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The New Pali Course Part II [7-6/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
    Message 1 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
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      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

      root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
      root harA: harita, hata (carried)
      root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
      root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
      root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
      root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
      root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
      root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
      root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
      root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
      root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
      root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
      root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

      Exercise 24

      Translate into English and point out the derivatives

      1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
      ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

      2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
      Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

      3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
      makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

      4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
      sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
      pucchi." [Ibid.]

      5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
      kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

      6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
      Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

      7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
      Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
      Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
      Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

      8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
      Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
      Mahaajanaa samaagamma
      Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

      9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
      tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

      10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
      Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
      Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
      No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

      New Words.

      atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
      abhitthuni (v) praised.
      abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
      asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
      aaditta (pp) ablaze.
      uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
      upaagami (v) came, approached.
      ubbigga (pp) agitated.
      okaasa (m) room, place.
      .dayhati (v) is burnt.
      thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
      thuti (f) praise.
      dassana (n) sight.
      nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
      nimmita (pp) created.
      pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
      matthake (loc) at the end.
      lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
      vyathita (pp) wavering.
      sadisa (adj) equal.
      samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
      sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
      samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
      sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
      sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
      supaaruta (pp) well robed.

      Translate into Pali using participles

      1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
      villages that were near the battlefield.

      2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
      decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

      3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
      leaning on a staff, and tottering.

      4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
      husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
    • Gabriel Jaeger
      Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
      Message 2 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
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        Thanks Tapkina!



        I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
        this site:

        http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



        It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
        sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

        For the rereferences:

        Visuddhimagga, i 203.
        Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
        Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
        Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



        It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



        1) Avagamana – to know

        2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

        3) Vikasana – blossom or open



        Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
        Buddhist Council?



        With metta,

        Gabriel





        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
        tapkina
        Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



        Dear Gabriel,
        In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
        (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
        "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
        to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
        been discovered (buddha) by him.
        Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
        and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
        reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
        meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
        discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
        (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
        is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
        the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
        And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
        "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
        ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
        life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
        all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
        because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
        shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
        given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
        uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
        agga, etc.
        Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
        regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
        development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
        who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
        for our present study:
        1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
        irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
        Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
        2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
        (in the eyes of Jains).
        3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
        no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
        Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
        Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
        4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
        general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
        5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
        specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
        person.
        6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
        equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
        of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
        parts".

        May all beings be enlightened.
        Tapkina

        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
        Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
        >
        > A correction from the last email:
        >
        >
        >
        > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
        an pali
        > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
        the
        > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
        >
        > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
        > somewhere?
        >
        >
        >
        > With many thanks and best wishes,
        >
        > Gabriel
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
        [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
        Of Ong
        > Yong Peng
        > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
        > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
        > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
        >
        >
        >
        > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
        >
        > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
        instead of
        > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
        >
        > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
        It is
        > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
        > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
        >
        > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
        > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
        > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
        >
        > metta,
        > Yong Peng.
        >
        > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
        <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
        Gabriel Jaeger
        > wrote:
        >
        > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
        the
        > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
        >
        > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
        > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
        in
        > this way?
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >





        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Jim Anderson
        Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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          Dear Gabriel,

          > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

          Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
          the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
          is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
          the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
          ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

          Best wishes,
          Jim
        • Gabriel Jaeger
          Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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            Thanks Jim.



            But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

            As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

            1-to know, understand (avagamana)

            2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

            3-open or blossom (vikasana)



            It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
            Visuddhimagga, i 203.
            Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
            Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
            Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



            I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



            [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
            Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



            For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



            I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

            Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



            Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

            Thanks to all!



            All the best,

            Gabriel









            From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
            Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
            To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



            Dear Gabriel,

            > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

            Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
            the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
            is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
            the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
            ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

            Best wishes,
            Jim





            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Ong Yong Peng
            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
              son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
              Blessed One, sat down near Him.

              6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
              in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

              7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
              splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
              the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

              8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
              and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
              rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
              husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

              9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
              beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
              these?'" [Ibid. 463]

              10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
              herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

              New Words.

              aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
              anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
              announces = aaroceti (v).
              applauds = abhitthavati (v).
              as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
              battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
              bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
              behind = pacchato (indec).
              beholding = passanta (pr.p).
              blown [by wind] = vaayita.
              conveyance = yaana (n).
              disappeared = antarahita (pp).
              driving = paajenta (pr.p).
              fallen = patita (pp).
              great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
              honoured = maanita (pp).
              leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
              moves off = apagacchati (v).
              peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
              praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
              pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
              respected = garukata (pp).
              roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
              rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
              should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
              soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
              splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
              talking = kathenta (pr.p).
              telling = vadanta (pr.p).
              tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
              would be fitting = yutta (pp).
              wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

              (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

              (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

              151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
              before them.

              kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
              ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
              gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
            • Jim Anderson
              Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                Gabriel,

                > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                > meanings for “Buddha”:

                1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                ==============
                Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                517 budha bodhane
                1132 budha avagamane
                1133 budha bodhane
                1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                work with.

                Best wishes,
                Jim
              • Gabriel Jaeger
                Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
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                  Dear Jim,



                  Thanks very much!

                  How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                  With metta,

                  Gabriel



                  From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                  Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                  To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                  Gabriel,

                  > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                  > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                  The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                  > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                  > meanings for “Buddha”:

                  1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                  2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                  3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                  ==============
                  Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                  It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                  517 budha bodhane
                  1132 budha avagamane
                  1133 budha bodhane
                  1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                  We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                  the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                  entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                  (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                  budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                  under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                  "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                  part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                  to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                  the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                  further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                  work with.

                  Best wishes,
                  Jim





                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Jim Anderson
                  Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
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                    Dear Gabriel,

                    The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                    I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                    me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                    could also try tipitaka.org.

                    Best wishes,
                    Jim

                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                    To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                    Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                    Dear Jim,



                    Thanks very much!

                    How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                    With metta,

                    Gabriel
                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                    Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
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                      Dear Jim,



                      Thanks very much for your attention.

                      Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                      Thanks again,

                      With metta,

                      Gabriel



                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                      Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                      Dear Gabriel,

                      The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                      I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                      me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                      could also try tipitaka.org.

                      Best wishes,
                      Jim

                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                      To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                      Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                      Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                      Dear Jim,

                      Thanks very much!

                      How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                      With metta,

                      Gabriel





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Ong Yong Peng
                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                        patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                        sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                        tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                        kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                        A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                        daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                        dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                        B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                        pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                        gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                        cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                        harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                        152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                        there is an object before them.

                        (1) suffix -a

                        dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                        hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                        dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                        dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                        sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                        majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                        When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                        roots:-
                        vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                        thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                        jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                        sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                        (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                        daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                        nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                        karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                        su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                        pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                        gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                        yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                        paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                        (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                        gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                        nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                        bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                        su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                        pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                        bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                        (4) -aavii

                        bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                        danger), disa becomes dassa

                        (5) -tu

                        A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                        karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                      • Nina van Gorkom
                        Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Dear Gabriel and friends,
                          I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                          gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                          I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                          left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                          http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                          Nina.

                          Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                          > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                          > would be very kind.





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Piya Tan
                          Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                            With metta,

                            Piya Tan


                            On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                            > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                            > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                            > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                            > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                            > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                            > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                            >
                            > Nina.
                            >
                            > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                            >
                            > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                            > > would be very kind.
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >
                            >
                            >



                            --
                            The Minding Centre
                            Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                            Singapore 650644
                            Tel: 8211 0879
                            Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                            Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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