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The New Pali Course Part II [7-5/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
    Message 1 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
      supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

      B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

      karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
      marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
      manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
      hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
      gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
      ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

      C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

      1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

      dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
      kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
      hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
      rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
      ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
      aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

      2. m + ta becomes -nta

      khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
      samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
      bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
      damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
      pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

      3. dh + ta becomes ddha

      budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
      rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

      4. bh + ta becomes ddha

      labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
      lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

      5. j + ta becomes gga

      bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
      sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

      6. other irregular changes are:

      duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
      ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
      majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
      pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
      vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

      D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

      janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
      paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
      .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
      maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

      E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

      bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
      nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
      bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
      ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
      yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
      ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
      ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
      nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
      (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

      148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
      "i" between the root and the suffix.

      This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
      pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
      gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
      khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
      ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
      kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
      likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

      149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
      is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
      between the root and the suffix.

      n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
      chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
      chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
      bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
      ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
      tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
      puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
      jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
      daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
      khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
      dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
      luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
      pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
      aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
    • tapkina
      Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
      Message 2 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
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        Dear Gabriel,
        In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
        (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
        "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
        to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
        been discovered (buddha) by him.
        Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
        and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
        reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
        meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
        discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
        (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
        is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
        the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
        And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
        "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
        ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
        life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
        all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
        because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
        shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
        given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
        uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
        agga, etc.
        Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
        regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
        development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
        who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
        for our present study:
        1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
        irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
        Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
        2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
        (in the eyes of Jains).
        3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
        no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
        Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
        Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
        4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
        general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
        5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
        specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
        person.
        6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
        equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
        of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
        parts".

        May all beings be enlightened.
        Tapkina


        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
        >
        > A correction from the last email:
        >
        >
        >
        > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
        an pali
        > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
        the
        > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
        >
        > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
        > somewhere?
        >
        >
        >
        > With many thanks and best wishes,
        >
        > Gabriel
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
        Of Ong
        > Yong Peng
        > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
        > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
        >
        >
        >
        > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
        >
        > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
        instead of
        > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
        >
        > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
        It is
        > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
        > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
        >
        > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
        > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
        > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
        >
        > metta,
        > Yong Peng.
        >
        > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
        Gabriel Jaeger
        > wrote:
        >
        > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
        the
        > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
        >
        > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
        > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
        in
        > this way?
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
      • Ong Yong Peng
        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
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          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

          root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
          root harA: harita, hata (carried)
          root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
          root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
          root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
          root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
          root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
          root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
          root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
          root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
          root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
          root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
          root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

          Exercise 24

          Translate into English and point out the derivatives

          1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
          ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

          2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
          Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

          3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
          makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

          4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
          sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
          pucchi." [Ibid.]

          5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
          kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

          6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
          Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

          7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
          Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
          Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
          Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

          8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
          Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
          Mahaajanaa samaagamma
          Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

          9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
          tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

          10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
          Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
          Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
          No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

          New Words.

          atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
          abhitthuni (v) praised.
          abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
          asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
          aaditta (pp) ablaze.
          uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
          upaagami (v) came, approached.
          ubbigga (pp) agitated.
          okaasa (m) room, place.
          .dayhati (v) is burnt.
          thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
          thuti (f) praise.
          dassana (n) sight.
          nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
          nimmita (pp) created.
          pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
          matthake (loc) at the end.
          lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
          vyathita (pp) wavering.
          sadisa (adj) equal.
          samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
          sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
          samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
          sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
          sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
          supaaruta (pp) well robed.

          Translate into Pali using participles

          1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
          villages that were near the battlefield.

          2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
          decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

          3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
          leaning on a staff, and tottering.

          4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
          husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
        • Gabriel Jaeger
          Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
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            Thanks Tapkina!



            I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
            this site:

            http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



            It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
            sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

            For the rereferences:

            Visuddhimagga, i 203.
            Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
            Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
            Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



            It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



            1) Avagamana – to know

            2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

            3) Vikasana – blossom or open



            Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
            Buddhist Council?



            With metta,

            Gabriel





            From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
            tapkina
            Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
            To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



            Dear Gabriel,
            In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
            (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
            "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
            to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
            been discovered (buddha) by him.
            Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
            and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
            reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
            meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
            discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
            (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
            is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
            the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
            And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
            "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
            ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
            life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
            all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
            because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
            shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
            given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
            uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
            agga, etc.
            Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
            regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
            development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
            who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
            for our present study:
            1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
            irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
            Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
            2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
            (in the eyes of Jains).
            3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
            no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
            Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
            Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
            4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
            general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
            5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
            specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
            person.
            6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
            equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
            of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
            parts".

            May all beings be enlightened.
            Tapkina

            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
            Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
            >
            > A correction from the last email:
            >
            >
            >
            > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
            an pali
            > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
            the
            > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
            >
            > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
            > somewhere?
            >
            >
            >
            > With many thanks and best wishes,
            >
            > Gabriel
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
            [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
            Of Ong
            > Yong Peng
            > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
            > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
            > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
            >
            >
            >
            > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
            >
            > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
            instead of
            > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
            >
            > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
            It is
            > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
            > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
            >
            > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
            > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
            > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
            >
            > metta,
            > Yong Peng.
            >
            > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
            <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
            Gabriel Jaeger
            > wrote:
            >
            > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
            the
            > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
            >
            > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
            > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
            in
            > this way?
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >





            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Jim Anderson
            Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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              Dear Gabriel,

              > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

              Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
              the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
              is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
              the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
              ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

              Best wishes,
              Jim
            • Gabriel Jaeger
              Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                Thanks Jim.



                But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                Thanks to all!



                All the best,

                Gabriel









                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                Dear Gabriel,

                > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                Best wishes,
                Jim





                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Ong Yong Peng
                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                  5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                  son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                  Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                  6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                  in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                  7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                  splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                  the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                  8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                  and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                  rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                  husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                  9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                  beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                  these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                  10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                  herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                  New Words.

                  aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                  anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                  announces = aaroceti (v).
                  applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                  as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                  battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                  bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                  behind = pacchato (indec).
                  beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                  blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                  conveyance = yaana (n).
                  disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                  driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                  fallen = patita (pp).
                  great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                  honoured = maanita (pp).
                  leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                  moves off = apagacchati (v).
                  peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                  praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                  pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                  respected = garukata (pp).
                  roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                  rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                  should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                  soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                  splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                  talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                  telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                  tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                  would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                  wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                  (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                  (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                  151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                  before them.

                  kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                  ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                  gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                • Jim Anderson
                  Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                    Gabriel,

                    > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                    > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                    The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                    > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                    > meanings for “Buddha”:

                    1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                    2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                    3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                    ==============
                    Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                    It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                    517 budha bodhane
                    1132 budha avagamane
                    1133 budha bodhane
                    1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                    We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                    the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                    entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                    (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                    budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                    under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                    "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                    part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                    to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                    the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                    further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                    work with.

                    Best wishes,
                    Jim
                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                    Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
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                      Dear Jim,



                      Thanks very much!

                      How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                      With metta,

                      Gabriel



                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                      Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                      Gabriel,

                      > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                      > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                      The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                      > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                      > meanings for “Buddha”:

                      1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                      2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                      3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                      ==============
                      Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                      It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                      517 budha bodhane
                      1132 budha avagamane
                      1133 budha bodhane
                      1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                      We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                      the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                      entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                      (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                      budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                      under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                      "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                      part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                      to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                      the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                      further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                      work with.

                      Best wishes,
                      Jim





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Jim Anderson
                      Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
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                        Dear Gabriel,

                        The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                        I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                        me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                        could also try tipitaka.org.

                        Best wishes,
                        Jim

                        ----- Original Message -----
                        From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                        To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                        Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                        Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                        Dear Jim,



                        Thanks very much!

                        How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                        With metta,

                        Gabriel
                      • Gabriel Jaeger
                        Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
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                          Dear Jim,



                          Thanks very much for your attention.

                          Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                          Thanks again,

                          With metta,

                          Gabriel



                          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                          Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                          Dear Gabriel,

                          The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                          I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                          me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                          could also try tipitaka.org.

                          Best wishes,
                          Jim

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                          To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                          Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                          Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                          Dear Jim,

                          Thanks very much!

                          How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                          With metta,

                          Gabriel





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Ong Yong Peng
                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                            patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                            sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                            tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                            kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                            A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                            daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                            dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                            B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                            pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                            gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                            cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                            harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                            152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                            there is an object before them.

                            (1) suffix -a

                            dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                            hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                            dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                            dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                            sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                            majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                            When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                            roots:-
                            vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                            thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                            jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                            sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                            (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                            daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                            nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                            karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                            su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                            pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                            gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                            yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                            paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                            (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                            gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                            nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                            bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                            su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                            pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                            bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                            (4) -aavii

                            bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                            danger), disa becomes dassa

                            (5) -tu

                            A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                            karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                          • Nina van Gorkom
                            Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                              Dear Gabriel and friends,
                              I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                              gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                              I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                              left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                              http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                              Nina.

                              Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                              > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                              > would be very kind.





                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Piya Tan
                              Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
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                                Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                With metta,

                                Piya Tan


                                On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                >
                                > Nina.
                                >
                                > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                >
                                > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                > > would be very kind.
                                >
                                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                >
                                >
                                >



                                --
                                The Minding Centre
                                Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                                Singapore 650644
                                Tel: 8211 0879
                                Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                                Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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