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The New Pali Course Part II [7-2/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta dispatched = vissajjesi, pesesi (v). drys up = sussati (v). elapsed = atikkanta (pp). garments and ornaments = vatthaabhara.na (n). gets
    Message 1 of 29 , May 22, 2008
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      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      dispatched = vissajjesi, pesesi (v).
      drys up = sussati (v).
      elapsed = atikkanta (pp).
      garments and ornaments = vatthaabhara.na (n).
      gets wet = temeti (v).
      handsome = abhiruupa (adj).
      highwayman = panthaghaataka (m).
      in succession = pa.tipaa.tiyaa (adv).
      land = thala (n).
      likewise = tath'eva (indec).
      meets together = sannipatati (v).
      moment = kha.na (m).
      one by one = ekeka (adj).
      perishing = vinassanta (pr.p).
      proceeds = sa~ncarati (v).
      recites = sajjhaayati (v).
      remaining = avasesa (adj). avasi.t.tha (pp).
      report = pavatti (f).
      savoury earth = pa.thavojaa (f).
      sect = ga.na, nikaaya (m).
      sixteen years of age = solasavassika (adj).
      spy = carapurisa (m).
      to hunt = pariyesitu.m (inf).
      spreads = pattharati (v).
      turtle = kacchapa (m).
      ugly = viruupa, dubba.n.na (adj).
      wandering ascetic = paribbaajaka (m).
      zenith = uddha.m (indec).

      The Primary Derivatives or Kitakas

      140. Primary derivatives are formed directly from the roots by the
      adding of certain suffixes. These suffixes are known by the name of
      Kita; hence these derivatives are called Kitakas.

      A. Both Primary and Secondary derivatives are treated as nouns (i.e.,
      as adjectives and substantives). Some indeclinables, too, are found in
      them.

      B. The difference between the (1) Primary and the (2) Secondary
      derivatives is:

      (1) The first is a noun or an indeclinable formed with a root +
      suffix. All participles -- being formed with roots + suffixes -- are
      included in this category.

      (2) The second is a word formed with a Primary derivative + suffix.
      This is mostly adjectival in nature.

      141. The final vowel of a root, if there are more than one, may be
      elided before a suffix.

      The rules of sandhi, assimilation, and strengthening are regularly
      applied.

      142. All Kitaka suffixes are divided into (1) Kiccas and (2) Kitas.

      (1) The suffixes, by which the passive participles are formed, are
      called Kiccas. They are few in number.

      (2) The suffixes, by which active participles and other nouns
      expressing an active meaning are formed, are called Kitas. They are
      numerous.

      (1) Kicca Suffixes

      We treat Kicca suffixes first because they are few in number.

      -tabba, -aniiya, .nya, .niya, -tayya and -icca are Kiccas.

      143. "-tabba" or "-aniiya" may be annexed to all the roots to form
      potential participles expressing a passive meaning.

      karA (to do) + tabba = kattabba or kaatabba
      (In one place r of the root is assimilated to the first consonant of
      the suffix; in the other r is elided and the first vowel is lengthened.)
      karA + aniiya = kara.niiya (that should be done)
      su (to hear) + tabba = sotabba
      su + aniiya = sava.niiya (that should be heard)
      (In both places the vowel of the root is strengthened; and in the
      second instance the strengthened vowel becomes av.)

      For more examples of this kind see §73 of the First Book.

      144. ".nya" and ".niya" are suffixed to some roots to form passive
      participles. (.n is the sign indicatory of strengthening)

      A. When the last vowel of the root is elided before .nya, and ya of
      the suffix is connected with the last consonant, both of them undergo
      a change. With roots ending in h(a), y of the suffix is interchanged
      with the last consonant of the root.

      B. In some roots the final palatal (c, j) is gutturalized (into k, g,
      respectively).
    • Ong Yong Peng
      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta The changes they undego are: dhya becomes jjha dya becomes jja mya becomes mma jya becomes jja gya becomes gga cya becomes kya Examples
      Message 2 of 29 , May 28, 2008
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        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        The changes they undego are:

        dhya becomes jjha
        dya becomes jja
        mya becomes mma
        jya becomes jja
        gya becomes gga
        cya becomes kya

        Examples

        vadA (to say) + .nya = vadya = vajja (what should be said, fault,
        musical instrument)
        gamU (to understand) + .nya = gamya = gamma (what should be understood)
        khaadA (to eat) + .nya = khaadya = khajja (what should be eaten, hard
        food)
        yujA (to yoke or join) + .nya = yojya = yogga (what should be yoked, a
        chariot, fitting)
        vacA (to say) + .nya = vaacya = vaakya (what should be spoken, a sentence)
        gahA (to take) + .nya = gahya = gayha (what should be taken)
        garahA (to despise) + .nya = gaarayha (what should be despised)

        C. .Nya after the roots ending in aa, i and ii becomes eyya.

        daa (to give) + eyya = deyya (what should be given)
        paa (to drink) + eyya = peyya (what should be drunk)
        ji (to conquer) + eyya = jeyya (what should be conquered)
        nii (to lead) + eyya = neyya (what should be led)

        .Niya

        karA (to do) + .niya = kaariya (what should be done, work)
        harA (to carry) + .niya = haariya (what should be carried)
        marA (to kill) + .niya = maariya (what should be killed)

        145. "-icca" and "-tayya" are suffixed only to form a limited number
        of words.

        karA + icca = kicca (that should be done, business)
        ar of the root is elided before the suffix.
        ~naa (to know) + tayya = ~naatayya (what should be known)
        padA (to go) + tayya = pattayya (what should be arrived or attained)

        Exercise 23

        Translate into English and point out the primary derivatives

        1. Khajja-bhojja-leyya-peyya-vasena catubbidhaa honti manussaana.m
        aahaaraa.

        2. "Sace me gata.t.thaane dhiitu doso uppajjati, tumhehi sodhetabbo."
        [Dh.A.i.398]

        3. "Patikule vasantiyaa naama anto aggi bahi na niharitabbo; bahi aggi
        anto na pavesetabbo; dadantass'eva daatabba.m; adadantassa na
        daatabba.m." [Ibid. i.397]

        4. "Sudassa.m vajja.m a~n~nesa.m,
        Attano pana duddasa.m." [Dhp.V.252]

        5. "Sace yaagu hoti, bhaajana.m dhovitvaa yaagu upanetabbaa; yaagu.m
        piitassa udaka.m datvaa bhaajana.m pa.tiggahetvaa... dhovitvaa
        pa.tisaametabba.m." [V.i.46]

        6. "Kaalass'eva u.t.thaaya upaahanaa omu~ncitvaa... dantaka.t.tha.m
        daatabba.m, mukhodaka.m daatabba.m, aasana.m pa~n~naapetabban." [Ibid. 46]

        7. "Naaha.m ta.m gamanena lokassa anta.m ~naatayya.m da.t.thayya.m
        pattayyan ti vadaami." [A.ii.48]

        8. "Pu~n~nam aaka`nkhamaanena
        Deyya.m hoti vijaanataa." [S.i.18]

        9. Mahaasamudde asa`nkheyyaa macchakacchapaa, appameyyo udakakkhandho
        ca atthi.

        10. "Ta.m sutvaa itaro: 'Bhaariya.m vata me saahasika.m
        ananucchavika.m kamma.m katan'ti baahaa paggayha kandanto... ahosi."
        [Dh.A.i.17]

        New Words.

        ananucchavika (adj) inappropriate.
        anta (m) end.
        appameyya (pot.p) immeasurable.
        asa`nkheyya (pot.p) innumerable. (n) the highest number.
        aaka`nkhamaana (pr.p) wishing.
        upajjhaaya (m) preceptor [to a monk].
        upaahana (m) sandals.
        omu~ncitvaa (abs) having taken off or removed.
        kandanta (pr.p) crying aloud.
        khandha (m) a great mass, trunk [of a tree].
        gantabba (pot.p) should be gone.
        gamana (ger) going, walking.
        catubbidha (adj) fourfold.
        da.t.thayya (pot.p) what should be seen.
        dantaka.t.tha (n) toothbrush, a stick to cleanse teeth.
        duddasa (adj) difficult to see.
        dosa (m) fault, misdeed.
        niiharitabba (pot.p) what should be taken out.
      • Ong Yong Peng
        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta pa~n~napetabba (pot.p) what should be prepared. pa.tiggahetvaa (abs) having received or taken. pa.tisaametabba (pot.p) what should be
        Message 3 of 29 , Jun 3, 2008
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          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          pa~n~napetabba (pot.p) what should be prepared.
          pa.tiggahetvaa (abs) having received or taken.
          pa.tisaametabba (pot.p) what should be set in order.
          patikula (n) husband's family.
          pavesetabba (pot.p) what should be entered or taken in.
          piita (pp) drunk.
          mukhodaka (n) water to wash the face.
          leyya (pot.p) [food] what should be licked.
          vata (indec) certainly.
          vijaananta (pr.p) knowing.
          saahasika (adj) hasty.
          sudassa (adj) easy to see.
          sodhetabba (pot.p) what should be cleared or inquired.

          Translate into Pali

          1. The work that is to be done today should not be kept for tomorrow.

          2. If I am to be killed my children will become orphans.

          3. The king whose word should be obeyed is to be respected by all.

          4. This man can be seen in the town every day.

          5. She should be brought to her mother.

          6. The virtues of the Exalted One cannot be thought of, nor his wisdom
          be measured.

          7. Again and again the prince tried to raise the bow that could not be
          moved by anyone.

          8. Where lives the boy who should not be sent to his father's house?

          9. Innumerable fishes live in the river that can be crossed near the
          village.

          10. Alms should be given to virtuous monks by the laymen and the laywomen.

          New Words.

          crossable = tara.niiya (pot.p).
          killed = maarita (pp).
          layman = upaasaka (m).
          laywoman = upaasikaa (f).
          measurable = meyya (adj).
          movable = caalaniiya (pot.p).
          orphan = amaataapitika (adj).
          seen = di.t.tha (pp).
          should be kept = .thapetabba (pot.p).
          should be obeyed = anuvattitabba (pot.p).
          should be sent = pesetabba (pot.p).
          should be brought = aaharitabba (pot.p).
          thinkable = cinteyya (pot.p).
          to raise = ukkhipitu.m (inf).

          (2) Kita Suffixes

          Present participles

          146. "-nta" and "-maana" may be suffixed to all roots or bases in
          order to form present participles.

          The following roots change their forms before some suffixes:-
          gamU (to go) becomes gaccha
          isU (to wish) becomes iccha
          disA (to see) becomes passa, or dakkha
          paa (to drink) becomes piba or piva
          thaa (to stand up) becomes ti.t.tha
          daa (to give) becomes dada
          ~naa (to know) becomes jaana
          karA (to do) becomes kuru or kubba

          gaccha + nta = gacchanta (going)
          iccha + nta = icchanta (willing or wishing)
          passa + nta = passanta (looking, seeing)
          dissa + maana = dissamaana (appearing, seen)
          ti.t.tha + maana = ti.t.thamaana (standing)
          dada + maana = dadamaana (giving)
          jaana + nta = jaananta (knowing)
          kuru + maana = kurumaana (doing)
          (Before -nta kara does not change itself but takes the conjugational
          sign o.)
          karA + o + anta = karonta (doing)
          bhava + maana = bhavamaana (being)
          bhava is the base formed from bhuu (to be).

          For the declension of these and other present participles see §§50 and
          51 of the First Book.

          Past participles

          147. "ta", "tavantu" and "taavii" may be suffixed to all roots to form
          past participles.

          In most cases the last consonants (together with the last vowel) is
          elided before these suffixes, and t of the suffix is sometimes
          reduplicated.

          bhujA (to eat) + ta = bhutta (eaten)
          bhujA + taavi = bhuttaavii (having eaten)
          bhujA + tavantu = bhuttavantu (having eaten)

          A. As -tavantu and -taavii are seldom used, we shall here deal only
          with -ta.

          mucA (to free) + ta = mutta (released, freed)
          tapA (to heat) + ta = tatta (heated)
          padA (to go) + ta = patta (arrived, attained)
          madA (to intoxicate) + ta = matta (intoxicated)
        • Gabriel Jaeger
          Dear dharma-brothers, Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”? Is there any
          Message 4 of 29 , Jun 3, 2008
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            Dear dharma-brothers,



            Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
            etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?

            Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his enlightment
            was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?



            Thanks for any help

            Gabriel



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Antonella Comba
            Dear Gabriel, you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
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              Dear Gabriel,
              you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail bcc@...). This book investigates particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
              Best metta,
              Tapkina



              ---------------------------------
              Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua opinione!

              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Nina van Gorkom
              Dear Gabriel, ... N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
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                Dear Gabriel,
                Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                >
                > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                > enlightment
                > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
                --------
                N: What is the meaning of the word �Buddha�? The Illustrator of
                Ultimate Meaning (the �Paramatthajotik��, a commentary to the �Minor
                Readings�, Khuddaka Nik�ya) explains, in the commentary to the �Three
                Refuges�, the meaning of the word �Buddha�:
                ... and this is said, �Buddha�: in what sense buddha? He is the
                discoverer (bujjhit�) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
                He is the enlightener (bodhet�) of the generation, thus he is
                enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
                all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
                defilement, thus he is enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
                goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
                peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
                this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
                �Buddha�, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
                description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
                obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
                (tree).

                Nina.



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Gabriel Jaeger
                Thanks very much nina! ... From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina van Gorkom Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07 To:
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
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                  Thanks very much nina!


                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina
                  van Gorkom
                  Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07
                  To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha

                  Dear Gabriel,
                  Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                  > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
                  > etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?
                  >
                  > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                  > enlightment
                  > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
                  --------
                  N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of
                  Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the “Minor
                  Readings”, Khuddaka Nikåya) explains, in the commentary to the “Three
                  Refuges”, the meaning of the word “Buddha”:
                  ... and this is said, “Buddha”: in what sense buddha? He is the
                  discoverer (bujjhitå) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
                  He is the enlightener (bodhetå) of the generation, thus he is
                  enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
                  all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
                  defilement, thus he is
                  [Ngawang Tenphel]
                  enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
                  goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
                  peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
                  this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
                  “Buddha”, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
                  description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
                  obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
                  (tree).

                  Nina.



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


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                • Gabriel Jaeger
                  Thanks Tapkina! In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the etymology and meaning of the word Buddha? Regards, Gabriel From:
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
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                    Thanks Tapkina!



                    In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the
                    etymology and meaning of the word Buddha?

                    Regards,

                    Gabriel





                    From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                    Antonella Comba
                    Sent: 04 June 2008 19:23
                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha



                    Dear Gabriel,
                    you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments
                    and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada
                    Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail
                    bcc@... <mailto:bcc%40sri.lanka.net> ). This book investigates
                    particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
                    Best metta,
                    Tapkina


                    ---------------------------------
                    Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua
                    opinione!

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Ong Yong Peng
                    Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends, it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of replying to a post on an existing discussion
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 8, 2008
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                      Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                      it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                      replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                      As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                      one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                      encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                      The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                      his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                      universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                      metta,
                      Yong Peng.


                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                      Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                      etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                      Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                      enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                      this way?
                    • Gabriel Jaeger
                      Dear Yong Peng. Thanks for your reply. Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term Buddha. For example, in Sanskrit the root
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
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                        Dear Yong Peng.



                        Thanks for your reply.

                        Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term
                        Buddha.

                        For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word “Budh” usually is related with
                        the meaning of “wake up”, “awake”, etc.

                        In Sanskrit we have “ushar-budh”, literally, "awakening in the morning” or
                        more with a recent use “Prabuddha Bharata” as the the name of an
                        Indian magazine, meaning "Awakened India."

                        We see too the Sanskrit root “budh” in modern languages, among them also in
                        Polish, where the root “budh” is present in the word “o-bud-zic-sie” what
                        means exactly “to wake up”, and in the word “przebudzony”, wich means “the
                        awaken one”. Also in Russian we find the word “pro-bud-itsa” meaning “to
                        wake up” (in the morning) wich comes from the Sanskrit root “budh”.



                        Also we can find later commentaries by Indian Buddhist masters as the
                        Vajravidaarana-dhaara.nii where Jnanarajra writes:



                        “Regarding the term “Buddha”, having purified all the hindrances of
                        corruption and the knowable, he has awakened (Buddha) from the sleep of
                        ignorance (avidya), for wich reason he is called “awakened” (Buddha). He is
                        like a person awakened from sleep. Regarding the term “vibuddha”, his
                        knowledge (jnana) has been expanded (vibuddha) to all the knowable, for wich
                        reason he is called “expanded (vibuddha). He is like the expanded (or,
                        full-blown) kumuda flower. He has the perfection of purification and of
                        knowledge.”



                        If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will probably refer you to
                        the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb root.
                        For “buddh”, it gives “avagamana”. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                        “realization”. The word Buddha is a past passive participle made from the
                        verb root buddh, usually yielding English words ending in “-ed”. So it
                        means, if we follow the gloss, avagamana, “realized”. But a gloss is not
                        identical to the word it is glossing. Moreover, there are not on-on-one
                        correspondences between Sanskrit and English and words. The English word
                        “realized”, for example, translates many Sanskrit words besides avagamana
                        and similarly, avagamana can be translated by other English words besides
                        “realization”, such as “understanding”.



                        In the Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan language we have for Buddha:



                        -Khenpo kunphel’s commentary on the Boddhisatvacharyavatara



                        “Buddha (awakened and expanded/unfolded) means that he has “awakened” from
                        the deep sleep of ignorance and that he has completely “unfolded/expanded”
                        the lotus of wisdom toward all fields of knowledge. As it is said:



                        Because he has awakened from the sleep of ignorance,

                        Because he has opened his mind to knowledge,

                        Beucase Buddha is ‘unfolded/expanded’ like a lotus petal,

                        Therefore, is he called the Buddha.



                        - The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge" by Jamgon Kongtrul



                        Buddha is given the term “Sangye” in Tibetan because a Buddha has become
                        both “Sangpa” (Buddha) woken up and “Gyepa” expanded/unfolded.”



                        The two terms are then commented on by Tibetans as follows: “Sang” means
                        woken up in the sense that the obscurations have been purified completely
                        and “Gye” means expanded in the sense that all good qualities have been
                        developed to their limit.



                        This are the best references that I have but none of them come from the
                        early scriptures as the pali kanon.

                        For that I post the message asking references...



                        As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                        source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                        Paramatthajotikå?





                        With many thanks and best wishes,

                        Gabriel









                        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                        Yong Peng
                        Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                        Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                        it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                        replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                        As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                        one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                        encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                        The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                        his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                        universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                        metta,
                        Yong Peng.

                        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                        wrote:

                        Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                        etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                        Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                        enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                        this way?





                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Gabriel Jaeger
                        ... source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the [Ngawang Tenphel] Paramatthajotikå? What I mean is if is available this passage
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
                        • 0 Attachment
                          A correction from the last email:



                          >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                          source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                          [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?

                          What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                          somewhere?



                          With many thanks and best wishes,

                          Gabriel









                          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                          Yong Peng
                          Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                          Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                          it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                          replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                          As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                          one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                          encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                          The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                          his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                          universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                          metta,
                          Yong Peng.

                          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                          wrote:

                          Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                          etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                          Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                          enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                          this way?





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Ong Yong Peng
                          Dear Gabriel, thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One. A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Dear Gabriel,

                            thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One.

                            A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                            (CSCD) reveals:

                            buddho - 69 times
                            buddha.m - 30 times
                            buddhe - 24 times

                            kapilavatthu - 3 times
                            kapilavatthu.m - 2 times
                            kapilavatthusmi.m - 4 times

                            metta,
                            Yong Peng.


                            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                            Thanks for your reply.

                            Anyway I have some doubts about the translation �enlightened� for the
                            term Buddha.

                            For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word �Budh� usually is
                            related with the meaning of �wake up�, �awake�, etc.
                          • Nina van Gorkom
                            Dear Gabriel, ... What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated somewhere? ... N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator,
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Dear Gabriel,
                              Op 9-jun-2008, om 15:49 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                              > As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an
                              > pali
                              > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                              > Paramatthajotik�?
                              What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                              somewhere?
                              -------
                              N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator, P.T.S.
                              Thus, this is the Khuddakapaa.tha and Commentary.
                              It is taken from the first sutta: the Three Refuges.
                              Thank you for your analysis, giving different languages.
                              You write: <If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will
                              probably refer you to
                              the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb
                              root.
                              For �buddh�, it gives �avagamana�. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                              �realization�. >
                              Very interesting. I read in the Commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha : <
                              And as to this quotation, [the active and middle voice usage] 'he is
                              the discoverer of the Truths, thus he is enlightened [bujjhitaa
                              saccanii ti buddho]' is stated in the same way as in the world
                              [outside the Dispensation] a 'descender into
                              (understander)' (avagantaa) is called a 'descended one
                              (understood)' (avagato)....>
                              Perhaps you can find the complete Pali text on metta net? Under
                              Khuddakapaa.tha ?

                              Nina.



                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Ong Yong Peng
                              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
                                supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

                                B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

                                karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
                                marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
                                manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
                                hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
                                gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
                                ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

                                C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

                                1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

                                dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
                                kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                                hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
                                rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
                                ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
                                aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

                                2. m + ta becomes -nta

                                khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
                                samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
                                bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
                                damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
                                pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

                                3. dh + ta becomes ddha

                                budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
                                rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

                                4. bh + ta becomes ddha

                                labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
                                lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

                                5. j + ta becomes gga

                                bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
                                sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

                                6. other irregular changes are:

                                duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
                                ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
                                majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
                                pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
                                vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

                                D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

                                janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
                                paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
                                .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
                                maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

                                E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

                                bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
                                nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
                                bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
                                ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
                                yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
                                ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
                                ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
                                nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
                                (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

                                148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
                                "i" between the root and the suffix.

                                This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
                                pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
                                gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
                                khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
                                ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
                                kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
                                likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

                                149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
                                is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
                                between the root and the suffix.

                                n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
                                chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
                                chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
                                bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
                                ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
                                tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
                                puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
                                jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
                                daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
                                khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
                                dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
                                luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
                                pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
                                aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
                              • tapkina
                                Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
                                Message 15 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  Dear Gabriel,
                                  In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                                  (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                                  "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                                  to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                                  been discovered (buddha) by him.
                                  Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                                  and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                                  reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                                  meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                                  discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                                  (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                                  is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                                  the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                                  And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                                  "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                                  ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                                  life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                                  all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                                  because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                                  shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                                  given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                                  uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                                  agga, etc.
                                  Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                                  regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                                  development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                                  who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                                  for our present study:
                                  1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                                  irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                                  Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                                  2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                                  (in the eyes of Jains).
                                  3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                                  no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                                  Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                                  Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                                  4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                                  general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                                  5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                                  specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                                  person.
                                  6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                                  equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                                  of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                                  parts".

                                  May all beings be enlightened.
                                  Tapkina


                                  --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > A correction from the last email:
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                                  an pali
                                  > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                                  the
                                  > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                                  >
                                  > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                                  > somewhere?
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > With many thanks and best wishes,
                                  >
                                  > Gabriel
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                                  Of Ong
                                  > Yong Peng
                                  > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                                  > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                  > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                                  >
                                  > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                                  instead of
                                  > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                                  >
                                  > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                                  It is
                                  > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                                  > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                                  >
                                  > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                                  > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                                  > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                                  >
                                  > metta,
                                  > Yong Peng.
                                  >
                                  > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                                  Gabriel Jaeger
                                  > wrote:
                                  >
                                  > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                                  the
                                  > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                                  >
                                  > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                                  > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                                  in
                                  > this way?
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  >
                                • Ong Yong Peng
                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
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                                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                    150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

                                    root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
                                    root harA: harita, hata (carried)
                                    root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
                                    root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
                                    root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
                                    root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                                    root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
                                    root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
                                    root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
                                    root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
                                    root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
                                    root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
                                    root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

                                    Exercise 24

                                    Translate into English and point out the derivatives

                                    1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
                                    ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

                                    2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
                                    Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

                                    3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
                                    makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

                                    4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
                                    sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
                                    pucchi." [Ibid.]

                                    5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
                                    kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

                                    6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
                                    Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

                                    7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
                                    Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
                                    Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
                                    Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

                                    8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
                                    Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
                                    Mahaajanaa samaagamma
                                    Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

                                    9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
                                    tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

                                    10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
                                    Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
                                    Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
                                    No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

                                    New Words.

                                    atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
                                    abhitthuni (v) praised.
                                    abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
                                    asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
                                    aaditta (pp) ablaze.
                                    uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
                                    upaagami (v) came, approached.
                                    ubbigga (pp) agitated.
                                    okaasa (m) room, place.
                                    .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                                    thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
                                    thuti (f) praise.
                                    dassana (n) sight.
                                    nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
                                    nimmita (pp) created.
                                    pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
                                    matthake (loc) at the end.
                                    lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
                                    vyathita (pp) wavering.
                                    sadisa (adj) equal.
                                    samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
                                    sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
                                    samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
                                    sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
                                    sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
                                    supaaruta (pp) well robed.

                                    Translate into Pali using participles

                                    1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
                                    villages that were near the battlefield.

                                    2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
                                    decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

                                    3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
                                    leaning on a staff, and tottering.

                                    4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
                                    husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
                                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                                    Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      Thanks Tapkina!



                                      I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
                                      this site:

                                      http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



                                      It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
                                      sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

                                      For the rereferences:

                                      Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                      Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                      Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                      Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                      It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



                                      1) Avagamana – to know

                                      2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

                                      3) Vikasana – blossom or open



                                      Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
                                      Buddhist Council?



                                      With metta,

                                      Gabriel





                                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                      tapkina
                                      Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
                                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                      Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                      Dear Gabriel,
                                      In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                                      (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                                      "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                                      to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                                      been discovered (buddha) by him.
                                      Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                                      and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                                      reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                                      meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                                      discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                                      (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                                      is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                                      the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                                      And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                                      "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                                      ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                                      life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                                      all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                                      because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                                      shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                                      given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                                      uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                                      agga, etc.
                                      Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                                      regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                                      development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                                      who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                                      for our present study:
                                      1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                                      irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                                      Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                                      2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                                      (in the eyes of Jains).
                                      3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                                      no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                                      Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                                      Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                                      4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                                      general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                                      5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                                      specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                                      person.
                                      6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                                      equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                                      of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                                      parts".

                                      May all beings be enlightened.
                                      Tapkina

                                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
                                      Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                                      >
                                      > A correction from the last email:
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                                      an pali
                                      > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                                      the
                                      > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                                      >
                                      > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                                      > somewhere?
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > With many thanks and best wishes,
                                      >
                                      > Gabriel
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
                                      Of Ong
                                      > Yong Peng
                                      > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                                      > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                                      >
                                      > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                                      instead of
                                      > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                                      >
                                      > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                                      It is
                                      > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                                      > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                                      >
                                      > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                                      > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                                      > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                                      >
                                      > metta,
                                      > Yong Peng.
                                      >
                                      > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                                      Gabriel Jaeger
                                      > wrote:
                                      >
                                      > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                                      the
                                      > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                                      >
                                      > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                                      > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                                      in
                                      > this way?
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      >





                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • Jim Anderson
                                      Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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                                        Dear Gabriel,

                                        > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                        Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                        the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                        is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                        the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                        ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                        Best wishes,
                                        Jim
                                      • Gabriel Jaeger
                                        Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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                                          Thanks Jim.



                                          But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                          As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                                          1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                          2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                          3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                                          It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                                          Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                          Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                          Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                          Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                          I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                                          [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                                          Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                                          For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                                          I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                                          Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                                          Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                                          Thanks to all!



                                          All the best,

                                          Gabriel









                                          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                          Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                                          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                          Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                          Dear Gabriel,

                                          > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                          Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                          the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                          is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                          the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                          ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                          Best wishes,
                                          Jim





                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        • Ong Yong Peng
                                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                          Message 20 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                                            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                            5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                                            son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                            Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                                            6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                                            in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                                            7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                                            splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                                            the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                                            8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                                            and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                                            rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                                            husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                                            9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                                            beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                                            these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                                            10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                                            herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                                            New Words.

                                            aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                                            anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                                            announces = aaroceti (v).
                                            applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                                            as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                                            battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                                            bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                                            behind = pacchato (indec).
                                            beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                                            blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                                            conveyance = yaana (n).
                                            disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                                            driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                                            fallen = patita (pp).
                                            great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                                            honoured = maanita (pp).
                                            leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                                            moves off = apagacchati (v).
                                            peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                                            praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                                            pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                                            respected = garukata (pp).
                                            roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                                            rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                                            should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                                            soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                                            splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                                            talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                                            telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                                            tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                                            would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                                            wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                                            (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                                            (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                                            151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                                            before them.

                                            kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                                            ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                                            gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                                          • Jim Anderson
                                            Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                                            Message 21 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                                              Gabriel,

                                              > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                              > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                              The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                              > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                              > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                              1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                              2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                              3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                              ==============
                                              Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                              It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                              517 budha bodhane
                                              1132 budha avagamane
                                              1133 budha bodhane
                                              1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                              We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                              the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                              entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                              (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                              budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                              under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                              "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                              part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                              to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                              the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                              further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                              work with.

                                              Best wishes,
                                              Jim
                                            • Gabriel Jaeger
                                              Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                              Message 22 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
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                                                Dear Jim,



                                                Thanks very much!

                                                How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                                With metta,

                                                Gabriel



                                                From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                                Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                                                To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                                Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                                Gabriel,

                                                > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                                > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                                The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                                > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                                > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                                1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                                2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                                3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                                ==============
                                                Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                                It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                                517 budha bodhane
                                                1132 budha avagamane
                                                1133 budha bodhane
                                                1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                                We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                                the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                                entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                                (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                                budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                                under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                                "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                                part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                                to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                                the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                                further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                                work with.

                                                Best wishes,
                                                Jim





                                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                              • Jim Anderson
                                                Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                                                Message 23 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
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                                                  Dear Gabriel,

                                                  The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                                  I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                                  me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                                  could also try tipitaka.org.

                                                  Best wishes,
                                                  Jim

                                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                                  From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                                                  To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                                                  Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                                  Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                                                  Dear Jim,



                                                  Thanks very much!

                                                  How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                                  With metta,

                                                  Gabriel
                                                • Gabriel Jaeger
                                                  Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                                                  Message 24 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
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                                                    Dear Jim,



                                                    Thanks very much for your attention.

                                                    Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                                                    Thanks again,

                                                    With metta,

                                                    Gabriel



                                                    From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                                    Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                                                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                                    Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                                    Dear Gabriel,

                                                    The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                                    I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                                    me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                                    could also try tipitaka.org.

                                                    Best wishes,
                                                    Jim

                                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                                    From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                                                    To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                                                    Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                                    Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                                                    Dear Jim,

                                                    Thanks very much!

                                                    How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                                                    With metta,

                                                    Gabriel





                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  • Ong Yong Peng
                                                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                                                    Message 25 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                                      patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                                                      sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                                                      tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                                                      kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                                                      A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                                                      daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                                                      dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                                                      B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                                                      pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                                                      gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                                                      cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                                                      harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                                                      152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                                                      there is an object before them.

                                                      (1) suffix -a

                                                      dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                                                      hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                                                      dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                                                      dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                                                      sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                                                      majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                                                      When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                                                      roots:-
                                                      vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                                                      thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                                                      jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                                                      sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                                                      (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                                                      daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                                                      nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                                                      karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                                                      su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                                                      pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                                                      gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                                                      yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                                                      paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                                                      (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                                                      gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                                                      nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                                                      bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                                                      su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                                                      pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                                                      bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                                                      (4) -aavii

                                                      bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                                                      danger), disa becomes dassa

                                                      (5) -tu

                                                      A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                                                      karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                                                    • Nina van Gorkom
                                                      Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                                                      Message 26 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                                        Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                        I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                        gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                        I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                        left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                        http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                                                        Nina.

                                                        Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                                        > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                        > would be very kind.





                                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      • Piya Tan
                                                        Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                                                        Message 27 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
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                                                          Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                                          With metta,

                                                          Piya Tan


                                                          On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                                          > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                          > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                          > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                          > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                          > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                          > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                                          >
                                                          > Nina.
                                                          >
                                                          > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                                          >
                                                          > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                          > > would be very kind.
                                                          >
                                                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          >
                                                          >
                                                          >



                                                          --
                                                          The Minding Centre
                                                          Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                                                          Singapore 650644
                                                          Tel: 8211 0879
                                                          Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                                                          Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


                                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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