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The New Pali Course Part II [7-4/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta pa~n~napetabba (pot.p) what should be prepared. pa.tiggahetvaa (abs) having received or taken. pa.tisaametabba (pot.p) what should be
    Message 1 of 29 , Jun 3, 2008
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      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      pa~n~napetabba (pot.p) what should be prepared.
      pa.tiggahetvaa (abs) having received or taken.
      pa.tisaametabba (pot.p) what should be set in order.
      patikula (n) husband's family.
      pavesetabba (pot.p) what should be entered or taken in.
      piita (pp) drunk.
      mukhodaka (n) water to wash the face.
      leyya (pot.p) [food] what should be licked.
      vata (indec) certainly.
      vijaananta (pr.p) knowing.
      saahasika (adj) hasty.
      sudassa (adj) easy to see.
      sodhetabba (pot.p) what should be cleared or inquired.

      Translate into Pali

      1. The work that is to be done today should not be kept for tomorrow.

      2. If I am to be killed my children will become orphans.

      3. The king whose word should be obeyed is to be respected by all.

      4. This man can be seen in the town every day.

      5. She should be brought to her mother.

      6. The virtues of the Exalted One cannot be thought of, nor his wisdom
      be measured.

      7. Again and again the prince tried to raise the bow that could not be
      moved by anyone.

      8. Where lives the boy who should not be sent to his father's house?

      9. Innumerable fishes live in the river that can be crossed near the
      village.

      10. Alms should be given to virtuous monks by the laymen and the laywomen.

      New Words.

      crossable = tara.niiya (pot.p).
      killed = maarita (pp).
      layman = upaasaka (m).
      laywoman = upaasikaa (f).
      measurable = meyya (adj).
      movable = caalaniiya (pot.p).
      orphan = amaataapitika (adj).
      seen = di.t.tha (pp).
      should be kept = .thapetabba (pot.p).
      should be obeyed = anuvattitabba (pot.p).
      should be sent = pesetabba (pot.p).
      should be brought = aaharitabba (pot.p).
      thinkable = cinteyya (pot.p).
      to raise = ukkhipitu.m (inf).

      (2) Kita Suffixes

      Present participles

      146. "-nta" and "-maana" may be suffixed to all roots or bases in
      order to form present participles.

      The following roots change their forms before some suffixes:-
      gamU (to go) becomes gaccha
      isU (to wish) becomes iccha
      disA (to see) becomes passa, or dakkha
      paa (to drink) becomes piba or piva
      thaa (to stand up) becomes ti.t.tha
      daa (to give) becomes dada
      ~naa (to know) becomes jaana
      karA (to do) becomes kuru or kubba

      gaccha + nta = gacchanta (going)
      iccha + nta = icchanta (willing or wishing)
      passa + nta = passanta (looking, seeing)
      dissa + maana = dissamaana (appearing, seen)
      ti.t.tha + maana = ti.t.thamaana (standing)
      dada + maana = dadamaana (giving)
      jaana + nta = jaananta (knowing)
      kuru + maana = kurumaana (doing)
      (Before -nta kara does not change itself but takes the conjugational
      sign o.)
      karA + o + anta = karonta (doing)
      bhava + maana = bhavamaana (being)
      bhava is the base formed from bhuu (to be).

      For the declension of these and other present participles see §§50 and
      51 of the First Book.

      Past participles

      147. "ta", "tavantu" and "taavii" may be suffixed to all roots to form
      past participles.

      In most cases the last consonants (together with the last vowel) is
      elided before these suffixes, and t of the suffix is sometimes
      reduplicated.

      bhujA (to eat) + ta = bhutta (eaten)
      bhujA + taavi = bhuttaavii (having eaten)
      bhujA + tavantu = bhuttavantu (having eaten)

      A. As -tavantu and -taavii are seldom used, we shall here deal only
      with -ta.

      mucA (to free) + ta = mutta (released, freed)
      tapA (to heat) + ta = tatta (heated)
      padA (to go) + ta = patta (arrived, attained)
      madA (to intoxicate) + ta = matta (intoxicated)
    • Gabriel Jaeger
      Dear dharma-brothers, Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”? Is there any
      Message 2 of 29 , Jun 3, 2008
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        Dear dharma-brothers,



        Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
        etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?

        Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his enlightment
        was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?



        Thanks for any help

        Gabriel



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Antonella Comba
        Dear Gabriel, you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
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          Dear Gabriel,
          you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail bcc@...). This book investigates particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
          Best metta,
          Tapkina



          ---------------------------------
          Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua opinione!

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Nina van Gorkom
          Dear Gabriel, ... N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
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            Dear Gabriel,
            Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

            > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
            > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
            >
            > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
            > enlightment
            > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
            --------
            N: What is the meaning of the word �Buddha�? The Illustrator of
            Ultimate Meaning (the �Paramatthajotik��, a commentary to the �Minor
            Readings�, Khuddaka Nik�ya) explains, in the commentary to the �Three
            Refuges�, the meaning of the word �Buddha�:
            ... and this is said, �Buddha�: in what sense buddha? He is the
            discoverer (bujjhit�) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
            He is the enlightener (bodhet�) of the generation, thus he is
            enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
            all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
            defilement, thus he is enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
            goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
            peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
            this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
            �Buddha�, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
            description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
            obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
            (tree).

            Nina.



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Gabriel Jaeger
            Thanks very much nina! ... From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina van Gorkom Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07 To:
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
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              Thanks very much nina!


              -----Original Message-----
              From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina
              van Gorkom
              Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07
              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha

              Dear Gabriel,
              Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

              > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
              > etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?
              >
              > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
              > enlightment
              > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
              --------
              N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of
              Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the “Minor
              Readings”, Khuddaka Nikåya) explains, in the commentary to the “Three
              Refuges”, the meaning of the word “Buddha”:
              ... and this is said, “Buddha”: in what sense buddha? He is the
              discoverer (bujjhitå) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
              He is the enlightener (bodhetå) of the generation, thus he is
              enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
              all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
              defilement, thus he is
              [Ngawang Tenphel]
              enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
              goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
              peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
              this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
              “Buddha”, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
              description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
              obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
              (tree).

              Nina.



              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


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            • Gabriel Jaeger
              Thanks Tapkina! In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the etymology and meaning of the word Buddha? Regards, Gabriel From:
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
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                Thanks Tapkina!



                In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the
                etymology and meaning of the word Buddha?

                Regards,

                Gabriel





                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                Antonella Comba
                Sent: 04 June 2008 19:23
                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha



                Dear Gabriel,
                you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments
                and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada
                Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail
                bcc@... <mailto:bcc%40sri.lanka.net> ). This book investigates
                particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
                Best metta,
                Tapkina


                ---------------------------------
                Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua
                opinione!

                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Ong Yong Peng
                Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends, it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of replying to a post on an existing discussion
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 8, 2008
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                  Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                  it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                  replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                  As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                  one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                  encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                  The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                  his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                  universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                  metta,
                  Yong Peng.


                  --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                  Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                  etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                  Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                  enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                  this way?
                • Gabriel Jaeger
                  Dear Yong Peng. Thanks for your reply. Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term Buddha. For example, in Sanskrit the root
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
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                    Dear Yong Peng.



                    Thanks for your reply.

                    Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term
                    Buddha.

                    For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word “Budh” usually is related with
                    the meaning of “wake up”, “awake”, etc.

                    In Sanskrit we have “ushar-budh”, literally, "awakening in the morning” or
                    more with a recent use “Prabuddha Bharata” as the the name of an
                    Indian magazine, meaning "Awakened India."

                    We see too the Sanskrit root “budh” in modern languages, among them also in
                    Polish, where the root “budh” is present in the word “o-bud-zic-sie” what
                    means exactly “to wake up”, and in the word “przebudzony”, wich means “the
                    awaken one”. Also in Russian we find the word “pro-bud-itsa” meaning “to
                    wake up” (in the morning) wich comes from the Sanskrit root “budh”.



                    Also we can find later commentaries by Indian Buddhist masters as the
                    Vajravidaarana-dhaara.nii where Jnanarajra writes:



                    “Regarding the term “Buddha”, having purified all the hindrances of
                    corruption and the knowable, he has awakened (Buddha) from the sleep of
                    ignorance (avidya), for wich reason he is called “awakened” (Buddha). He is
                    like a person awakened from sleep. Regarding the term “vibuddha”, his
                    knowledge (jnana) has been expanded (vibuddha) to all the knowable, for wich
                    reason he is called “expanded (vibuddha). He is like the expanded (or,
                    full-blown) kumuda flower. He has the perfection of purification and of
                    knowledge.”



                    If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will probably refer you to
                    the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb root.
                    For “buddh”, it gives “avagamana”. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                    “realization”. The word Buddha is a past passive participle made from the
                    verb root buddh, usually yielding English words ending in “-ed”. So it
                    means, if we follow the gloss, avagamana, “realized”. But a gloss is not
                    identical to the word it is glossing. Moreover, there are not on-on-one
                    correspondences between Sanskrit and English and words. The English word
                    “realized”, for example, translates many Sanskrit words besides avagamana
                    and similarly, avagamana can be translated by other English words besides
                    “realization”, such as “understanding”.



                    In the Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan language we have for Buddha:



                    -Khenpo kunphel’s commentary on the Boddhisatvacharyavatara



                    “Buddha (awakened and expanded/unfolded) means that he has “awakened” from
                    the deep sleep of ignorance and that he has completely “unfolded/expanded”
                    the lotus of wisdom toward all fields of knowledge. As it is said:



                    Because he has awakened from the sleep of ignorance,

                    Because he has opened his mind to knowledge,

                    Beucase Buddha is ‘unfolded/expanded’ like a lotus petal,

                    Therefore, is he called the Buddha.



                    - The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge" by Jamgon Kongtrul



                    Buddha is given the term “Sangye” in Tibetan because a Buddha has become
                    both “Sangpa” (Buddha) woken up and “Gyepa” expanded/unfolded.”



                    The two terms are then commented on by Tibetans as follows: “Sang” means
                    woken up in the sense that the obscurations have been purified completely
                    and “Gye” means expanded in the sense that all good qualities have been
                    developed to their limit.



                    This are the best references that I have but none of them come from the
                    early scriptures as the pali kanon.

                    For that I post the message asking references...



                    As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                    source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                    Paramatthajotikå?





                    With many thanks and best wishes,

                    Gabriel









                    From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                    Yong Peng
                    Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                    Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                    it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                    replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                    As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                    one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                    encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                    The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                    his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                    universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                    metta,
                    Yong Peng.

                    --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                    wrote:

                    Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                    etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                    Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                    enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                    this way?





                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                    ... source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the [Ngawang Tenphel] Paramatthajotikå? What I mean is if is available this passage
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
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                      A correction from the last email:



                      >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                      source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                      [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?

                      What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                      somewhere?



                      With many thanks and best wishes,

                      Gabriel









                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                      Yong Peng
                      Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                      Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                      it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                      replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                      As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                      one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                      encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                      The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                      his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                      universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                      metta,
                      Yong Peng.

                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                      wrote:

                      Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                      etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                      Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                      enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                      this way?





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Ong Yong Peng
                      Dear Gabriel, thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One. A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                        Dear Gabriel,

                        thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One.

                        A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                        (CSCD) reveals:

                        buddho - 69 times
                        buddha.m - 30 times
                        buddhe - 24 times

                        kapilavatthu - 3 times
                        kapilavatthu.m - 2 times
                        kapilavatthusmi.m - 4 times

                        metta,
                        Yong Peng.


                        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                        Thanks for your reply.

                        Anyway I have some doubts about the translation �enlightened� for the
                        term Buddha.

                        For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word �Budh� usually is
                        related with the meaning of �wake up�, �awake�, etc.
                      • Nina van Gorkom
                        Dear Gabriel, ... What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated somewhere? ... N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator,
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                          Dear Gabriel,
                          Op 9-jun-2008, om 15:49 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                          > As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an
                          > pali
                          > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                          > Paramatthajotik�?
                          What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                          somewhere?
                          -------
                          N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator, P.T.S.
                          Thus, this is the Khuddakapaa.tha and Commentary.
                          It is taken from the first sutta: the Three Refuges.
                          Thank you for your analysis, giving different languages.
                          You write: <If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will
                          probably refer you to
                          the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb
                          root.
                          For �buddh�, it gives �avagamana�. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                          �realization�. >
                          Very interesting. I read in the Commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha : <
                          And as to this quotation, [the active and middle voice usage] 'he is
                          the discoverer of the Truths, thus he is enlightened [bujjhitaa
                          saccanii ti buddho]' is stated in the same way as in the world
                          [outside the Dispensation] a 'descender into
                          (understander)' (avagantaa) is called a 'descended one
                          (understood)' (avagato)....>
                          Perhaps you can find the complete Pali text on metta net? Under
                          Khuddakapaa.tha ?

                          Nina.



                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Ong Yong Peng
                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                            yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
                            supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

                            B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

                            karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
                            marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
                            manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
                            hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
                            gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
                            ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

                            C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

                            1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

                            dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
                            kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                            hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
                            rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
                            ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
                            aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

                            2. m + ta becomes -nta

                            khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
                            samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
                            bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
                            damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
                            pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

                            3. dh + ta becomes ddha

                            budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
                            rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

                            4. bh + ta becomes ddha

                            labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
                            lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

                            5. j + ta becomes gga

                            bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
                            sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

                            6. other irregular changes are:

                            duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
                            ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
                            majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
                            pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
                            vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

                            D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

                            janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
                            paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
                            .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
                            maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

                            E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

                            bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
                            nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
                            bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
                            ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
                            yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
                            ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
                            ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
                            nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
                            (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

                            148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
                            "i" between the root and the suffix.

                            This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
                            pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
                            gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
                            khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
                            ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
                            kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
                            likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

                            149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
                            is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
                            between the root and the suffix.

                            n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
                            chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
                            chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
                            bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
                            ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
                            tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
                            puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
                            jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
                            daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
                            khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
                            dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
                            luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
                            pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
                            aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
                          • tapkina
                            Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Dear Gabriel,
                              In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                              (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                              "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                              to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                              been discovered (buddha) by him.
                              Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                              and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                              reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                              meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                              discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                              (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                              is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                              the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                              And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                              "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                              ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                              life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                              all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                              because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                              shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                              given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                              uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                              agga, etc.
                              Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                              regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                              development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                              who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                              for our present study:
                              1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                              irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                              Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                              2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                              (in the eyes of Jains).
                              3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                              no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                              Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                              Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                              4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                              general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                              5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                              specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                              person.
                              6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                              equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                              of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                              parts".

                              May all beings be enlightened.
                              Tapkina


                              --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > A correction from the last email:
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                              an pali
                              > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                              the
                              > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                              >
                              > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                              > somewhere?
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > With many thanks and best wishes,
                              >
                              > Gabriel
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                              Of Ong
                              > Yong Peng
                              > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                              > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                              > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                              >
                              > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                              instead of
                              > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                              >
                              > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                              It is
                              > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                              > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                              >
                              > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                              > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                              > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                              >
                              > metta,
                              > Yong Peng.
                              >
                              > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                              Gabriel Jaeger
                              > wrote:
                              >
                              > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                              the
                              > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                              >
                              > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                              > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                              in
                              > this way?
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              >
                            • Ong Yong Peng
                              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
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                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

                                root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
                                root harA: harita, hata (carried)
                                root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
                                root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
                                root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
                                root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                                root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
                                root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
                                root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
                                root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
                                root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
                                root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
                                root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

                                Exercise 24

                                Translate into English and point out the derivatives

                                1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
                                ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

                                2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
                                Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

                                3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
                                makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

                                4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
                                sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
                                pucchi." [Ibid.]

                                5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
                                kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

                                6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
                                Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

                                7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
                                Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
                                Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
                                Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

                                8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
                                Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
                                Mahaajanaa samaagamma
                                Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

                                9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
                                tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

                                10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
                                Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
                                Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
                                No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

                                New Words.

                                atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
                                abhitthuni (v) praised.
                                abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
                                asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
                                aaditta (pp) ablaze.
                                uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
                                upaagami (v) came, approached.
                                ubbigga (pp) agitated.
                                okaasa (m) room, place.
                                .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                                thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
                                thuti (f) praise.
                                dassana (n) sight.
                                nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
                                nimmita (pp) created.
                                pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
                                matthake (loc) at the end.
                                lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
                                vyathita (pp) wavering.
                                sadisa (adj) equal.
                                samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
                                sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
                                samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
                                sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
                                sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
                                supaaruta (pp) well robed.

                                Translate into Pali using participles

                                1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
                                villages that were near the battlefield.

                                2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
                                decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

                                3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
                                leaning on a staff, and tottering.

                                4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
                                husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
                              • Gabriel Jaeger
                                Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
                                Message 15 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  Thanks Tapkina!



                                  I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
                                  this site:

                                  http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



                                  It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
                                  sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

                                  For the rereferences:

                                  Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                  Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                  Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                  Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                  It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



                                  1) Avagamana – to know

                                  2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

                                  3) Vikasana – blossom or open



                                  Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
                                  Buddhist Council?



                                  With metta,

                                  Gabriel





                                  From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                  tapkina
                                  Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
                                  To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                  Dear Gabriel,
                                  In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                                  (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                                  "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                                  to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                                  been discovered (buddha) by him.
                                  Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                                  and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                                  reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                                  meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                                  discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                                  (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                                  is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                                  the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                                  And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                                  "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                                  ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                                  life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                                  all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                                  because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                                  shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                                  given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                                  uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                                  agga, etc.
                                  Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                                  regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                                  development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                                  who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                                  for our present study:
                                  1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                                  irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                                  Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                                  2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                                  (in the eyes of Jains).
                                  3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                                  no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                                  Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                                  Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                                  4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                                  general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                                  5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                                  specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                                  person.
                                  6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                                  equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                                  of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                                  parts".

                                  May all beings be enlightened.
                                  Tapkina

                                  --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
                                  Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > A correction from the last email:
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                                  an pali
                                  > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                                  the
                                  > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                                  >
                                  > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                                  > somewhere?
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > With many thanks and best wishes,
                                  >
                                  > Gabriel
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                  [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
                                  Of Ong
                                  > Yong Peng
                                  > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                                  > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                  > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                                  >
                                  > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                                  instead of
                                  > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                                  >
                                  > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                                  It is
                                  > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                                  > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                                  >
                                  > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                                  > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                                  > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                                  >
                                  > metta,
                                  > Yong Peng.
                                  >
                                  > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                  <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                                  Gabriel Jaeger
                                  > wrote:
                                  >
                                  > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                                  the
                                  > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                                  >
                                  > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                                  > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                                  in
                                  > this way?
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  >





                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                • Jim Anderson
                                  Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    Dear Gabriel,

                                    > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                    Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                    the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                    is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                    the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                    ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                    Best wishes,
                                    Jim
                                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                                    Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      Thanks Jim.



                                      But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                      As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                                      1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                      2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                      3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                                      It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                                      Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                      Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                      Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                      Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                      I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                                      [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                                      Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                                      For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                                      I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                                      Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                                      Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                                      Thanks to all!



                                      All the best,

                                      Gabriel









                                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                      Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                      Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                      Dear Gabriel,

                                      > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                      Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                      the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                      is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                      the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                      ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                      Best wishes,
                                      Jim





                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • Ong Yong Peng
                                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                                        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                        5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                                        son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                        Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                                        6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                                        in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                                        7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                                        splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                                        the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                                        8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                                        and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                                        rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                                        husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                                        9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                                        beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                                        these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                                        10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                                        herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                                        New Words.

                                        aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                                        anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                                        announces = aaroceti (v).
                                        applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                                        as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                                        battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                                        bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                                        behind = pacchato (indec).
                                        beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                                        blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                                        conveyance = yaana (n).
                                        disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                                        driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                                        fallen = patita (pp).
                                        great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                                        honoured = maanita (pp).
                                        leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                                        moves off = apagacchati (v).
                                        peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                                        praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                                        pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                                        respected = garukata (pp).
                                        roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                                        rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                                        should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                                        soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                                        splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                                        talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                                        telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                                        tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                                        would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                                        wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                                        (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                                        (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                                        151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                                        before them.

                                        kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                                        ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                                        gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                                      • Jim Anderson
                                        Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                                          Gabriel,

                                          > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                          > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                          The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                          > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                          > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                          1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                          2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                          3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                          ==============
                                          Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                          It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                          517 budha bodhane
                                          1132 budha avagamane
                                          1133 budha bodhane
                                          1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                          We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                          the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                          entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                          (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                          budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                          under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                          "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                          part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                          to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                          the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                          further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                          work with.

                                          Best wishes,
                                          Jim
                                        • Gabriel Jaeger
                                          Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                          Message 20 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
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                                            Dear Jim,



                                            Thanks very much!

                                            How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                            With metta,

                                            Gabriel



                                            From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                            Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                                            To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                            Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                            Gabriel,

                                            > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                            > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                            The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                            > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                            > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                            1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                            2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                            3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                            ==============
                                            Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                            It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                            517 budha bodhane
                                            1132 budha avagamane
                                            1133 budha bodhane
                                            1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                            We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                            the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                            entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                            (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                            budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                            under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                            "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                            part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                            to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                            the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                            further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                            work with.

                                            Best wishes,
                                            Jim





                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          • Jim Anderson
                                            Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                                            Message 21 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
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                                              Dear Gabriel,

                                              The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                              I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                              me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                              could also try tipitaka.org.

                                              Best wishes,
                                              Jim

                                              ----- Original Message -----
                                              From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                                              To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                                              Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                              Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                                              Dear Jim,



                                              Thanks very much!

                                              How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                              With metta,

                                              Gabriel
                                            • Gabriel Jaeger
                                              Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                                              Message 22 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
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                                                Dear Jim,



                                                Thanks very much for your attention.

                                                Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                                                Thanks again,

                                                With metta,

                                                Gabriel



                                                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                                Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                                                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                                Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                                Dear Gabriel,

                                                The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                                I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                                me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                                could also try tipitaka.org.

                                                Best wishes,
                                                Jim

                                                ----- Original Message -----
                                                From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                                                To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                                                Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                                Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                                                Dear Jim,

                                                Thanks very much!

                                                How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                                                With metta,

                                                Gabriel





                                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                              • Ong Yong Peng
                                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                                                Message 23 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                                  patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                                                  sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                                                  tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                                                  kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                                                  A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                                                  daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                                                  dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                                                  B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                                                  pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                                                  gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                                                  cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                                                  harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                                                  152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                                                  there is an object before them.

                                                  (1) suffix -a

                                                  dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                                                  hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                                                  dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                                                  dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                                                  sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                                                  majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                                                  When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                                                  roots:-
                                                  vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                                                  thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                                                  jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                                                  sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                                                  (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                                                  daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                                                  nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                                                  karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                                                  su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                                                  pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                                                  gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                                                  yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                                                  paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                                                  (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                                                  gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                                                  nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                                                  bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                                                  su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                                                  pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                                                  bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                                                  (4) -aavii

                                                  bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                                                  danger), disa becomes dassa

                                                  (5) -tu

                                                  A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                                                  karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                                                • Nina van Gorkom
                                                  Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                                                  Message 24 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                                    Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                    I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                    gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                    I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                    left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                    http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                                                    Nina.

                                                    Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                                    > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                    > would be very kind.





                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  • Piya Tan
                                                    Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                                                    Message 25 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
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                                                      Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                                      With metta,

                                                      Piya Tan


                                                      On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                                      > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                      > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                      > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                      > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                      > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                      > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                                      >
                                                      > Nina.
                                                      >
                                                      > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                                      >
                                                      > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                      > > would be very kind.
                                                      >
                                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      >
                                                      >
                                                      >



                                                      --
                                                      The Minding Centre
                                                      Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                                                      Singapore 650644
                                                      Tel: 8211 0879
                                                      Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                                                      Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


                                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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