.m = .thaatu.m (to stand)
~naa + tu.m = ~naatu.m (to know)
yaa + tu.m = yaatu.m (to go)
Root kara becomes kaa before these; then it is treated as a root
ending in aa.
kaa + tu.m = kaatu.m (to do)
kaa + tava = kaatave (to do)
(c) where assimilation occurs and the radical vowel is strengthened
karA + tu.m = kattu.m (to do)
chidA + tu.m = chettu.m (to cut)
bhujA + tu.m = bhottu.m (to eat, to enjoy)
padA + tu.m = pattu.m (to arrive or attain)
harA + tu.m = hattu.m (to carry)
vadA + tu.m = vattu.m (to say)
gamU + tu.m = gantu.m (to go)
labhA + tu.m = laddhu.m (to get)
budhA + tu.m = boddhu.m (to perceive)
In the last two examples both bh+t and dh+t have become ddh.
(d) where "t" is not doubled and strengthening of the vowel takes place
nii + tu.m = netu.m (to lead or carry)
ji + tu.m = jetu.m (to conquer)
su + tu.m = sotu.m (to hear)
huu + tu.m = hotu.m (to be or become)
156. To the causal bases, and the bases of the seventh conjugation,
ending in a, these suffixes are joined with the help of an i. They are
directly added to those bases ending in e.
kaare + tu.m = kaaretu.m,
kaaraya + i + tu.m = kaarayitu.m (to cause to do)
maaraape + tu.m = maaraapetu.m,
maaraapaya + i + tu.m = maaraapayitu.m (to cause to kill)
gaahe + tu.m = gaahetu.m,
gaahaapaya + i + tu.m = gaahaapayitu.m (to cause to take)
Bases of the seventh conjugation
core + tu.m = coretu.m,
coraya + i + tu.m = corayitu.m (to steal)
paale + tu.m = paaletu.m,
palaya + i + tu.m = paalayitu.m (to protect or govern)
dese + tu.m = desetu.m,
desaya + i + tu.m = desayitu.m (to preach)
- 157. Indeclinable active past participles - or gerunds or absolutives,
according to some modern grammarians - are formed with the suffixes
-tvaa, -tvaana, -tuuna, -ya and -tya.
(1) These may be joined to the roots or bases by means of a connecting i.
(2) Sometimes the last consonant of the root is dropped before these.
(3) The final long vowel of a root is sometimes shortened or
strengthened before these.
(4) t of the suffixes is dropped or changed together with the last
consonant of the root in a few cases.
(a) joined to the roots by means of i
pacA + i + tvaa = pacitvaa (having cooked)
karA + i + tvaana = karitvaana (having done)
vandA + i + tuuna = vandituuna (having bowed down)
(i) joined to the bases
bhu~njA + i + tvaa = bhu~njitvaa (having eaten)
sayA + i + tvaana = sayitvaana (having slept)
su.nA + i + tuuna = su.nituuna (having heard)
jahA + i + tvaa = jahitvaa (having abandoned)
(b) where the last consonant is dropped
karA + tvaa = katvaa (having done)
hanA + tvaa = hatvaa (having killed)
bhujA + tvaa = butvaa (having eaten)
padA + tvaa = patvaa (having come or arrived)
cajA + tvaa = catvaa (having abandoned)
chidA + tvaa = chetvaa (having cut or broken)
bhidA + tvaa = bhetvaa (having broken or opened)
(c) final vowel shortened or strengthened
daa + tvaa = datvaa (having given)
nii + tvaa = netvaa (having carried)
huu + tvaa = hutvaa (having been)
~naa + tvaa = ~natvaa (having known)
.thaa + tvaa = .thatvaa (having stood or stayed)
(d) t of suffix is dropped or changed
disa + tvaa = disvaa (having seen)
labha + tvaa = laddhaa (having gotten)
(e) where nothing but the elison of the final vowel of the root has
hanA + tvaa = hantvaa (having killed)
manA + tvaa = mantvaa (having thought)
nii + tvaa = niitvaa (having carried)
yaa + tvaa = yaatvaa (having gone)
paa + tvaa = paatvaa (having drunk)
In gamU + tvaa = gantvaa (having gone), m is changed to n.
158. -ya is assimilated, in many cases, to the last consonant of the
root; it is directly added to the roots ending in a long vowel.
(1) Directly added:
aa + daa + ya = aadaaya (having taken)
pa + haa + ya = pahaaya (having abandoned)
aa + nii + ya = aaniiya (having brought)
aa + ~naa + ya = a~n~naaya (having known)
(2) Assimilated with the preceding consonant:
aa + gamU + ya = aagamya = aagamma (having come)
ni + sadA + ya = nisadya = nisajja (having sat)
- --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Ong Yong Peng" <pali.smith@...> wrote:
> 157. Indeclinable active past participles - or gerunds or
> according to some modern grammarians - are formed with the suffixesHello, may I know where could I found for all pali course posted by
> -tvaa, -tvaana, -tuuna, -ya and -tya.
thx in advance.
- Dear Yow,
the posts in this series comes from Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta's book. The
series is broken down in eight parts, and each part has a series of
If you browse any post in this part, for example, on the web (i.e. on
Yahoo! Groups), you will find all mails for the part by scrolling
towards the bottom of the page.
The same applies to all other topics and threads.
This series is ending in two weeks' time. On the final post, I will
include links to all eight parts, for those who like to revisit the
individual postings again.
--- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, freeyow wrote:
Hello, may I know where could I found for all pali course posted by you?
- aa + kamU + ya = akkamya = akkamma (having trodden)
u + padA + ya = uppadya = uppajja (having been born or arisen)
upa + labhA + ya = upalabbhya = upalabbha (having got)
pa + madA + ya = pamadya = pamajja (having delayed, being negligent)
aa + rabhA + ya = aarabhya = aarabbha (having begun, on account of,
pa + visA + ya = pavisya = pavissa (having entered)
vi + bhajA + ya = vibhajya = vibhajja (having divided)
(3) -y is interchanged with the last consonant if the latter is "h":
aa + ruhA + ya = aaruhya = aaruyha (having ascended)
gahA + ya = gahya = gayha (having taken)
sa.m + muhA + ya = sammuhya = sammuyha (having forgotten)
pa + gahA + ya = paggahya = paggayha (having raised or held up)
(4) Sometimes -y is reduplicated:
vi + nii + ya = vineyya (having removed)
vi + ci + ya = viceyya (having considered)
159. -tya is always changed to cca together or without the last
consonant of the root.
upa + hanA + tya = upahacca (having vexed)
aa + hanA + tya = aahacca (having knocked or struck)
pa.ti + i (to go or know) + tya = pa.ticca (following upon, on account of)
anu + vidA + tya = anuvicca (having known or considered)
ava + i + tya = avecca (having understood)
upa + i + tya = upecca (having come near)
ni + padA + tya = nipacca (having bowed down)
ni + hanA + tya = nihacca (having knocked down)
sa.m + karA + tya = sakkacca (carefully, respectfully)
vi + vicA + tya = vivicca (having separated)
Translate into English and point out the primary derivatives
1. "Ra~n~naa pana vandite Bhagavanta.m avanditvaa .thaatu.m samattho
naama eko pi Saakiyo naahosi." [J.Nidaana]
2. Raajaa sa.mvigga-hadayo hatthena saa.taka.m sa.n.thapento
turita-turita.m nikkhamitvaa vegena gantvaa Bhagavato purato .thatvaa
aaha: ... Ki.m ettakaana.m bhikkhuuna.m na sakkaa bhatta.m laddhun ti
sa~n~na.m karitthaa? ti." [Ibid.]
3. "Andha-baala-pitara.m nissaaya evaruupa.m Buddha.m
upasa`nkamiitvaa... daana.m vaa daatu.m dhamma.m vaa sotu.m
naalattha.m; a~n~na.m kattabba.m natthii ti manam eva pasaadesi."
4. "Bhikkhuu tassa gharadvaarena gacchantaa ta.m sadda.m sutvaa
vihaara.m gantvaa Satthusantike nisinnaa evam aaha.msu." [Ibid. i.127]
5. "Tato so tatiye vasse
Saha sa`ngha.m nimantayi." [Mahaava.msa i.71]
- 6. "Bhuusaapetvaana nagara.m
Gantvaa sa`ngha.m nimantiya,
Gharan netvaana bhojetvaa
Datvaa saama.naka.m bahu.m:
Satthaaraa desito dhammo
Kittako? ti apucchatha." [Ibid. V.76]
7. "Bhavanaa abhinikkhamma
Addasa.m Lokanaayaka.m." [Apa.]
8. "Sac'aaya.m putto tumhe pa.ticca jaato, aakaase ti.t.thatu; no ce
patitvaa maratuu ti." [J. Ka.t.thahaari]
9. Vivicc'eva kaamehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi pa.thamajjhaana.m
10. "Sabbe sa`ngamma mantetvaa
Maala.m kubbanti Satthuno." [Apa.56]
addasa.m (v) [I] saw.
andha-baala (adj) very foolish [lit. blindly].
apucchatha (v) [he] asked.
abhinikkhamma (abs) having come out.
upasampajja (abs) having attained or been ordained.
upasa`nkamma (abs) having approached.
ettaka (adj) this much.
evaruupa (adj) of this sort, such.
kaama (m) sensual pleasure.
kittaka (adj) how much.
kubbati (v) does.
turita-turita.m (adv) quickly.
naaginda (m) Naaga chief.
naalattha.m (v) [I] did not get.
nimantayii (v) [he] invited.
nimantiya (abs) having invited.
bhavana (n) mansion.
bhuusaapetvaa (abs) having caused to be decorated.
mantetvaa (abs) having consulted.
vandita (pp) worshipped.
vegena (adv) speedily.
sa`ngamma (abs) having gathered together.
san.thapenta (pr.p) adjusting.
sa~n~na.m karoti (v) thinks.
saama.naka (adj) things that are suitable for the use of monks.
Translate into Pali, using primary derivatives where it is possible
1. The farmers having ploughed the field and sowed the paddy expected
to have a good harvest.
2. All righteous people should make up their minds to do justice even
to their enemies.
3. Having found no preceptor in that monastery, the monk approached
the Master in order to obtain a topic for meditation.
4. How much money should one have to make a mansion of seven storeys.
5. Having fallen from the top of a tall tree, the lad broke his right
arm, but there was none to take him to a physician.
6. I shall make a strong determination to win the hearts of my friends.
7. Calling him a fool and idiot the citizens drove him out of the capital.
8. If you cannot be good, you should at least try not to be bad.
9. Both, in this world and in the next, the sinner having suffered the
results of his (evil) actions, courses through samsaara for a long time.
- 10. Leaving off doubt and increasing faith in the Exalted One, practise virtues in order to
at least = antamaso (adv).
calling [a fool] = [baalo ti] vadantaa (pr.p).
capital [city] = raajadhaani (f).
determination, strong = adhi.t.thaana (n).
doubt = ka`nkhaa, vicikicchaa (f).
expects = aagameti (v).
good, bad = [use here] dhammika, adhammika (adj).
harvest = dha~n~naphala (n).
having sowed = vapitvaa (abs).
having suffered = anubhavitvaa, vinditvaa (abs).
idiot = e.lamuuga (m).
increasing = va.d.dhenta (pr.p).
justice = yutti (f).
leaving off = [use here] vitaritvaa (abs).
practises = rakkhati, pa.tipajjati (v).
right [arm] = dakkhi.na-[baahu] (m).
righteous = dhammika (adj).
should have = labhitabba (pot.p).
should make up [the mind] = [citta.m] pa.nidahitabba.m or kaatabba.m (pot.p).
top = matthaka, agga (m).
topic for meditation = kamma.t.thaana (n).
to win the hearts = mana.m gahetu.m.
* The book ends here. Please consult the web version on tipitaka.net in coming weeks for
the complete text.
* All previous mail headings:
- Dear friends,
the postings from the book is completed. The remaining vocabulary section will only be
available on the web at a later date.
If you are working through the exercises, please check out postings from Florent and
myself for suggested solutions. I am also preparing a study guide as I work through the
book. The guide currently covers right through exercise 17, and is available in PDF format
Singapore celebrates National Day on August 9, so allow me to take this opportunity to
wish everyone, in Singapore and abroad, semoga bahagia (may you achieve happiness).
--- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, ong.yongpeng wrote:
* The book ends here. Please consult the web version on tipitaka.net in coming weeks for
the complete text.
* All previous mail headings: