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RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

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  • Gabriel Jaeger
    Dear Yong Peng. Thanks for your reply. Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term Buddha. For example, in Sanskrit the root
    Message 1 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
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      Dear Yong Peng.



      Thanks for your reply.

      Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term
      Buddha.

      For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word “Budh” usually is related with
      the meaning of “wake up”, “awake”, etc.

      In Sanskrit we have “ushar-budh”, literally, "awakening in the morning” or
      more with a recent use “Prabuddha Bharata” as the the name of an
      Indian magazine, meaning "Awakened India."

      We see too the Sanskrit root “budh” in modern languages, among them also in
      Polish, where the root “budh” is present in the word “o-bud-zic-sie” what
      means exactly “to wake up”, and in the word “przebudzony”, wich means “the
      awaken one”. Also in Russian we find the word “pro-bud-itsa” meaning “to
      wake up” (in the morning) wich comes from the Sanskrit root “budh”.



      Also we can find later commentaries by Indian Buddhist masters as the
      Vajravidaarana-dhaara.nii where Jnanarajra writes:



      “Regarding the term “Buddha”, having purified all the hindrances of
      corruption and the knowable, he has awakened (Buddha) from the sleep of
      ignorance (avidya), for wich reason he is called “awakened” (Buddha). He is
      like a person awakened from sleep. Regarding the term “vibuddha”, his
      knowledge (jnana) has been expanded (vibuddha) to all the knowable, for wich
      reason he is called “expanded (vibuddha). He is like the expanded (or,
      full-blown) kumuda flower. He has the perfection of purification and of
      knowledge.”



      If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will probably refer you to
      the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb root.
      For “buddh”, it gives “avagamana”. The basic meaning of avagamana is
      “realization”. The word Buddha is a past passive participle made from the
      verb root buddh, usually yielding English words ending in “-ed”. So it
      means, if we follow the gloss, avagamana, “realized”. But a gloss is not
      identical to the word it is glossing. Moreover, there are not on-on-one
      correspondences between Sanskrit and English and words. The English word
      “realized”, for example, translates many Sanskrit words besides avagamana
      and similarly, avagamana can be translated by other English words besides
      “realization”, such as “understanding”.



      In the Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan language we have for Buddha:



      -Khenpo kunphel’s commentary on the Boddhisatvacharyavatara



      “Buddha (awakened and expanded/unfolded) means that he has “awakened” from
      the deep sleep of ignorance and that he has completely “unfolded/expanded”
      the lotus of wisdom toward all fields of knowledge. As it is said:



      Because he has awakened from the sleep of ignorance,

      Because he has opened his mind to knowledge,

      Beucase Buddha is ‘unfolded/expanded’ like a lotus petal,

      Therefore, is he called the Buddha.



      - The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge" by Jamgon Kongtrul



      Buddha is given the term “Sangye” in Tibetan because a Buddha has become
      both “Sangpa” (Buddha) woken up and “Gyepa” expanded/unfolded.”



      The two terms are then commented on by Tibetans as follows: “Sang” means
      woken up in the sense that the obscurations have been purified completely
      and “Gye” means expanded in the sense that all good qualities have been
      developed to their limit.



      This are the best references that I have but none of them come from the
      early scriptures as the pali kanon.

      For that I post the message asking references...



      As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
      source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
      Paramatthajotikå?





      With many thanks and best wishes,

      Gabriel









      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
      Yong Peng
      Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



      Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

      it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
      replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

      As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
      one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
      encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

      The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
      his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
      universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

      metta,
      Yong Peng.

      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
      wrote:

      Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
      etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

      Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
      enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
      this way?





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Gabriel Jaeger
      ... source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the [Ngawang Tenphel] Paramatthajotikå? What I mean is if is available this passage
      Message 2 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
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        A correction from the last email:



        >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
        source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
        [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?

        What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
        somewhere?



        With many thanks and best wishes,

        Gabriel









        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
        Yong Peng
        Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



        Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

        it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
        replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

        As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
        one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
        encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

        The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
        his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
        universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

        metta,
        Yong Peng.

        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
        wrote:

        Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
        etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

        Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
        enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
        this way?





        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Ong Yong Peng
        Dear Gabriel, thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One. A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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          Dear Gabriel,

          thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One.

          A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
          (CSCD) reveals:

          buddho - 69 times
          buddha.m - 30 times
          buddhe - 24 times

          kapilavatthu - 3 times
          kapilavatthu.m - 2 times
          kapilavatthusmi.m - 4 times

          metta,
          Yong Peng.


          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

          Thanks for your reply.

          Anyway I have some doubts about the translation �enlightened� for the
          term Buddha.

          For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word �Budh� usually is
          related with the meaning of �wake up�, �awake�, etc.
        • Nina van Gorkom
          Dear Gabriel, ... What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated somewhere? ... N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator,
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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            Dear Gabriel,
            Op 9-jun-2008, om 15:49 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

            > As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an
            > pali
            > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
            > Paramatthajotik�?
            What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
            somewhere?
            -------
            N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator, P.T.S.
            Thus, this is the Khuddakapaa.tha and Commentary.
            It is taken from the first sutta: the Three Refuges.
            Thank you for your analysis, giving different languages.
            You write: <If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will
            probably refer you to
            the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb
            root.
            For �buddh�, it gives �avagamana�. The basic meaning of avagamana is
            �realization�. >
            Very interesting. I read in the Commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha : <
            And as to this quotation, [the active and middle voice usage] 'he is
            the discoverer of the Truths, thus he is enlightened [bujjhitaa
            saccanii ti buddho]' is stated in the same way as in the world
            [outside the Dispensation] a 'descender into
            (understander)' (avagantaa) is called a 'descended one
            (understood)' (avagato)....>
            Perhaps you can find the complete Pali text on metta net? Under
            Khuddakapaa.tha ?

            Nina.



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Ong Yong Peng
            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
              supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

              B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

              karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
              marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
              manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
              hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
              gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
              ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

              C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

              1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

              dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
              kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
              hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
              rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
              ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
              aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

              2. m + ta becomes -nta

              khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
              samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
              bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
              damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
              pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

              3. dh + ta becomes ddha

              budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
              rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

              4. bh + ta becomes ddha

              labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
              lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

              5. j + ta becomes gga

              bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
              sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

              6. other irregular changes are:

              duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
              ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
              majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
              pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
              vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

              D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

              janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
              paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
              .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
              maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

              E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

              bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
              nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
              bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
              ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
              yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
              ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
              ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
              nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
              (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

              148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
              "i" between the root and the suffix.

              This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
              pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
              gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
              khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
              ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
              kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
              likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

              149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
              is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
              between the root and the suffix.

              n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
              chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
              chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
              bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
              ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
              tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
              puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
              jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
              daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
              khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
              dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
              luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
              pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
              aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
            • tapkina
              Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
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                Dear Gabriel,
                In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                been discovered (buddha) by him.
                Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                agga, etc.
                Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                for our present study:
                1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                (in the eyes of Jains).
                3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                person.
                6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                parts".

                May all beings be enlightened.
                Tapkina


                --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                >
                > A correction from the last email:
                >
                >
                >
                > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                an pali
                > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                the
                > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                >
                > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                > somewhere?
                >
                >
                >
                > With many thanks and best wishes,
                >
                > Gabriel
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                Of Ong
                > Yong Peng
                > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                >
                >
                >
                > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                >
                > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                instead of
                > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                >
                > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                It is
                > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                >
                > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                >
                > metta,
                > Yong Peng.
                >
                > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                Gabriel Jaeger
                > wrote:
                >
                > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                the
                > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                >
                > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                in
                > this way?
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
              • Ong Yong Peng
                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
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                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                  150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

                  root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
                  root harA: harita, hata (carried)
                  root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
                  root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
                  root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
                  root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                  root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
                  root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
                  root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
                  root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
                  root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
                  root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
                  root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

                  Exercise 24

                  Translate into English and point out the derivatives

                  1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
                  ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

                  2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
                  Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

                  3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
                  makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

                  4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
                  sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
                  pucchi." [Ibid.]

                  5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
                  kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

                  6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
                  Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

                  7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
                  Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
                  Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
                  Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

                  8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
                  Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
                  Mahaajanaa samaagamma
                  Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

                  9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
                  tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

                  10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
                  Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
                  Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
                  No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

                  New Words.

                  atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
                  abhitthuni (v) praised.
                  abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
                  asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
                  aaditta (pp) ablaze.
                  uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
                  upaagami (v) came, approached.
                  ubbigga (pp) agitated.
                  okaasa (m) room, place.
                  .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                  thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
                  thuti (f) praise.
                  dassana (n) sight.
                  nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
                  nimmita (pp) created.
                  pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
                  matthake (loc) at the end.
                  lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
                  vyathita (pp) wavering.
                  sadisa (adj) equal.
                  samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
                  sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
                  samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
                  sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
                  sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
                  supaaruta (pp) well robed.

                  Translate into Pali using participles

                  1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
                  villages that were near the battlefield.

                  2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
                  decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

                  3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
                  leaning on a staff, and tottering.

                  4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
                  husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
                • Gabriel Jaeger
                  Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
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                    Thanks Tapkina!



                    I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
                    this site:

                    http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



                    It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
                    sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

                    For the rereferences:

                    Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                    Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                    Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                    Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                    It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



                    1) Avagamana – to know

                    2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

                    3) Vikasana – blossom or open



                    Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
                    Buddhist Council?



                    With metta,

                    Gabriel





                    From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                    tapkina
                    Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                    Dear Gabriel,
                    In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                    (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                    "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                    to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                    been discovered (buddha) by him.
                    Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                    and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                    reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                    meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                    discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                    (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                    is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                    the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                    And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                    "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                    ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                    life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                    all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                    because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                    shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                    given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                    uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                    agga, etc.
                    Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                    regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                    development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                    who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                    for our present study:
                    1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                    irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                    Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                    2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                    (in the eyes of Jains).
                    3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                    no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                    Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                    Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                    4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                    general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                    5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                    specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                    person.
                    6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                    equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                    of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                    parts".

                    May all beings be enlightened.
                    Tapkina

                    --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
                    Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > A correction from the last email:
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                    an pali
                    > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                    the
                    > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                    >
                    > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                    > somewhere?
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > With many thanks and best wishes,
                    >
                    > Gabriel
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                    [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
                    Of Ong
                    > Yong Peng
                    > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                    > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                    > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                    >
                    > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                    instead of
                    > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                    >
                    > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                    It is
                    > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                    > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                    >
                    > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                    > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                    > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                    >
                    > metta,
                    > Yong Peng.
                    >
                    > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                    <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                    Gabriel Jaeger
                    > wrote:
                    >
                    > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                    the
                    > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                    >
                    > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                    > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                    in
                    > this way?
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >





                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Jim Anderson
                    Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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                      Dear Gabriel,

                      > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                      Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                      the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                      is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                      the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                      ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                      Best wishes,
                      Jim
                    • Gabriel Jaeger
                      Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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                        Thanks Jim.



                        But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                        As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                        1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                        2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                        3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                        It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                        Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                        Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                        Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                        Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                        I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                        [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                        Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                        For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                        I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                        Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                        Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                        Thanks to all!



                        All the best,

                        Gabriel









                        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                        Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                        Dear Gabriel,

                        > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                        Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                        the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                        is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                        the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                        ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                        Best wishes,
                        Jim





                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Ong Yong Peng
                        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                          5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                          son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                          Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                          6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                          in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                          7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                          splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                          the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                          8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                          and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                          rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                          husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                          9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                          beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                          these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                          10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                          herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                          New Words.

                          aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                          anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                          announces = aaroceti (v).
                          applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                          as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                          battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                          bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                          behind = pacchato (indec).
                          beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                          blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                          conveyance = yaana (n).
                          disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                          driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                          fallen = patita (pp).
                          great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                          honoured = maanita (pp).
                          leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                          moves off = apagacchati (v).
                          peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                          praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                          pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                          respected = garukata (pp).
                          roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                          rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                          should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                          soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                          splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                          talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                          telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                          tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                          would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                          wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                          (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                          (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                          151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                          before them.

                          kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                          ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                          gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                        • Jim Anderson
                          Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                            Gabriel,

                            > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                            > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                            The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                            > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                            > meanings for “Buddha”:

                            1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                            2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                            3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                            ==============
                            Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                            It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                            517 budha bodhane
                            1132 budha avagamane
                            1133 budha bodhane
                            1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                            We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                            the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                            entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                            (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                            budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                            under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                            "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                            part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                            to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                            the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                            further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                            work with.

                            Best wishes,
                            Jim
                          • Gabriel Jaeger
                            Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
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                              Dear Jim,



                              Thanks very much!

                              How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                              With metta,

                              Gabriel



                              From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                              Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                              Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                              Gabriel,

                              > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                              > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                              The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                              > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                              > meanings for “Buddha”:

                              1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                              2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                              3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                              ==============
                              Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                              It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                              517 budha bodhane
                              1132 budha avagamane
                              1133 budha bodhane
                              1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                              We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                              the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                              entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                              (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                              budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                              under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                              "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                              part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                              to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                              the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                              further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                              work with.

                              Best wishes,
                              Jim





                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Jim Anderson
                              Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
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                                Dear Gabriel,

                                The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                could also try tipitaka.org.

                                Best wishes,
                                Jim

                                ----- Original Message -----
                                From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                                To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                                Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                                Dear Jim,



                                Thanks very much!

                                How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                With metta,

                                Gabriel
                              • Gabriel Jaeger
                                Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                                Message 15 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  Dear Jim,



                                  Thanks very much for your attention.

                                  Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                                  Thanks again,

                                  With metta,

                                  Gabriel



                                  From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                  Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                                  To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                  Dear Gabriel,

                                  The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                  I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                  me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                  could also try tipitaka.org.

                                  Best wishes,
                                  Jim

                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                  From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                                  To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                                  Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                  Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                                  Dear Jim,

                                  Thanks very much!

                                  How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                                  With metta,

                                  Gabriel





                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                • Ong Yong Peng
                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                    patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                                    sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                                    tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                                    kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                                    A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                                    daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                                    dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                                    B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                                    pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                                    gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                                    cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                                    harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                                    152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                                    there is an object before them.

                                    (1) suffix -a

                                    dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                                    hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                                    dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                                    dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                                    sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                                    majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                                    When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                                    roots:-
                                    vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                                    thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                                    jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                                    sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                                    (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                                    daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                                    nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                                    karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                                    su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                                    pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                                    gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                                    yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                                    paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                                    (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                                    gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                                    nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                                    bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                                    su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                                    pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                                    bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                                    (4) -aavii

                                    bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                                    danger), disa becomes dassa

                                    (5) -tu

                                    A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                                    karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                                  • Nina van Gorkom
                                    Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                      Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                      I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                      gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                      I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                      left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                      http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                                      Nina.

                                      Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                      > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                      > would be very kind.





                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • Piya Tan
                                      Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
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                                        Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                        With metta,

                                        Piya Tan


                                        On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                        > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                        > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                        > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                        > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                        > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                        > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                        >
                                        > Nina.
                                        >
                                        > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                        >
                                        > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                        > > would be very kind.
                                        >
                                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >



                                        --
                                        The Minding Centre
                                        Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                                        Singapore 650644
                                        Tel: 8211 0879
                                        Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                                        Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


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