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Re: buddha

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends, it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of replying to a post on an existing discussion
    Message 1 of 29 , Jun 8, 2008
      Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

      it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
      replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

      As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
      one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
      encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

      The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
      his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
      universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

      metta,
      Yong Peng.


      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

      Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
      etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

      Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
      enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
      this way?
    • Gabriel Jaeger
      Dear Yong Peng. Thanks for your reply. Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term Buddha. For example, in Sanskrit the root
      Message 2 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
        Dear Yong Peng.



        Thanks for your reply.

        Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term
        Buddha.

        For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word “Budh” usually is related with
        the meaning of “wake up”, “awake”, etc.

        In Sanskrit we have “ushar-budh”, literally, "awakening in the morning” or
        more with a recent use “Prabuddha Bharata” as the the name of an
        Indian magazine, meaning "Awakened India."

        We see too the Sanskrit root “budh” in modern languages, among them also in
        Polish, where the root “budh” is present in the word “o-bud-zic-sie” what
        means exactly “to wake up”, and in the word “przebudzony”, wich means “the
        awaken one”. Also in Russian we find the word “pro-bud-itsa” meaning “to
        wake up” (in the morning) wich comes from the Sanskrit root “budh”.



        Also we can find later commentaries by Indian Buddhist masters as the
        Vajravidaarana-dhaara.nii where Jnanarajra writes:



        “Regarding the term “Buddha”, having purified all the hindrances of
        corruption and the knowable, he has awakened (Buddha) from the sleep of
        ignorance (avidya), for wich reason he is called “awakened” (Buddha). He is
        like a person awakened from sleep. Regarding the term “vibuddha”, his
        knowledge (jnana) has been expanded (vibuddha) to all the knowable, for wich
        reason he is called “expanded (vibuddha). He is like the expanded (or,
        full-blown) kumuda flower. He has the perfection of purification and of
        knowledge.”



        If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will probably refer you to
        the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb root.
        For “buddh”, it gives “avagamana”. The basic meaning of avagamana is
        “realization”. The word Buddha is a past passive participle made from the
        verb root buddh, usually yielding English words ending in “-ed”. So it
        means, if we follow the gloss, avagamana, “realized”. But a gloss is not
        identical to the word it is glossing. Moreover, there are not on-on-one
        correspondences between Sanskrit and English and words. The English word
        “realized”, for example, translates many Sanskrit words besides avagamana
        and similarly, avagamana can be translated by other English words besides
        “realization”, such as “understanding”.



        In the Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan language we have for Buddha:



        -Khenpo kunphel’s commentary on the Boddhisatvacharyavatara



        “Buddha (awakened and expanded/unfolded) means that he has “awakened” from
        the deep sleep of ignorance and that he has completely “unfolded/expanded”
        the lotus of wisdom toward all fields of knowledge. As it is said:



        Because he has awakened from the sleep of ignorance,

        Because he has opened his mind to knowledge,

        Beucase Buddha is ‘unfolded/expanded’ like a lotus petal,

        Therefore, is he called the Buddha.



        - The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge" by Jamgon Kongtrul



        Buddha is given the term “Sangye” in Tibetan because a Buddha has become
        both “Sangpa” (Buddha) woken up and “Gyepa” expanded/unfolded.”



        The two terms are then commented on by Tibetans as follows: “Sang” means
        woken up in the sense that the obscurations have been purified completely
        and “Gye” means expanded in the sense that all good qualities have been
        developed to their limit.



        This are the best references that I have but none of them come from the
        early scriptures as the pali kanon.

        For that I post the message asking references...



        As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
        source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
        Paramatthajotikå?





        With many thanks and best wishes,

        Gabriel









        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
        Yong Peng
        Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



        Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

        it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
        replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

        As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
        one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
        encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

        The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
        his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
        universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

        metta,
        Yong Peng.

        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
        wrote:

        Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
        etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

        Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
        enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
        this way?





        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Gabriel Jaeger
        ... source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the [Ngawang Tenphel] Paramatthajotikå? What I mean is if is available this passage
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
          A correction from the last email:



          >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
          source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
          [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?

          What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
          somewhere?



          With many thanks and best wishes,

          Gabriel









          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
          Yong Peng
          Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



          Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

          it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
          replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

          As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
          one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
          encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

          The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
          his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
          universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

          metta,
          Yong Peng.

          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
          wrote:

          Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
          etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

          Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
          enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
          this way?





          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Dear Gabriel, thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One. A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
            Dear Gabriel,

            thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One.

            A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
            (CSCD) reveals:

            buddho - 69 times
            buddha.m - 30 times
            buddhe - 24 times

            kapilavatthu - 3 times
            kapilavatthu.m - 2 times
            kapilavatthusmi.m - 4 times

            metta,
            Yong Peng.


            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

            Thanks for your reply.

            Anyway I have some doubts about the translation �enlightened� for the
            term Buddha.

            For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word �Budh� usually is
            related with the meaning of �wake up�, �awake�, etc.
          • Nina van Gorkom
            Dear Gabriel, ... What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated somewhere? ... N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator,
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
              Dear Gabriel,
              Op 9-jun-2008, om 15:49 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

              > As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an
              > pali
              > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
              > Paramatthajotik�?
              What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
              somewhere?
              -------
              N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator, P.T.S.
              Thus, this is the Khuddakapaa.tha and Commentary.
              It is taken from the first sutta: the Three Refuges.
              Thank you for your analysis, giving different languages.
              You write: <If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will
              probably refer you to
              the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb
              root.
              For �buddh�, it gives �avagamana�. The basic meaning of avagamana is
              �realization�. >
              Very interesting. I read in the Commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha : <
              And as to this quotation, [the active and middle voice usage] 'he is
              the discoverer of the Truths, thus he is enlightened [bujjhitaa
              saccanii ti buddho]' is stated in the same way as in the world
              [outside the Dispensation] a 'descender into
              (understander)' (avagantaa) is called a 'descended one
              (understood)' (avagato)....>
              Perhaps you can find the complete Pali text on metta net? Under
              Khuddakapaa.tha ?

              Nina.



              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Ong Yong Peng
              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
                supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

                B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

                karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
                marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
                manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
                hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
                gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
                ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

                C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

                1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

                dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
                kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
                rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
                ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
                aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

                2. m + ta becomes -nta

                khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
                samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
                bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
                damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
                pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

                3. dh + ta becomes ddha

                budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
                rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

                4. bh + ta becomes ddha

                labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
                lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

                5. j + ta becomes gga

                bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
                sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

                6. other irregular changes are:

                duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
                ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
                majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
                pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
                vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

                D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

                janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
                paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
                .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
                maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

                E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

                bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
                nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
                bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
                ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
                yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
                ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
                ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
                nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
                (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

                148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
                "i" between the root and the suffix.

                This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
                pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
                gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
                khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
                ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
                kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
                likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

                149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
                is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
                between the root and the suffix.

                n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
                chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
                chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
                bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
                ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
                tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
                puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
                jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
                daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
                khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
                dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
                luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
                pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
                aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
              • tapkina
                Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
                  Dear Gabriel,
                  In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                  (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                  "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                  to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                  been discovered (buddha) by him.
                  Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                  and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                  reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                  meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                  discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                  (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                  is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                  the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                  And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                  "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                  ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                  life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                  all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                  because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                  shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                  given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                  uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                  agga, etc.
                  Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                  regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                  development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                  who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                  for our present study:
                  1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                  irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                  Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                  2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                  (in the eyes of Jains).
                  3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                  no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                  Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                  Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                  4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                  general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                  5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                  specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                  person.
                  6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                  equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                  of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                  parts".

                  May all beings be enlightened.
                  Tapkina


                  --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > A correction from the last email:
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                  an pali
                  > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                  the
                  > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                  >
                  > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                  > somewhere?
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > With many thanks and best wishes,
                  >
                  > Gabriel
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                  Of Ong
                  > Yong Peng
                  > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                  > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                  > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                  >
                  > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                  instead of
                  > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                  >
                  > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                  It is
                  > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                  > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                  >
                  > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                  > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                  > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                  >
                  > metta,
                  > Yong Peng.
                  >
                  > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                  Gabriel Jaeger
                  > wrote:
                  >
                  > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                  the
                  > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                  >
                  > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                  > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                  in
                  > this way?
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                • Ong Yong Peng
                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                    150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

                    root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
                    root harA: harita, hata (carried)
                    root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
                    root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
                    root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
                    root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                    root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
                    root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
                    root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
                    root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
                    root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
                    root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
                    root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

                    Exercise 24

                    Translate into English and point out the derivatives

                    1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
                    ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

                    2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
                    Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

                    3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
                    makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

                    4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
                    sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
                    pucchi." [Ibid.]

                    5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
                    kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

                    6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
                    Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

                    7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
                    Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
                    Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
                    Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

                    8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
                    Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
                    Mahaajanaa samaagamma
                    Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

                    9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
                    tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

                    10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
                    Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
                    Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
                    No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

                    New Words.

                    atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
                    abhitthuni (v) praised.
                    abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
                    asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
                    aaditta (pp) ablaze.
                    uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
                    upaagami (v) came, approached.
                    ubbigga (pp) agitated.
                    okaasa (m) room, place.
                    .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                    thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
                    thuti (f) praise.
                    dassana (n) sight.
                    nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
                    nimmita (pp) created.
                    pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
                    matthake (loc) at the end.
                    lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
                    vyathita (pp) wavering.
                    sadisa (adj) equal.
                    samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
                    sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
                    samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
                    sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
                    sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
                    supaaruta (pp) well robed.

                    Translate into Pali using participles

                    1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
                    villages that were near the battlefield.

                    2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
                    decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

                    3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
                    leaning on a staff, and tottering.

                    4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
                    husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                    Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
                      Thanks Tapkina!



                      I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
                      this site:

                      http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



                      It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
                      sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

                      For the rereferences:

                      Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                      Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                      Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                      Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                      It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



                      1) Avagamana – to know

                      2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

                      3) Vikasana – blossom or open



                      Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
                      Buddhist Council?



                      With metta,

                      Gabriel





                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                      tapkina
                      Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                      Dear Gabriel,
                      In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                      (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                      "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                      to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                      been discovered (buddha) by him.
                      Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                      and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                      reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                      meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                      discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                      (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                      is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                      the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                      And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                      "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                      ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                      life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                      all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                      because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                      shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                      given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                      uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                      agga, etc.
                      Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                      regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                      development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                      who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                      for our present study:
                      1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                      irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                      Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                      2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                      (in the eyes of Jains).
                      3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                      no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                      Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                      Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                      4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                      general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                      5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                      specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                      person.
                      6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                      equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                      of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                      parts".

                      May all beings be enlightened.
                      Tapkina

                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
                      Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > A correction from the last email:
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                      an pali
                      > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                      the
                      > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                      >
                      > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                      > somewhere?
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > With many thanks and best wishes,
                      >
                      > Gabriel
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                      [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
                      Of Ong
                      > Yong Peng
                      > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                      > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                      > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                      >
                      > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                      instead of
                      > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                      >
                      > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                      It is
                      > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                      > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                      >
                      > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                      > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                      > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                      >
                      > metta,
                      > Yong Peng.
                      >
                      > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                      <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                      Gabriel Jaeger
                      > wrote:
                      >
                      > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                      the
                      > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                      >
                      > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                      > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                      in
                      > this way?
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Jim Anderson
                      Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
                        Dear Gabriel,

                        > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                        Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                        the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                        is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                        the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                        ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                        Best wishes,
                        Jim
                      • Gabriel Jaeger
                        Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
                          Thanks Jim.



                          But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                          As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                          1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                          2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                          3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                          It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                          Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                          Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                          Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                          Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                          I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                          [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                          Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                          For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                          I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                          Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                          Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                          Thanks to all!



                          All the best,

                          Gabriel









                          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                          Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                          Dear Gabriel,

                          > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                          Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                          the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                          is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                          the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                          ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                          Best wishes,
                          Jim





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Ong Yong Peng
                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
                            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                            5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                            son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                            Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                            6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                            in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                            7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                            splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                            the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                            8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                            and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                            rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                            husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                            9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                            beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                            these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                            10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                            herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                            New Words.

                            aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                            anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                            announces = aaroceti (v).
                            applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                            as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                            battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                            bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                            behind = pacchato (indec).
                            beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                            blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                            conveyance = yaana (n).
                            disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                            driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                            fallen = patita (pp).
                            great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                            honoured = maanita (pp).
                            leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                            moves off = apagacchati (v).
                            peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                            praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                            pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                            respected = garukata (pp).
                            roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                            rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                            should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                            soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                            splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                            talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                            telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                            tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                            would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                            wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                            (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                            (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                            151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                            before them.

                            kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                            ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                            gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                          • Jim Anderson
                            Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
                              Gabriel,

                              > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                              > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                              The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                              > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                              > meanings for “Buddha”:

                              1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                              2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                              3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                              ==============
                              Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                              It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                              517 budha bodhane
                              1132 budha avagamane
                              1133 budha bodhane
                              1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                              We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                              the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                              entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                              (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                              budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                              under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                              "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                              part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                              to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                              the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                              further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                              work with.

                              Best wishes,
                              Jim
                            • Gabriel Jaeger
                              Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
                                Dear Jim,



                                Thanks very much!

                                How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                With metta,

                                Gabriel



                                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                Gabriel,

                                > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                ==============
                                Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                517 budha bodhane
                                1132 budha avagamane
                                1133 budha bodhane
                                1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                work with.

                                Best wishes,
                                Jim





                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              • Jim Anderson
                                Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                                Message 15 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
                                  Dear Gabriel,

                                  The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                  I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                  me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                  could also try tipitaka.org.

                                  Best wishes,
                                  Jim

                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                  From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                                  To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                                  Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                  Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                                  Dear Jim,



                                  Thanks very much!

                                  How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                  With metta,

                                  Gabriel
                                • Gabriel Jaeger
                                  Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
                                    Dear Jim,



                                    Thanks very much for your attention.

                                    Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                                    Thanks again,

                                    With metta,

                                    Gabriel



                                    From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                    Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                    Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                    Dear Gabriel,

                                    The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                    I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                    me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                    could also try tipitaka.org.

                                    Best wishes,
                                    Jim

                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                                    To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                                    Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                    Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                                    Dear Jim,

                                    Thanks very much!

                                    How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                                    With metta,

                                    Gabriel





                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  • Ong Yong Peng
                                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
                                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                      patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                                      sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                                      tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                                      kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                                      A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                                      daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                                      dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                                      B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                                      pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                                      gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                                      cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                                      harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                                      152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                                      there is an object before them.

                                      (1) suffix -a

                                      dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                                      hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                                      dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                                      dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                                      sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                                      majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                                      When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                                      roots:-
                                      vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                                      thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                                      jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                                      sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                                      (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                                      daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                                      nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                                      karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                                      su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                                      pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                                      gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                                      yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                                      paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                                      (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                                      gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                                      nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                                      bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                                      su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                                      pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                                      bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                                      (4) -aavii

                                      bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                                      danger), disa becomes dassa

                                      (5) -tu

                                      A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                                      karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                                    • Nina van Gorkom
                                      Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
                                        Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                        I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                        gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                        I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                        left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                        http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                                        Nina.

                                        Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                        > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                        > would be very kind.





                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      • Piya Tan
                                        Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
                                          Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                          With metta,

                                          Piya Tan


                                          On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                          > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                          > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                          > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                          > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                          > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                          > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                          >
                                          > Nina.
                                          >
                                          > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                          >
                                          > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                          > > would be very kind.
                                          >
                                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >



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