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Re: [Pali] buddha

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  • Antonella Comba
    Dear Gabriel, you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in
    Message 1 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
      Dear Gabriel,
      you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail bcc@...). This book investigates particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
      Best metta,
      Tapkina



      ---------------------------------
      Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua opinione!

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Gabriel Jaeger
      Thanks very much nina! ... From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina van Gorkom Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07 To:
      Message 2 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
        Thanks very much nina!


        -----Original Message-----
        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina
        van Gorkom
        Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07
        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha

        Dear Gabriel,
        Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

        > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
        > etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?
        >
        > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
        > enlightment
        > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
        --------
        N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of
        Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the “Minor
        Readings”, Khuddaka Nikåya) explains, in the commentary to the “Three
        Refuges”, the meaning of the word “Buddha”:
        ... and this is said, “Buddha”: in what sense buddha? He is the
        discoverer (bujjhitå) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
        He is the enlightener (bodhetå) of the generation, thus he is
        enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
        all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
        defilement, thus he is
        [Ngawang Tenphel]
        enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
        goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
        peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
        this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
        “Buddha”, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
        description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
        obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
        (tree).

        Nina.



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


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      • Gabriel Jaeger
        Thanks Tapkina! In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the etymology and meaning of the word Buddha? Regards, Gabriel From:
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
          Thanks Tapkina!



          In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the
          etymology and meaning of the word Buddha?

          Regards,

          Gabriel





          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
          Antonella Comba
          Sent: 04 June 2008 19:23
          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha



          Dear Gabriel,
          you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments
          and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada
          Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail
          bcc@... <mailto:bcc%40sri.lanka.net> ). This book investigates
          particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
          Best metta,
          Tapkina


          ---------------------------------
          Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua
          opinione!

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends, it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of replying to a post on an existing discussion
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 8, 2008
            Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

            it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
            replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

            As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
            one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
            encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

            The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
            his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
            universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

            metta,
            Yong Peng.


            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

            Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
            etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

            Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
            enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
            this way?
          • Gabriel Jaeger
            Dear Yong Peng. Thanks for your reply. Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term Buddha. For example, in Sanskrit the root
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
              Dear Yong Peng.



              Thanks for your reply.

              Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term
              Buddha.

              For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word “Budh” usually is related with
              the meaning of “wake up”, “awake”, etc.

              In Sanskrit we have “ushar-budh”, literally, "awakening in the morning” or
              more with a recent use “Prabuddha Bharata” as the the name of an
              Indian magazine, meaning "Awakened India."

              We see too the Sanskrit root “budh” in modern languages, among them also in
              Polish, where the root “budh” is present in the word “o-bud-zic-sie” what
              means exactly “to wake up”, and in the word “przebudzony”, wich means “the
              awaken one”. Also in Russian we find the word “pro-bud-itsa” meaning “to
              wake up” (in the morning) wich comes from the Sanskrit root “budh”.



              Also we can find later commentaries by Indian Buddhist masters as the
              Vajravidaarana-dhaara.nii where Jnanarajra writes:



              “Regarding the term “Buddha”, having purified all the hindrances of
              corruption and the knowable, he has awakened (Buddha) from the sleep of
              ignorance (avidya), for wich reason he is called “awakened” (Buddha). He is
              like a person awakened from sleep. Regarding the term “vibuddha”, his
              knowledge (jnana) has been expanded (vibuddha) to all the knowable, for wich
              reason he is called “expanded (vibuddha). He is like the expanded (or,
              full-blown) kumuda flower. He has the perfection of purification and of
              knowledge.”



              If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will probably refer you to
              the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb root.
              For “buddh”, it gives “avagamana”. The basic meaning of avagamana is
              “realization”. The word Buddha is a past passive participle made from the
              verb root buddh, usually yielding English words ending in “-ed”. So it
              means, if we follow the gloss, avagamana, “realized”. But a gloss is not
              identical to the word it is glossing. Moreover, there are not on-on-one
              correspondences between Sanskrit and English and words. The English word
              “realized”, for example, translates many Sanskrit words besides avagamana
              and similarly, avagamana can be translated by other English words besides
              “realization”, such as “understanding”.



              In the Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan language we have for Buddha:



              -Khenpo kunphel’s commentary on the Boddhisatvacharyavatara



              “Buddha (awakened and expanded/unfolded) means that he has “awakened” from
              the deep sleep of ignorance and that he has completely “unfolded/expanded”
              the lotus of wisdom toward all fields of knowledge. As it is said:



              Because he has awakened from the sleep of ignorance,

              Because he has opened his mind to knowledge,

              Beucase Buddha is ‘unfolded/expanded’ like a lotus petal,

              Therefore, is he called the Buddha.



              - The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge" by Jamgon Kongtrul



              Buddha is given the term “Sangye” in Tibetan because a Buddha has become
              both “Sangpa” (Buddha) woken up and “Gyepa” expanded/unfolded.”



              The two terms are then commented on by Tibetans as follows: “Sang” means
              woken up in the sense that the obscurations have been purified completely
              and “Gye” means expanded in the sense that all good qualities have been
              developed to their limit.



              This are the best references that I have but none of them come from the
              early scriptures as the pali kanon.

              For that I post the message asking references...



              As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
              source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
              Paramatthajotikå?





              With many thanks and best wishes,

              Gabriel









              From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
              Yong Peng
              Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



              Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

              it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
              replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

              As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
              one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
              encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

              The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
              his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
              universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

              metta,
              Yong Peng.

              --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
              wrote:

              Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
              etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

              Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
              enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
              this way?





              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Gabriel Jaeger
              ... source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the [Ngawang Tenphel] Paramatthajotikå? What I mean is if is available this passage
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
                A correction from the last email:



                >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?

                What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                somewhere?



                With many thanks and best wishes,

                Gabriel









                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                Yong Peng
                Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                metta,
                Yong Peng.

                --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                wrote:

                Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                this way?





                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Ong Yong Peng
                Dear Gabriel, thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One. A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
                  Dear Gabriel,

                  thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One.

                  A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                  (CSCD) reveals:

                  buddho - 69 times
                  buddha.m - 30 times
                  buddhe - 24 times

                  kapilavatthu - 3 times
                  kapilavatthu.m - 2 times
                  kapilavatthusmi.m - 4 times

                  metta,
                  Yong Peng.


                  --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                  Thanks for your reply.

                  Anyway I have some doubts about the translation �enlightened� for the
                  term Buddha.

                  For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word �Budh� usually is
                  related with the meaning of �wake up�, �awake�, etc.
                • Nina van Gorkom
                  Dear Gabriel, ... What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated somewhere? ... N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator,
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
                    Dear Gabriel,
                    Op 9-jun-2008, om 15:49 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                    > As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an
                    > pali
                    > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                    > Paramatthajotik�?
                    What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                    somewhere?
                    -------
                    N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator, P.T.S.
                    Thus, this is the Khuddakapaa.tha and Commentary.
                    It is taken from the first sutta: the Three Refuges.
                    Thank you for your analysis, giving different languages.
                    You write: <If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will
                    probably refer you to
                    the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb
                    root.
                    For �buddh�, it gives �avagamana�. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                    �realization�. >
                    Very interesting. I read in the Commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha : <
                    And as to this quotation, [the active and middle voice usage] 'he is
                    the discoverer of the Truths, thus he is enlightened [bujjhitaa
                    saccanii ti buddho]' is stated in the same way as in the world
                    [outside the Dispensation] a 'descender into
                    (understander)' (avagantaa) is called a 'descended one
                    (understood)' (avagato)....>
                    Perhaps you can find the complete Pali text on metta net? Under
                    Khuddakapaa.tha ?

                    Nina.



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Ong Yong Peng
                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                      yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
                      supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

                      B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

                      karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
                      marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
                      manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
                      hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
                      gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
                      ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

                      C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

                      1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

                      dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
                      kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                      hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
                      rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
                      ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
                      aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

                      2. m + ta becomes -nta

                      khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
                      samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
                      bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
                      damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
                      pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

                      3. dh + ta becomes ddha

                      budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
                      rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

                      4. bh + ta becomes ddha

                      labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
                      lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

                      5. j + ta becomes gga

                      bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
                      sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

                      6. other irregular changes are:

                      duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
                      ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
                      majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
                      pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
                      vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

                      D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

                      janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
                      paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
                      .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
                      maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

                      E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

                      bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
                      nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
                      bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
                      ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
                      yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
                      ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
                      ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
                      nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
                      (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

                      148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
                      "i" between the root and the suffix.

                      This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
                      pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
                      gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
                      khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
                      ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
                      kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
                      likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

                      149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
                      is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
                      between the root and the suffix.

                      n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
                      chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
                      chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
                      bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
                      ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
                      tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
                      puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
                      jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
                      daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
                      khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
                      dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
                      luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
                      pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
                      aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
                    • tapkina
                      Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
                        Dear Gabriel,
                        In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                        (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                        "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                        to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                        been discovered (buddha) by him.
                        Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                        and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                        reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                        meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                        discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                        (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                        is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                        the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                        And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                        "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                        ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                        life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                        all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                        because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                        shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                        given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                        uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                        agga, etc.
                        Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                        regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                        development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                        who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                        for our present study:
                        1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                        irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                        Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                        2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                        (in the eyes of Jains).
                        3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                        no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                        Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                        Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                        4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                        general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                        5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                        specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                        person.
                        6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                        equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                        of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                        parts".

                        May all beings be enlightened.
                        Tapkina


                        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > A correction from the last email:
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                        an pali
                        > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                        the
                        > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                        >
                        > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                        > somewhere?
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > With many thanks and best wishes,
                        >
                        > Gabriel
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                        Of Ong
                        > Yong Peng
                        > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                        > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                        > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                        >
                        > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                        instead of
                        > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                        >
                        > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                        It is
                        > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                        > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                        >
                        > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                        > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                        > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                        >
                        > metta,
                        > Yong Peng.
                        >
                        > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                        Gabriel Jaeger
                        > wrote:
                        >
                        > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                        the
                        > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                        >
                        > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                        > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                        in
                        > this way?
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                      • Ong Yong Peng
                        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                          150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

                          root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
                          root harA: harita, hata (carried)
                          root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
                          root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
                          root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
                          root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                          root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
                          root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
                          root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
                          root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
                          root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
                          root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
                          root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

                          Exercise 24

                          Translate into English and point out the derivatives

                          1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
                          ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

                          2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
                          Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

                          3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
                          makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

                          4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
                          sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
                          pucchi." [Ibid.]

                          5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
                          kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

                          6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
                          Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

                          7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
                          Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
                          Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
                          Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

                          8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
                          Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
                          Mahaajanaa samaagamma
                          Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

                          9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
                          tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

                          10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
                          Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
                          Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
                          No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

                          New Words.

                          atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
                          abhitthuni (v) praised.
                          abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
                          asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
                          aaditta (pp) ablaze.
                          uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
                          upaagami (v) came, approached.
                          ubbigga (pp) agitated.
                          okaasa (m) room, place.
                          .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                          thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
                          thuti (f) praise.
                          dassana (n) sight.
                          nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
                          nimmita (pp) created.
                          pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
                          matthake (loc) at the end.
                          lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
                          vyathita (pp) wavering.
                          sadisa (adj) equal.
                          samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
                          sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
                          samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
                          sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
                          sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
                          supaaruta (pp) well robed.

                          Translate into Pali using participles

                          1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
                          villages that were near the battlefield.

                          2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
                          decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

                          3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
                          leaning on a staff, and tottering.

                          4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
                          husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
                        • Gabriel Jaeger
                          Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
                            Thanks Tapkina!



                            I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
                            this site:

                            http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



                            It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
                            sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

                            For the rereferences:

                            Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                            Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                            Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                            Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                            It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



                            1) Avagamana – to know

                            2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

                            3) Vikasana – blossom or open



                            Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
                            Buddhist Council?



                            With metta,

                            Gabriel





                            From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                            tapkina
                            Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
                            To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                            Dear Gabriel,
                            In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                            (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                            "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                            to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                            been discovered (buddha) by him.
                            Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                            and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                            reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                            meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                            discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                            (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                            is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                            the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                            And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                            "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                            ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                            life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                            all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                            because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                            shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                            given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                            uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                            agga, etc.
                            Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                            regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                            development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                            who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                            for our present study:
                            1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                            irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                            Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                            2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                            (in the eyes of Jains).
                            3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                            no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                            Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                            Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                            4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                            general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                            5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                            specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                            person.
                            6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                            equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                            of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                            parts".

                            May all beings be enlightened.
                            Tapkina

                            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
                            Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > A correction from the last email:
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                            an pali
                            > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                            the
                            > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                            >
                            > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                            > somewhere?
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > With many thanks and best wishes,
                            >
                            > Gabriel
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                            [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
                            Of Ong
                            > Yong Peng
                            > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                            > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                            > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                            >
                            > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                            instead of
                            > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                            >
                            > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                            It is
                            > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                            > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                            >
                            > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                            > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                            > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                            >
                            > metta,
                            > Yong Peng.
                            >
                            > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                            <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                            Gabriel Jaeger
                            > wrote:
                            >
                            > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                            the
                            > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                            >
                            > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                            > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                            in
                            > this way?
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >





                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • Jim Anderson
                            Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
                              Dear Gabriel,

                              > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                              Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                              the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                              is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                              the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                              ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                              Best wishes,
                              Jim
                            • Gabriel Jaeger
                              Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
                                Thanks Jim.



                                But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                                1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                                It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                                Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                                [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                                Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                                For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                                I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                                Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                                Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                                Thanks to all!



                                All the best,

                                Gabriel









                                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                Dear Gabriel,

                                > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                Best wishes,
                                Jim





                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              • Ong Yong Peng
                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                Message 15 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                  5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                                  son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                  Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                                  6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                                  in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                                  7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                                  splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                                  the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                                  8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                                  and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                                  rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                                  husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                                  9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                                  beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                                  these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                                  10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                                  herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                                  New Words.

                                  aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                                  anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                                  announces = aaroceti (v).
                                  applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                                  as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                                  battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                                  bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                                  behind = pacchato (indec).
                                  beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                                  blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                                  conveyance = yaana (n).
                                  disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                                  driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                                  fallen = patita (pp).
                                  great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                                  honoured = maanita (pp).
                                  leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                                  moves off = apagacchati (v).
                                  peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                                  praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                                  pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                                  respected = garukata (pp).
                                  roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                                  rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                                  should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                                  soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                                  splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                                  talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                                  telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                                  tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                                  would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                                  wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                                  (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                                  (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                                  151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                                  before them.

                                  kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                                  ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                                  gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                                • Jim Anderson
                                  Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
                                    Gabriel,

                                    > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                    > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                    The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                    > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                    > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                    1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                    2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                    3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                    ==============
                                    Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                    It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                    517 budha bodhane
                                    1132 budha avagamane
                                    1133 budha bodhane
                                    1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                    We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                    the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                    entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                    (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                    budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                    under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                    "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                    part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                    to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                    the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                    further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                    work with.

                                    Best wishes,
                                    Jim
                                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                                    Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
                                      Dear Jim,



                                      Thanks very much!

                                      How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                      With metta,

                                      Gabriel



                                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                      Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                      Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                      Gabriel,

                                      > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                      > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                      The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                      > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                      > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                      1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                      2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                      3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                      ==============
                                      Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                      It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                      517 budha bodhane
                                      1132 budha avagamane
                                      1133 budha bodhane
                                      1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                      We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                      the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                      entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                      (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                      budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                      under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                      "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                      part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                      to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                      the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                      further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                      work with.

                                      Best wishes,
                                      Jim





                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • Jim Anderson
                                      Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
                                        Dear Gabriel,

                                        The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                        I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                        me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                        could also try tipitaka.org.

                                        Best wishes,
                                        Jim

                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                                        To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                                        Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                        Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                                        Dear Jim,



                                        Thanks very much!

                                        How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                        With metta,

                                        Gabriel
                                      • Gabriel Jaeger
                                        Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
                                          Dear Jim,



                                          Thanks very much for your attention.

                                          Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                                          Thanks again,

                                          With metta,

                                          Gabriel



                                          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                          Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                                          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                          Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                          Dear Gabriel,

                                          The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                          I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                          me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                          could also try tipitaka.org.

                                          Best wishes,
                                          Jim

                                          ----- Original Message -----
                                          From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                                          To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                                          Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                          Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                                          Dear Jim,

                                          Thanks very much!

                                          How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                                          With metta,

                                          Gabriel





                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        • Ong Yong Peng
                                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                                          Message 20 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
                                            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                            patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                                            sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                                            tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                                            kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                                            A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                                            daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                                            dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                                            B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                                            pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                                            gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                                            cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                                            harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                                            152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                                            there is an object before them.

                                            (1) suffix -a

                                            dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                                            hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                                            dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                                            dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                                            sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                                            majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                                            When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                                            roots:-
                                            vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                                            thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                                            jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                                            sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                                            (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                                            daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                                            nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                                            karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                                            su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                                            pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                                            gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                                            yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                                            paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                                            (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                                            gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                                            nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                                            bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                                            su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                                            pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                                            bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                                            (4) -aavii

                                            bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                                            danger), disa becomes dassa

                                            (5) -tu

                                            A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                                            karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                                          • Nina van Gorkom
                                            Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                                            Message 21 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
                                              Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                              I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                              gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                              I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                              left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                              http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                                              Nina.

                                              Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                              > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                              > would be very kind.





                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            • Piya Tan
                                              Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                                              Message 22 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
                                                Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                                With metta,

                                                Piya Tan


                                                On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                                > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                                >
                                                > Nina.
                                                >
                                                > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                                >
                                                > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                > > would be very kind.
                                                >
                                                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                >
                                                >
                                                >



                                                --
                                                The Minding Centre
                                                Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                                                Singapore 650644
                                                Tel: 8211 0879
                                                Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                                                Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


                                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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