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The New Pali Course Part II [7-1/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 9. Mettaasahagatena cetasaa eka.m disa.m pharitvaa viharati, tathaa dutiya.m, tathaa tatiya.m, tathaa catuttha.m. [D.ii.49,etc.] 10.
    Message 1 of 29 , May 10, 2008
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      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      9. "Mettaasahagatena cetasaa eka.m disa.m pharitvaa viharati, tathaa
      dutiya.m, tathaa tatiya.m, tathaa catuttha.m." [D.ii.49,etc.]

      10. "Adhanaana.m dhane ananuppadiyamaane daa.liddiya.m vepullam
      agamaasi; daa.liddiye vepulla.m gate adinnaadaana.m vepullam
      agamaasi." [D.ii.68]

      11. "Devataa tassa nepu~n~na.m
      Pakaasetu.m mahaajane
      Chaadesu.m potthaka.m, so pi
      Dvattikkhattum pita.m akaa." [Mhv.xxxvii.238]

      12. "Tassa khipantassa naasikaa asidhaaraaya pa.tihataa dvidhaa
      chijji." [J.Asilakkha.na]

      New Words.

      akaa (v) did.
      adinnaadaana (n) theft. [lit. taking what is not given]
      adhana (adj) poor.
      adhi.t.thaati (v) resolves, determines.
      anuppadiyamaana (pr.p) being given.
      abhipii.lita (pp) ailing, oppressed by.
      aviduura (adj) near.
      [asi-]dhaaraa (f) blade [of a sword].
      upacinaati (v) collects, gathers.
      upasevitvaa (abs) having taken [the medicine].
      khipanta (pr.p) sneezing, [throwing].
      carita (n) living, life, wandering.
      chaadeti (v) conceals, covers.
      chijjati (v) is cut, is broken.
      .thapetvaa (abs) except, having placed.
      tato pa.t.thaaya (indec) thence, since then.
      daa.liddiya (n) poverty.
      dullabha (adj) rare, difficult to get.
      naanaasattha (n) various sciences.
      nimminitvaa (abs) having created.
      pakaaseti (v) declares, makes known.
      pa.tilabhitvaa (abs) having regained.
      pa.tihata (pp) being knocked against.
      panthaka (m) name of a monk. [lit. wayfarer]
      pavedana (n) announcement.
      pipphaliguhaa (f) a cave named after a pipphali tree.
      pharitvaa (abs) having diffused.
      mahaajana (m) the public.
      yaava (indec) until.
      ramma (adj) charming.
      saakacchaa (f) interview, discussion.

      Translate into Pali, using derivatives where it is possible

      1. "At that time the heretical sect of wandering ascetics met together
      on the fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth day of the half-month, and
      recited their doctrine." [B.T. 402]

      2. "At that moment Visaakhaa, then some fifteen or sixteen years of
      age, came to that place on her way to bathe in the river, being decked
      in all her ornaments and attended by five hundred maidens." [Ibid. 455]

      3. "Your attendant women came running to this hall, and did not get
      their garments and ornaments wet. But you did not run at all." [Ibid. 456]

      4. "Then, O priests, I proceeded on my wanderings from place to place,
      and drew near to Benares, to deer-park Isipatana, and to where the
      band of five priests was." [Ibid. 343]

      5. "Now the world in perishing, perishes seven times in succession by
      fire, and the eighth time by water; and then again seven times by
      fire, and the eighth time by water." [Ibid. 329]

      6. Now after these beings have begun to eat the savoury earth, by
      degrees some become handsome and some ugly. Then the handsome despised
      the ugly." [Ibid. 325]

      7. "When thus a long time has elapsed, here and there the ponds of
      water dry up. Then, one by one the fishes and the turtles also die and
      are reborn in the Brahma world; likewise the inhabitants of the
      hells." [Ibid. 321]

      8. "Such a bird flies in an easterly direction, in a southerly
      direction, in a westerly direction, in a northerly direction, towards
      the zenith and to the intermediate quarters, and if it sees land
      anywhere about it flies thither." [Ibid.]

      9. "Now the report that the elder had been murdered by highwaymen
      spread over all the continent of India, and king Ajaatasattu
      dispatched spies to hunt for them." [Ibid. 223]

      10. "But they cound not all agree; and three of them did not retire
      from the world. But the remaining four did so, and made the Brahman
      Ko.n.da~n~na their chief. And these five persons became known as the
      'Band of Five Elders'." [Ibid. 53]

      New Words.

      agrees = samanu~n~no bhavati or anujaanaati (v).
      anywhere about = yattha katthaci (indec).
      attendant woman = sevikaa, parivaaritthii (f).
      begun = aaraddha (pp).
      by degrees = anukkamena (adv).
      intermediate quarter = anudisaa (f).
      inhabitant of hell = nerayika (m).
      deer-park = migadaaya (m).

      The New Pali Course Part II [6-1/8]
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/12406
    • Ong Yong Peng
      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta dispatched = vissajjesi, pesesi (v). drys up = sussati (v). elapsed = atikkanta (pp). garments and ornaments = vatthaabhara.na (n). gets
      Message 2 of 29 , May 16, 2008
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        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        dispatched = vissajjesi, pesesi (v).
        drys up = sussati (v).
        elapsed = atikkanta (pp).
        garments and ornaments = vatthaabhara.na (n).
        gets wet = temeti (v).
        handsome = abhiruupa (adj).
        highwayman = panthaghaataka (m).
        in succession = pa.tipaa.tiyaa (adv).
        land = thala (n).
        likewise = tath'eva (indec).
        meets together = sannipatati (v).
        moment = kha.na (m).
        one by one = ekeka (adj).
        perishing = vinassanta (pr.p).
        proceeds = sa~ncarati (v).
        recites = sajjhaayati (v).
        remaining = avasesa (adj). avasi.t.tha (pp).
        report = pavatti (f).
        savoury earth = pa.thavojaa (f).
        sect = ga.na, nikaaya (m).
        sixteen years of age = solasavassika (adj).
        spy = carapurisa (m).
        to hunt = pariyesitu.m (inf).
        spreads = pattharati (v).
        turtle = kacchapa (m).
        ugly = viruupa, dubba.n.na (adj).
        wandering ascetic = paribbaajaka (m).
        zenith = uddha.m (indec).

        The Primary Derivatives or Kitakas

        140. Primary derivatives are formed directly from the roots by the
        adding of certain suffixes. These suffixes are known by the name of
        Kita; hence these derivatives are called Kitakas.

        A. Both Primary and Secondary derivatives are treated as nouns (i.e.,
        as adjectives and substantives). Some indeclinables, too, are found in
        them.

        B. The difference between the (1) Primary and the (2) Secondary
        derivatives is:

        (1) The first is a noun or an indeclinable formed with a root +
        suffix. All participles -- being formed with roots + suffixes -- are
        included in this category.

        (2) The second is a word formed with a Primary derivative + suffix.
        This is mostly adjectival in nature.

        141. The final vowel of a root, if there are more than one, may be
        elided before a suffix.

        The rules of sandhi, assimilation, and strengthening are regularly
        applied.

        142. All Kitaka suffixes are divided into (1) Kiccas and (2) Kitas.

        (1) The suffixes, by which the passive participles are formed, are
        called Kiccas. They are few in number.

        (2) The suffixes, by which active participles and other nouns
        expressing an active meaning are formed, are called Kitas. They are
        numerous.

        (1) Kicca Suffixes

        We treat Kicca suffixes first because they are few in number.

        -tabba, -aniiya, .nya, .niya, -tayya and -icca are Kiccas.

        143. "-tabba" or "-aniiya" may be annexed to all the roots to form
        potential participles expressing a passive meaning.

        karA (to do) + tabba = kattabba or kaatabba
        (In one place r of the root is assimilated to the first consonant of
        the suffix; in the other r is elided and the first vowel is lengthened.)
        karA + aniiya = kara.niiya (that should be done)
        su (to hear) + tabba = sotabba
        su + aniiya = sava.niiya (that should be heard)
        (In both places the vowel of the root is strengthened; and in the
        second instance the strengthened vowel becomes av.)

        For more examples of this kind see §73 of the First Book.

        144. ".nya" and ".niya" are suffixed to some roots to form passive
        participles. (.n is the sign indicatory of strengthening)

        A. When the last vowel of the root is elided before .nya, and ya of
        the suffix is connected with the last consonant, both of them undergo
        a change. With roots ending in h(a), y of the suffix is interchanged
        with the last consonant of the root.

        B. In some roots the final palatal (c, j) is gutturalized (into k, g,
        respectively).
      • Ong Yong Peng
        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta dispatched = vissajjesi, pesesi (v). drys up = sussati (v). elapsed = atikkanta (pp). garments and ornaments = vatthaabhara.na (n). gets
        Message 3 of 29 , May 22, 2008
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          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          dispatched = vissajjesi, pesesi (v).
          drys up = sussati (v).
          elapsed = atikkanta (pp).
          garments and ornaments = vatthaabhara.na (n).
          gets wet = temeti (v).
          handsome = abhiruupa (adj).
          highwayman = panthaghaataka (m).
          in succession = pa.tipaa.tiyaa (adv).
          land = thala (n).
          likewise = tath'eva (indec).
          meets together = sannipatati (v).
          moment = kha.na (m).
          one by one = ekeka (adj).
          perishing = vinassanta (pr.p).
          proceeds = sa~ncarati (v).
          recites = sajjhaayati (v).
          remaining = avasesa (adj). avasi.t.tha (pp).
          report = pavatti (f).
          savoury earth = pa.thavojaa (f).
          sect = ga.na, nikaaya (m).
          sixteen years of age = solasavassika (adj).
          spy = carapurisa (m).
          to hunt = pariyesitu.m (inf).
          spreads = pattharati (v).
          turtle = kacchapa (m).
          ugly = viruupa, dubba.n.na (adj).
          wandering ascetic = paribbaajaka (m).
          zenith = uddha.m (indec).

          The Primary Derivatives or Kitakas

          140. Primary derivatives are formed directly from the roots by the
          adding of certain suffixes. These suffixes are known by the name of
          Kita; hence these derivatives are called Kitakas.

          A. Both Primary and Secondary derivatives are treated as nouns (i.e.,
          as adjectives and substantives). Some indeclinables, too, are found in
          them.

          B. The difference between the (1) Primary and the (2) Secondary
          derivatives is:

          (1) The first is a noun or an indeclinable formed with a root +
          suffix. All participles -- being formed with roots + suffixes -- are
          included in this category.

          (2) The second is a word formed with a Primary derivative + suffix.
          This is mostly adjectival in nature.

          141. The final vowel of a root, if there are more than one, may be
          elided before a suffix.

          The rules of sandhi, assimilation, and strengthening are regularly
          applied.

          142. All Kitaka suffixes are divided into (1) Kiccas and (2) Kitas.

          (1) The suffixes, by which the passive participles are formed, are
          called Kiccas. They are few in number.

          (2) The suffixes, by which active participles and other nouns
          expressing an active meaning are formed, are called Kitas. They are
          numerous.

          (1) Kicca Suffixes

          We treat Kicca suffixes first because they are few in number.

          -tabba, -aniiya, .nya, .niya, -tayya and -icca are Kiccas.

          143. "-tabba" or "-aniiya" may be annexed to all the roots to form
          potential participles expressing a passive meaning.

          karA (to do) + tabba = kattabba or kaatabba
          (In one place r of the root is assimilated to the first consonant of
          the suffix; in the other r is elided and the first vowel is lengthened.)
          karA + aniiya = kara.niiya (that should be done)
          su (to hear) + tabba = sotabba
          su + aniiya = sava.niiya (that should be heard)
          (In both places the vowel of the root is strengthened; and in the
          second instance the strengthened vowel becomes av.)

          For more examples of this kind see §73 of the First Book.

          144. ".nya" and ".niya" are suffixed to some roots to form passive
          participles. (.n is the sign indicatory of strengthening)

          A. When the last vowel of the root is elided before .nya, and ya of
          the suffix is connected with the last consonant, both of them undergo
          a change. With roots ending in h(a), y of the suffix is interchanged
          with the last consonant of the root.

          B. In some roots the final palatal (c, j) is gutturalized (into k, g,
          respectively).
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta The changes they undego are: dhya becomes jjha dya becomes jja mya becomes mma jya becomes jja gya becomes gga cya becomes kya Examples
          Message 4 of 29 , May 28, 2008
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            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

            The changes they undego are:

            dhya becomes jjha
            dya becomes jja
            mya becomes mma
            jya becomes jja
            gya becomes gga
            cya becomes kya

            Examples

            vadA (to say) + .nya = vadya = vajja (what should be said, fault,
            musical instrument)
            gamU (to understand) + .nya = gamya = gamma (what should be understood)
            khaadA (to eat) + .nya = khaadya = khajja (what should be eaten, hard
            food)
            yujA (to yoke or join) + .nya = yojya = yogga (what should be yoked, a
            chariot, fitting)
            vacA (to say) + .nya = vaacya = vaakya (what should be spoken, a sentence)
            gahA (to take) + .nya = gahya = gayha (what should be taken)
            garahA (to despise) + .nya = gaarayha (what should be despised)

            C. .Nya after the roots ending in aa, i and ii becomes eyya.

            daa (to give) + eyya = deyya (what should be given)
            paa (to drink) + eyya = peyya (what should be drunk)
            ji (to conquer) + eyya = jeyya (what should be conquered)
            nii (to lead) + eyya = neyya (what should be led)

            .Niya

            karA (to do) + .niya = kaariya (what should be done, work)
            harA (to carry) + .niya = haariya (what should be carried)
            marA (to kill) + .niya = maariya (what should be killed)

            145. "-icca" and "-tayya" are suffixed only to form a limited number
            of words.

            karA + icca = kicca (that should be done, business)
            ar of the root is elided before the suffix.
            ~naa (to know) + tayya = ~naatayya (what should be known)
            padA (to go) + tayya = pattayya (what should be arrived or attained)

            Exercise 23

            Translate into English and point out the primary derivatives

            1. Khajja-bhojja-leyya-peyya-vasena catubbidhaa honti manussaana.m
            aahaaraa.

            2. "Sace me gata.t.thaane dhiitu doso uppajjati, tumhehi sodhetabbo."
            [Dh.A.i.398]

            3. "Patikule vasantiyaa naama anto aggi bahi na niharitabbo; bahi aggi
            anto na pavesetabbo; dadantass'eva daatabba.m; adadantassa na
            daatabba.m." [Ibid. i.397]

            4. "Sudassa.m vajja.m a~n~nesa.m,
            Attano pana duddasa.m." [Dhp.V.252]

            5. "Sace yaagu hoti, bhaajana.m dhovitvaa yaagu upanetabbaa; yaagu.m
            piitassa udaka.m datvaa bhaajana.m pa.tiggahetvaa... dhovitvaa
            pa.tisaametabba.m." [V.i.46]

            6. "Kaalass'eva u.t.thaaya upaahanaa omu~ncitvaa... dantaka.t.tha.m
            daatabba.m, mukhodaka.m daatabba.m, aasana.m pa~n~naapetabban." [Ibid. 46]

            7. "Naaha.m ta.m gamanena lokassa anta.m ~naatayya.m da.t.thayya.m
            pattayyan ti vadaami." [A.ii.48]

            8. "Pu~n~nam aaka`nkhamaanena
            Deyya.m hoti vijaanataa." [S.i.18]

            9. Mahaasamudde asa`nkheyyaa macchakacchapaa, appameyyo udakakkhandho
            ca atthi.

            10. "Ta.m sutvaa itaro: 'Bhaariya.m vata me saahasika.m
            ananucchavika.m kamma.m katan'ti baahaa paggayha kandanto... ahosi."
            [Dh.A.i.17]

            New Words.

            ananucchavika (adj) inappropriate.
            anta (m) end.
            appameyya (pot.p) immeasurable.
            asa`nkheyya (pot.p) innumerable. (n) the highest number.
            aaka`nkhamaana (pr.p) wishing.
            upajjhaaya (m) preceptor [to a monk].
            upaahana (m) sandals.
            omu~ncitvaa (abs) having taken off or removed.
            kandanta (pr.p) crying aloud.
            khandha (m) a great mass, trunk [of a tree].
            gantabba (pot.p) should be gone.
            gamana (ger) going, walking.
            catubbidha (adj) fourfold.
            da.t.thayya (pot.p) what should be seen.
            dantaka.t.tha (n) toothbrush, a stick to cleanse teeth.
            duddasa (adj) difficult to see.
            dosa (m) fault, misdeed.
            niiharitabba (pot.p) what should be taken out.
          • Ong Yong Peng
            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta pa~n~napetabba (pot.p) what should be prepared. pa.tiggahetvaa (abs) having received or taken. pa.tisaametabba (pot.p) what should be
            Message 5 of 29 , Jun 3, 2008
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              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              pa~n~napetabba (pot.p) what should be prepared.
              pa.tiggahetvaa (abs) having received or taken.
              pa.tisaametabba (pot.p) what should be set in order.
              patikula (n) husband's family.
              pavesetabba (pot.p) what should be entered or taken in.
              piita (pp) drunk.
              mukhodaka (n) water to wash the face.
              leyya (pot.p) [food] what should be licked.
              vata (indec) certainly.
              vijaananta (pr.p) knowing.
              saahasika (adj) hasty.
              sudassa (adj) easy to see.
              sodhetabba (pot.p) what should be cleared or inquired.

              Translate into Pali

              1. The work that is to be done today should not be kept for tomorrow.

              2. If I am to be killed my children will become orphans.

              3. The king whose word should be obeyed is to be respected by all.

              4. This man can be seen in the town every day.

              5. She should be brought to her mother.

              6. The virtues of the Exalted One cannot be thought of, nor his wisdom
              be measured.

              7. Again and again the prince tried to raise the bow that could not be
              moved by anyone.

              8. Where lives the boy who should not be sent to his father's house?

              9. Innumerable fishes live in the river that can be crossed near the
              village.

              10. Alms should be given to virtuous monks by the laymen and the laywomen.

              New Words.

              crossable = tara.niiya (pot.p).
              killed = maarita (pp).
              layman = upaasaka (m).
              laywoman = upaasikaa (f).
              measurable = meyya (adj).
              movable = caalaniiya (pot.p).
              orphan = amaataapitika (adj).
              seen = di.t.tha (pp).
              should be kept = .thapetabba (pot.p).
              should be obeyed = anuvattitabba (pot.p).
              should be sent = pesetabba (pot.p).
              should be brought = aaharitabba (pot.p).
              thinkable = cinteyya (pot.p).
              to raise = ukkhipitu.m (inf).

              (2) Kita Suffixes

              Present participles

              146. "-nta" and "-maana" may be suffixed to all roots or bases in
              order to form present participles.

              The following roots change their forms before some suffixes:-
              gamU (to go) becomes gaccha
              isU (to wish) becomes iccha
              disA (to see) becomes passa, or dakkha
              paa (to drink) becomes piba or piva
              thaa (to stand up) becomes ti.t.tha
              daa (to give) becomes dada
              ~naa (to know) becomes jaana
              karA (to do) becomes kuru or kubba

              gaccha + nta = gacchanta (going)
              iccha + nta = icchanta (willing or wishing)
              passa + nta = passanta (looking, seeing)
              dissa + maana = dissamaana (appearing, seen)
              ti.t.tha + maana = ti.t.thamaana (standing)
              dada + maana = dadamaana (giving)
              jaana + nta = jaananta (knowing)
              kuru + maana = kurumaana (doing)
              (Before -nta kara does not change itself but takes the conjugational
              sign o.)
              karA + o + anta = karonta (doing)
              bhava + maana = bhavamaana (being)
              bhava is the base formed from bhuu (to be).

              For the declension of these and other present participles see §§50 and
              51 of the First Book.

              Past participles

              147. "ta", "tavantu" and "taavii" may be suffixed to all roots to form
              past participles.

              In most cases the last consonants (together with the last vowel) is
              elided before these suffixes, and t of the suffix is sometimes
              reduplicated.

              bhujA (to eat) + ta = bhutta (eaten)
              bhujA + taavi = bhuttaavii (having eaten)
              bhujA + tavantu = bhuttavantu (having eaten)

              A. As -tavantu and -taavii are seldom used, we shall here deal only
              with -ta.

              mucA (to free) + ta = mutta (released, freed)
              tapA (to heat) + ta = tatta (heated)
              padA (to go) + ta = patta (arrived, attained)
              madA (to intoxicate) + ta = matta (intoxicated)
            • Gabriel Jaeger
              Dear dharma-brothers, Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”? Is there any
              Message 6 of 29 , Jun 3, 2008
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                Dear dharma-brothers,



                Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
                etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?

                Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his enlightment
                was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?



                Thanks for any help

                Gabriel



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Antonella Comba
                Dear Gabriel, you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in
                Message 7 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
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                  Dear Gabriel,
                  you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail bcc@...). This book investigates particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
                  Best metta,
                  Tapkina



                  ---------------------------------
                  Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua opinione!

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Nina van Gorkom
                  Dear Gabriel, ... N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the
                  Message 8 of 29 , Jun 4, 2008
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                    Dear Gabriel,
                    Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                    > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                    > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                    >
                    > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                    > enlightment
                    > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
                    --------
                    N: What is the meaning of the word �Buddha�? The Illustrator of
                    Ultimate Meaning (the �Paramatthajotik��, a commentary to the �Minor
                    Readings�, Khuddaka Nik�ya) explains, in the commentary to the �Three
                    Refuges�, the meaning of the word �Buddha�:
                    ... and this is said, �Buddha�: in what sense buddha? He is the
                    discoverer (bujjhit�) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
                    He is the enlightener (bodhet�) of the generation, thus he is
                    enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
                    all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
                    defilement, thus he is enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
                    goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
                    peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
                    this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
                    �Buddha�, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
                    description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
                    obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
                    (tree).

                    Nina.



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Gabriel Jaeger
                    Thanks very much nina! ... From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina van Gorkom Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07 To:
                    Message 9 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
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                      Thanks very much nina!


                      -----Original Message-----
                      From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Nina
                      van Gorkom
                      Sent: 05 June 2008 12:07
                      To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha

                      Dear Gabriel,
                      Op 3-jun-2008, om 17:43 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                      > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the páli kanon about the
                      > etymology and meaning of the term “Buddha”?
                      >
                      > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                      > enlightment
                      > was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in this way?
                      --------
                      N: What is the meaning of the word “Buddha”? The Illustrator of
                      Ultimate Meaning (the “Paramatthajotikå”, a commentary to the “Minor
                      Readings”, Khuddaka Nikåya) explains, in the commentary to the “Three
                      Refuges”, the meaning of the word “Buddha”:
                      ... and this is said, “Buddha”: in what sense buddha? He is the
                      discoverer (bujjhitå) of the Truths, thus he is enlightened (buddha).
                      He is the enlightener (bodhetå) of the generation, thus he is
                      enlightened. He is enlightened by omniscience, enlightened by seeing
                      all, enlightened without being led by others... he is quite without
                      defilement, thus he is
                      [Ngawang Tenphel]
                      enlightened; he has travelled by the Path that
                      goes in only one way, thus he is enlightened; he alone discovered the
                      peerless complete enlightenment, thus he is enlightened; ... Buddha:
                      this is not a name made by a mother, made by a father... this (name)
                      “Buddha”, which signifies final liberation, is a realistic
                      description of Enlightened Ones, Blessed Ones, together with their
                      obtainment of omniscient knowledge at the root of an enlightenment
                      (tree).

                      Nina.



                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


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                    • Gabriel Jaeger
                      Thanks Tapkina! In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the etymology and meaning of the word Buddha? Regards, Gabriel From:
                      Message 10 of 29 , Jun 6, 2008
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                        Thanks Tapkina!



                        In case you have this book, could you post any passage related with the
                        etymology and meaning of the word Buddha?

                        Regards,

                        Gabriel





                        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                        Antonella Comba
                        Sent: 04 June 2008 19:23
                        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [Pali] buddha



                        Dear Gabriel,
                        you can find many data about Buddha and its name, its spiritual attainments
                        and qualities in the following book: Toshiichi Endo, Buddha in Theravada
                        Buddhism, Dehiwala, 2nd edition, 2002 (www.buddhistcc.lk, e-mail
                        bcc@... <mailto:bcc%40sri.lanka.net> ). This book investigates
                        particularly commentaries, but also the canonical texts.
                        Best metta,
                        Tapkina


                        ---------------------------------
                        Scopri il Blog di Yahoo! Mail: trucchi, novità, consigli... e la tua
                        opinione!

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Ong Yong Peng
                        Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends, it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of replying to a post on an existing discussion
                        Message 11 of 29 , Jun 8, 2008
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                          Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                          it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                          replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                          As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                          one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                          encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                          The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                          his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                          universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                          metta,
                          Yong Peng.


                          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                          Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                          etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                          Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                          enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                          this way?
                        • Gabriel Jaeger
                          Dear Yong Peng. Thanks for your reply. Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term Buddha. For example, in Sanskrit the root
                          Message 12 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Dear Yong Peng.



                            Thanks for your reply.

                            Anyway I have some doubts about the translation “enlightened” for the term
                            Buddha.

                            For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word “Budh” usually is related with
                            the meaning of “wake up”, “awake”, etc.

                            In Sanskrit we have “ushar-budh”, literally, "awakening in the morning” or
                            more with a recent use “Prabuddha Bharata” as the the name of an
                            Indian magazine, meaning "Awakened India."

                            We see too the Sanskrit root “budh” in modern languages, among them also in
                            Polish, where the root “budh” is present in the word “o-bud-zic-sie” what
                            means exactly “to wake up”, and in the word “przebudzony”, wich means “the
                            awaken one”. Also in Russian we find the word “pro-bud-itsa” meaning “to
                            wake up” (in the morning) wich comes from the Sanskrit root “budh”.



                            Also we can find later commentaries by Indian Buddhist masters as the
                            Vajravidaarana-dhaara.nii where Jnanarajra writes:



                            “Regarding the term “Buddha”, having purified all the hindrances of
                            corruption and the knowable, he has awakened (Buddha) from the sleep of
                            ignorance (avidya), for wich reason he is called “awakened” (Buddha). He is
                            like a person awakened from sleep. Regarding the term “vibuddha”, his
                            knowledge (jnana) has been expanded (vibuddha) to all the knowable, for wich
                            reason he is called “expanded (vibuddha). He is like the expanded (or,
                            full-blown) kumuda flower. He has the perfection of purification and of
                            knowledge.”



                            If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will probably refer you to
                            the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb root.
                            For “buddh”, it gives “avagamana”. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                            “realization”. The word Buddha is a past passive participle made from the
                            verb root buddh, usually yielding English words ending in “-ed”. So it
                            means, if we follow the gloss, avagamana, “realized”. But a gloss is not
                            identical to the word it is glossing. Moreover, there are not on-on-one
                            correspondences between Sanskrit and English and words. The English word
                            “realized”, for example, translates many Sanskrit words besides avagamana
                            and similarly, avagamana can be translated by other English words besides
                            “realization”, such as “understanding”.



                            In the Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan language we have for Buddha:



                            -Khenpo kunphel’s commentary on the Boddhisatvacharyavatara



                            “Buddha (awakened and expanded/unfolded) means that he has “awakened” from
                            the deep sleep of ignorance and that he has completely “unfolded/expanded”
                            the lotus of wisdom toward all fields of knowledge. As it is said:



                            Because he has awakened from the sleep of ignorance,

                            Because he has opened his mind to knowledge,

                            Beucase Buddha is ‘unfolded/expanded’ like a lotus petal,

                            Therefore, is he called the Buddha.



                            - The Treasury which is an Encyclopaedia of Knowledge" by Jamgon Kongtrul



                            Buddha is given the term “Sangye” in Tibetan because a Buddha has become
                            both “Sangpa” (Buddha) woken up and “Gyepa” expanded/unfolded.”



                            The two terms are then commented on by Tibetans as follows: “Sang” means
                            woken up in the sense that the obscurations have been purified completely
                            and “Gye” means expanded in the sense that all good qualities have been
                            developed to their limit.



                            This are the best references that I have but none of them come from the
                            early scriptures as the pali kanon.

                            For that I post the message asking references...



                            As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                            source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                            Paramatthajotikå?





                            With many thanks and best wishes,

                            Gabriel









                            From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                            Yong Peng
                            Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                            To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                            Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                            it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                            replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                            As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                            one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                            encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                            The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                            his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                            universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                            metta,
                            Yong Peng.

                            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                            wrote:

                            Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                            etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                            Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                            enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                            this way?





                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • Gabriel Jaeger
                            ... source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the [Ngawang Tenphel] Paramatthajotikå? What I mean is if is available this passage
                            Message 13 of 29 , Jun 9, 2008
                            • 0 Attachment
                              A correction from the last email:



                              >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an pali
                              source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                              [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?

                              What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                              somewhere?



                              With many thanks and best wishes,

                              Gabriel









                              From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ong
                              Yong Peng
                              Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                              Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                              Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,

                              it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread, instead of
                              replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.

                              As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One". It is
                              one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                              encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.

                              The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                              his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                              universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).

                              metta,
                              Yong Peng.

                              --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , Gabriel Jaeger
                              wrote:

                              Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about the
                              etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?

                              Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                              enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him in
                              this way?





                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Ong Yong Peng
                              Dear Gabriel, thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One. A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                              Message 14 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                                Dear Gabriel,

                                thanks. I have no problem with buddha=awakened or Buddha=the Awakened One.

                                A quick & easy search and compilation of words from the Digha Nikaya
                                (CSCD) reveals:

                                buddho - 69 times
                                buddha.m - 30 times
                                buddhe - 24 times

                                kapilavatthu - 3 times
                                kapilavatthu.m - 2 times
                                kapilavatthusmi.m - 4 times

                                metta,
                                Yong Peng.


                                --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Gabriel Jaeger wrote:

                                Thanks for your reply.

                                Anyway I have some doubts about the translation �enlightened� for the
                                term Buddha.

                                For example, in Sanskrit the root of the word �Budh� usually is
                                related with the meaning of �wake up�, �awake�, etc.
                              • Nina van Gorkom
                                Dear Gabriel, ... What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated somewhere? ... N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator,
                                Message 15 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                                  Dear Gabriel,
                                  Op 9-jun-2008, om 15:49 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                  > As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is an
                                  > pali
                                  > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from the
                                  > Paramatthajotik�?
                                  What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                                  somewhere?
                                  -------
                                  N: I only have the English: Minor readings and Illustrator, P.T.S.
                                  Thus, this is the Khuddakapaa.tha and Commentary.
                                  It is taken from the first sutta: the Three Refuges.
                                  Thank you for your analysis, giving different languages.
                                  You write: <If you ask a Sanskrit pandit what this means, he will
                                  probably refer you to
                                  the Paniniya-dhatu-kosa, which gives a one-word meaning for each verb
                                  root.
                                  For �buddh�, it gives �avagamana�. The basic meaning of avagamana is
                                  �realization�. >
                                  Very interesting. I read in the Commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha : <
                                  And as to this quotation, [the active and middle voice usage] 'he is
                                  the discoverer of the Truths, thus he is enlightened [bujjhitaa
                                  saccanii ti buddho]' is stated in the same way as in the world
                                  [outside the Dispensation] a 'descender into
                                  (understander)' (avagantaa) is called a 'descended one
                                  (understood)' (avagato)....>
                                  Perhaps you can find the complete Pali text on metta net? Under
                                  Khuddakapaa.tha ?

                                  Nina.



                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                • Ong Yong Peng
                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined) supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept) B. Where -ta is not reduplicated but the end
                                  Message 16 of 29 , Jun 10, 2008
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                                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                    yujA (to join) + ta = yutta (endowed with, joined)
                                    supA (to sleep) + ta = sutta (slept)

                                    B. Where "-ta" is not reduplicated but the end of the root is elided:

                                    karA (to do) + ta = kata (done)
                                    marA (to die) + ta = mata (dead)
                                    manA (to think) + ta = mata (thought, idea, known)
                                    hanA (to kill) + ta = hata (killed)
                                    gamU (to go) + ta = gata (gone)
                                    ramU (to sport) + ta = rata (amused, delighted)

                                    C. Sometimes "-ta" undergoes a change together with the last consonant of the root.

                                    1. s + ta becomes -.t.tha

                                    dasA (to bite) + ta = da.t.tha (bitten, stung)
                                    kasA (to plough) + ta = ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                                    hasA (to laugh) + ta = ha.t.tha (delighted)
                                    rusA (to be angry) + ta = ru.t.tha (provoked, angry)
                                    ghusA (to make a noise) + ta = ghu.t.tha (proclaimed)
                                    aa + kusA (to rebuke) + ta = akku.t.tha (rebuked)

                                    2. m + ta becomes -nta

                                    khamU (to forbear) + ta = khanta (forgiven)
                                    samU (to pacify) + ta = santa (calmed)
                                    bhamU (to reel) + ta = bhanta (swerving)
                                    damU (to subdue) + ta = danta (subdued)
                                    pa + kamU (to go) + ta = pakkanta (gone)

                                    3. dh + ta becomes ddha

                                    budhA (to know) + ta = buddha (known, the person who knows)
                                    rudha (to obstruct) + ta = ruddha (obstructed)

                                    4. bh + ta becomes ddha

                                    labhA (to get) + ta = laddha (obtained)
                                    lubhA (to covet) + ta = luddha (covetous, greedy)

                                    5. j + ta becomes gga

                                    bhajA (to break) + ta = bhagga (broken)
                                    sa.m + vijA (to be agitated) + ta = sa.mvigga (agitated)

                                    6. other irregular changes are:

                                    duhA (to milk) + ta = duddha (milked)
                                    ruhA (to ascend) + ta = ruu.lha (ascended)
                                    majjA (to polish) + ta = ma.t.tha (polished)
                                    pacA (to cook) + ta = pakka (cooked)
                                    vasA (to dwell) + ta = vuttha (dwelt)

                                    D. Sometimes -ta changes the root before it, and it stands unchanged.

                                    janA (to produce) + ta = jaata (born)
                                    paa (to drink) + ta = piita (drunk)
                                    .thaa (to stand) + ta = .thita (stood)
                                    maa (to measure) + ta = mita (measured)

                                    E. -ta after some monosyllabic roots neither changes itself nor the root.

                                    bhuu (to be) + ta = bhuuta (been, become)
                                    nii (to lead) + ta = niita (led)
                                    bhii (to be afraid) + ta = bhiita (frightened)
                                    ~naa (to know) + ta = ~naata (known)
                                    yaa (to go) + ta = yaata (gone)
                                    ji (to conquer) + ta = jita (conquered)
                                    ci (to collect) + ta = cita (collected)
                                    nhaa (to bathe) + ta = nhaata (bathed)
                                    (Both naha and nhaa are found in Pali.)

                                    148. Much more common and easier way to join "-ta" to form a participle, is to insert an
                                    "i" between the root and the suffix.

                                    This is mostly done after the roots ending with a.
                                    pacA (to cook) + ta = pacita (cooked)
                                    gahA (to take) + ta = gahita (taken)
                                    khaadA (to eat) + ta = khaadita (eaten)
                                    ma.n.dA (to adorn) + ta = ma.n.dita (adorned)
                                    kathA (to tell) + ta = kathita (told)
                                    likhA (to wirte) + ta = likhita (written)

                                    149. "-na" is suffixed to some roots to form past participles. In many places n of the suffix
                                    is reduplicated and the last consonant of the root is elided. Sometimes i or ii is inserted
                                    between the root and the suffix.

                                    n becomes .n when the last consonant of the root is r.
                                    chidA (to cut) + na = chinna (cut, broken)
                                    chadA (to cover) + na = channa (covered)
                                    bhidA (to break) + na = bhinna (broken)
                                    ni + sadA (to sit) + i + na = nisinna (sat)
                                    tarA (to cross) + i + na = ti.n.na (gone ashore)
                                    puurA (to fill) + na = pu.n.na (full)
                                    jarA (to decay) + i + na = ji.n.na (decayed)
                                    daa (to give) + i + na = dinna (given)
                                    khii (to exhaust) + na = khii.na (exhausted)
                                    dii (to be miserable) + na = diina (miserable, mean)
                                    luu (to cut) + na = luuna (cut, mowed)
                                    pa + haa (to eliminate) + ii + na = pahiina (eliminated)
                                    aasA (to sit) + ii + na = aasiina (sat)
                                  • tapkina
                                    Dear Gabriel, In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote (Nyaan.amoli s translation): He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge
                                    Message 17 of 29 , Jun 13, 2008
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                                      Dear Gabriel,
                                      In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                                      (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                                      "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                                      to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                                      been discovered (buddha) by him.
                                      Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                                      and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                                      reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                                      meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                                      discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                                      (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                                      is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                                      the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                                      And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                                      "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                                      ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                                      life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                                      all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                                      because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                                      shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                                      given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                                      uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                                      agga, etc.
                                      Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                                      regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                                      development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                                      who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                                      for our present study:
                                      1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                                      irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                                      Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                                      2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                                      (in the eyes of Jains).
                                      3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                                      no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                                      Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                                      Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                                      4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                                      general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                                      5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                                      specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                                      person.
                                      6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                                      equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                                      of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                                      parts".

                                      May all beings be enlightened.
                                      Tapkina


                                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                                      >
                                      > A correction from the last email:
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                                      an pali
                                      > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                                      the
                                      > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                                      >
                                      > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                                      > somewhere?
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > With many thanks and best wishes,
                                      >
                                      > Gabriel
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                                      Of Ong
                                      > Yong Peng
                                      > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                                      > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                      > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                                      >
                                      > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                                      instead of
                                      > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                                      >
                                      > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                                      It is
                                      > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                                      > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                                      >
                                      > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                                      > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                                      > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                                      >
                                      > metta,
                                      > Yong Peng.
                                      >
                                      > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                                      Gabriel Jaeger
                                      > wrote:
                                      >
                                      > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                                      the
                                      > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                                      >
                                      > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                                      > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                                      in
                                      > this way?
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      >
                                    • Ong Yong Peng
                                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 150. Many of these past participles have two different forms. root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked) root harA: harita, hata (carried) root
                                      Message 18 of 29 , Jun 14, 2008
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                                        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                        150. Many of these past participles have two different forms.

                                        root pacA: pacita, pakka (cooked)
                                        root harA: harita, hata (carried)
                                        root vasA: vasita, vuttha (lived, dwelt)
                                        root ~naa: jaanita, ~naata (known)
                                        root lagA (to adhere): lagita, lagga (adhered)
                                        root kasA: kasita, ka.t.tha (ploughed)
                                        root tapA: taapita, tatta (heated)
                                        root pusA (to nurse): posita, pu.t.tha (brought up)
                                        root chidA: chindita, chinna (cut)
                                        root dusA (to corrupt): duusita, du.t.tha (corrupted)
                                        root pucchA (to question): pucchita, pu.t.tha (asked, questioned)
                                        root rusA: rosita, ru.t.tha (enraged)
                                        root gupA (to protect): gopita, gutta (protected)

                                        Exercise 24

                                        Translate into English and point out the derivatives

                                        1. "Sumedhataapaso iddhimaa ti jaanantaa udakabhinnokaasa.m sallakkhetvaa: 'tva.m
                                        ima.m .thaana.m ala`nkarohii'ti vatvaa ada.msu.'" [J.Nidaana]

                                        2. "Eva.m nisinne Bodhisatte sakala-dasasahassa-cakkavaa.le devataa sannipatitvaa...
                                        Bodhisatta.m naanappakaaraahi thutiihi abhitthuni.msu." [Ibid.]

                                        3. "Yathaa pana a~n~ne sattaa maatukucchito nikkhamantaa pa.tikkuulena asucinaa
                                        makkhitaa nikkhamanti, na eva.m Bodhisatto." [Ibid.]

                                        4. "Aparam pana ekadivasa.m uyyaana.m gacchanto tath'eva devataahi nimmita.m
                                        sunivattha.m supaaruta.m pabbajita.m disvaa: 'Ko naam eso, sammaa?' ti saarathi.m
                                        pucchi." [Ibid.]

                                        5. "Aya.m Buddattaaya abhiniihaara.m katvaa nipanno; samijjhissati imassa patthanaa ito
                                        kappa-satasahassaadhi-kaana.m catunna.m asankheyyaana.m matthake." [Ibid.]

                                        6. "Kim me ekena ti.n.nena
                                        Purisena thaamadassinaa?" [Buddhava.msa]

                                        7. "Dassana.m me atikkante
                                        Sa-sa`nghe Lokanaayake
                                        Ha.t.tho ha.t.thena cittena
                                        Aasanaa vu.t.thahi.m tadaa." [Ibid.]

                                        8. "Ubbiggaa tasitaa bhiitaa
                                        Bhantaa vyathita-maanasaa
                                        Mahaajanaa samaagamma
                                        Diipa`nkaram upaagamu.m." [Ibid.]

                                        9. "Tattha deva-manussaa gandha-maalaadiihi puujayamaanaa: 'Mahaapurisa, idha
                                        tumhehi sadiso a~n~no natthi; kut'ettha uttaritaro?'ti aaha.msu." [J.Nidaanakathaa]

                                        10. "Aadittasmi.m agaarasmi.m
                                        Ya.m niiharati bhaajana.m,
                                        Ta.m tassa hoti atthaaya;
                                        No ca ya.m tattha .dayhati." [S.i.31]

                                        New Words.

                                        atthaaya (dat.sing.) for the welfare.
                                        abhitthuni (v) praised.
                                        abhiniihaara (m) aspiration.
                                        asuci (m) dung, dirt. (adj) impure.
                                        aaditta (pp) ablaze.
                                        uttaritara (adj) higher, nobler.
                                        upaagami (v) came, approached.
                                        ubbigga (pp) agitated.
                                        okaasa (m) room, place.
                                        .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                                        thaamadassii (m) one who knows his strength.
                                        thuti (f) praise.
                                        dassana (n) sight.
                                        nipanna (pp) laid [himself] down.
                                        nimmita (pp) created.
                                        pa.tikkuula (adj) disgusting.
                                        matthake (loc) at the end.
                                        lokanaayaka (m) universal lord, i.e. the Buddha.
                                        vyathita (pp) wavering.
                                        sadisa (adj) equal.
                                        samaagamma (abs) having gathered together.
                                        sa-sa`ngha (adj) together with the community.
                                        samijjhati (v) becomes successful.
                                        sallakkhetvaa (abs) having considered.
                                        sunivattha (pp) well dressed.
                                        supaaruta (pp) well robed.

                                        Translate into Pali using participles

                                        1. There were broken houses, fallen trees, dead bodies, and wounded persons in the
                                        villages that were near the battlefield.

                                        2. The Blessed One, who came out of the monastery, entered the city through the
                                        decorated path, respected, honoured and praised by the people.

                                        3. The young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, an aged man as bent as a roof gable,
                                        leaning on a staff, and tottering.

                                        4. The mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, and not seeing him, went to her
                                        husband and said: "Your son Yasa, householder, has disappeared."
                                      • Gabriel Jaeger
                                        Thanks Tapkina! I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found this site:
                                        Message 19 of 29 , Jun 16, 2008
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                                          Thanks Tapkina!



                                          I was searching in the google for the words “Buddha-avagamana” and found
                                          this site:

                                          http://www.dhammavihara.org/cmbt/fdd/etimologiadebuddha.htm



                                          It is in Spanish but it mentions the etymology of the word Buddha from pali
                                          sources that were cited in the edition of the sixth Buddhist Council.

                                          For the rereferences:

                                          Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                          Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                          Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                          Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                          It mentions 3 different meanings for the Word Buddha:



                                          1) Avagamana – to know

                                          2) Niddakkhaya – awake or the destruction of the sleep

                                          3) Vikasana – blossom or open



                                          Does any one know about this etymology and edition made in the sixth
                                          Buddhist Council?



                                          With metta,

                                          Gabriel





                                          From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                          tapkina
                                          Sent: 14 June 2008 03:36
                                          To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                          Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                          Dear Gabriel,
                                          In Visuddhimagga, VII, 52 (p. 209 PTS) Buddhaghosa wrote
                                          (Nyaan.amoli's translation):
                                          "He (Buddha) is enlightened (buddha) with the knowledge that belongs
                                          to the fruit of liberation, since everything that can be known has
                                          been discovered (buddha) by him.
                                          Or alternatively, he discovered (bujjhi) the four truths by himself
                                          and awakened (bodhesi) others to them, thus and for other such
                                          reasons he is enlightened (buddha). And in order to explain this
                                          meaning the whole passage in the Niddesa beginning thus 'He is the
                                          discoverer (bujjhitar) of the truths, thus he is enlightened
                                          (buddha). He is the awakener (bodhetar) of the generation, thus he
                                          is enlightened (buddha)' (Niddesa, I, 457), or the same passage from
                                          the Patisambhidaa (I, 174), should be quoted in detail".
                                          And now to Dr. Endo's book, pp. 6-7:
                                          "Early Buddhist sources persistently depict Gotama Buddha as an
                                          ideal human being. He was a lover of silence (muni) and led a simple
                                          life uncharacteristic of any supernormal being. He was respected by
                                          all who followed him not only because he was the teacher, but also
                                          because he was a human being par excellence. This sentiment is
                                          shared by many as can be gathered from such epithets and attributes
                                          given only to the Buddha as purisuttama, isisattama, sabbasattaanam
                                          uttama, appat.ipuggala, devamanussa set.t.ha, sadevakassa lokassa
                                          agga, etc.
                                          Such was the early concept of a sage and the Buddha was also
                                          regarded as one of them. This is well brought out in a study of the
                                          development of the notion of 'buddha' (as a term) by Prof. Nakamura
                                          who classifies it into six phases, which can be used as a yardstick
                                          for our present study:
                                          1) In early Jainism as reflected in the Isibhaasiyaaim., all sages
                                          irrespective of their faiths were called 'buddhas'. Uddaalaka,
                                          Yaajnavalkya, Mahaavira, Saariputta, etc., are all Buddhas.
                                          2) Emphasis is laid on the fact that Saariputta was the only buddha
                                          (in the eyes of Jains).
                                          3) In the old gaathaas of the Paaraayan.avagga of the Suttanipaata,
                                          no mention of the word 'buddha' is found. That is to say, the
                                          Buddha's disciples at this time did not specially think of
                                          Saakyamuni as a buddha. Neither they aspire to be called buddhas.
                                          4)The next phase was the time when those who should be respected in
                                          general were called buddhas, isi (sages) or braahman.as.
                                          5) As time went on, however, 'buddha' came to be thought as a
                                          specially eminent person and was used as an epithet for such a
                                          person.
                                          6) Finally, 'buddha' was used for no one but Saakyamuni (or anyone
                                          equal to him). This tendency persists prominently in the new strata
                                          of gaathaas of the Suttanipaata and is more decisive in its prose
                                          parts".

                                          May all beings be enlightened.
                                          Tapkina

                                          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> , "Gabriel
                                          Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...> wrote:
                                          >
                                          > A correction from the last email:
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > >>As for the kind answer of Nina, I would like to ask if there is
                                          an pali
                                          > source for the passage posted regarding the meaning of Buddha from
                                          the
                                          > [Ngawang Tenphel] >>Paramatthajotikå?
                                          >
                                          > What I mean is if is available this passage in pali transliterated
                                          > somewhere?
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > With many thanks and best wishes,
                                          >
                                          > Gabriel
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > From: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ] On Behalf
                                          Of Ong
                                          > Yong Peng
                                          > Sent: 09 June 2008 06:55
                                          > To: Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          > Subject: [Pali] Re: buddha
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > Dear Gabriel, Nina, Tapkina and friends,
                                          >
                                          > it would be good if a new topic is started on a new thread,
                                          instead of
                                          > replying to a post on an existing discussion thread.
                                          >
                                          > As for Gabriel's question, "Buddha" means the "Enlightened One".
                                          It is
                                          > one of ten epithets for the Buddha. Other common ones we usually
                                          > encounter in the suttas are Bhagavant and Tathagata.
                                          >
                                          > The word buddha is an adjective meaning enlightened. Not long after
                                          > his birth, prince Siddhattha was predicted to grow up to be the
                                          > universal monarch or the enlightened one (buddha).
                                          >
                                          > metta,
                                          > Yong Peng.
                                          >
                                          > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> ,
                                          Gabriel Jaeger
                                          > wrote:
                                          >
                                          > Could anyone help me in finding passages in the p�li kanon about
                                          the
                                          > etymology and meaning of the term �Buddha�?
                                          >
                                          > Is there any mention why and how the prince Siddharta after his
                                          > enlightment was called Buddha, and what it was mean by calling him
                                          in
                                          > this way?
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          >





                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        • Jim Anderson
                                          Dear Gabriel, ... Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd
                                          Message 20 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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                                            Dear Gabriel,

                                            > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                            Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                            the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                            is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                            the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                            ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                            Best wishes,
                                            Jim
                                          • Gabriel Jaeger
                                            Thanks Jim. But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”? As I posted before the article that
                                            Message 21 of 29 , Jun 19, 2008
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                                              Thanks Jim.



                                              But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                              As I posted before the article that I found mention three meanings for “Buddha”:

                                              1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                              2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                              3-open or blossom (vikasana)



                                              It says that this three meanings have as source the texts edited in the sixth Buddhist Council
                                              Visuddhimagga, i 203.
                                              Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.
                                              Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà, pág. 228, 230.
                                              Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.



                                              I find a passage in the “Visuddhimagga” that seems to be related with the meaning of the option “3”:



                                              [[[[SL Page 231] [\x 231/]
                                              Bujjhitvā vikasamānamiva padumaṃ sukaṃ nibbikāraṃ paṭibujjhati [PTS Page 312] [\q 312/] ]]]] (Visuddhimagga- "The Path of Purification")



                                              For my poor pali knowledge I was not able to grasp the full meaning of this passage e so I am not sure about its relation with the third meaning…could anyone helps with that?



                                              I did not find the text “Sìlakkhandhavagga Åìka pág. 10.” To check if it contains any passages relating with the three meanings given too… Does anyone know about it?

                                              Regarding the Saddanìti, Dhàtumàlà and the Saddanìti, Suttamàlà as I do not have Access to this books at hand I could not check. Does anyone have them and would be able to check what it says about the words “buddha”, “avagamana”, “niddhakkhaya” and “vikasana”?



                                              Wonderful the opportunity to learn about the full meaning of the Word buddha!

                                              Thanks to all!



                                              All the best,

                                              Gabriel









                                              From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                              Sent: 19 June 2008 20:08
                                              To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                              Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                              Dear Gabriel,

                                              > Saddanìti, Suttamàlà, §1144.

                                              Sd 1144 prescribes the primary suffix /ta/ after the verbal root /budh/ in
                                              the formation of the agent-noun /buddha/. Then, according to Sd 1179, /dha/
                                              is substituted for /ta/ and, according to Sd 1216, /d/ is substituted for
                                              the /dh/ of the root /budh/ and this gives us the formation /buddha/ (budh +
                                              ta > budh + dha > bud + dha > buddha).

                                              Best wishes,
                                              Jim





                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            • Ong Yong Peng
                                              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                              Message 22 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                                5. Then the householder thinking that sitting there he would see his
                                                son, sitting at the same place, became glad, and having saluted the
                                                Blessed One, sat down near Him.

                                                6. "Then, as he went along, he saw the peasants ploughing, the fields
                                                in soiled garments, covered with dust blown by hot winds." [Ps.B.47]

                                                7. "All the while she was talking, the Brahmans were beholding the
                                                splendour of her teeth... and having applauded her speech, they took
                                                the gold wreath, and placed it on her head." [B.T.457]

                                                8. "The day before she was to depart, the treasurer sat in his room
                                                and had his daughter sit by him, and he admonished her, telling the
                                                rules of conduct she should adopt when she came to dwell in her
                                                husband's family." [Ibid. 462]

                                                9. "Migaara the treasurer rode in a conveyance behind the others, and
                                                beholding a great crowd of people following, he asked, 'Pray, who are
                                                these?'" [Ibid. 463]

                                                10. "So she entered the city standing in her chariot, and showing
                                                herself to the whole town." [Ibid. 461]

                                                New Words.

                                                aged = mahallaka, vuddha (adj).
                                                anointed = abbha~njita (pp).
                                                announces = aaroceti (v).
                                                applauds = abhitthavati (v).
                                                as he went along = use the locative of "gacchanta".
                                                battlefield = yuddhabhuumi (f).
                                                bearing = dhaarenta (pr.p).
                                                behind = pacchato (indec).
                                                beholding = passanta (pr.p).
                                                blown [by wind] = vaayita.
                                                conveyance = yaana (n).
                                                disappeared = antarahita (pp).
                                                driving = paajenta (pr.p).
                                                fallen = patita (pp).
                                                great crowd = mahaasamuuha (m).
                                                honoured = maanita (pp).
                                                leaning on a staff = da.n.da-paraaya.na (adj).
                                                moves off = apagacchati (v).
                                                peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
                                                praised = abhitthuta, pasa.msita (pp).
                                                pray [use an addressing word like bho here].
                                                respected = garukata (pp).
                                                roof-gable = gopaanasii (f).
                                                rules of conduct = sikkhaa (f). samaacaara (m).
                                                should be adopted = vattetabba (pot.p).
                                                soiled = malina, pa.msumakkhita (pp).
                                                splendour of teeth = danta-kalyaa.na (n).
                                                talking = kathenta (pr.p).
                                                telling = vadanta (pr.p).
                                                tottering = pavedhamaana (pr.p).
                                                would be fitting = yutta (pp).
                                                wounded = paharita, va.nita, khata (pp).

                                                (3) Primary Derivatives that are not Participles

                                                (These are active and do not denote any particular tense.)

                                                151. ".Na" may be suffixed to transitive roots when there is an object
                                                before them.

                                                kumbha.m + karA + .na = kumbhakaara (potter)
                                                ratha.m + karA + .na = rathakaara (chariot maker, carpenter)
                                                gantha.m + karA + .na = ganthakaara (author of a book)
                                              • Jim Anderson
                                                Gabriel, ... The root is budh , not buddh . ... 1-to know, understand (avagamana) 2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,) 3-open or blossom
                                                Message 23 of 29 , Jun 20, 2008
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                                                  Gabriel,

                                                  > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                                  > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                                  The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                                  > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                                  > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                                  1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                                  2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                                  3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                                  ==============
                                                  Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                                  It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                                  517 budha bodhane
                                                  1132 budha avagamane
                                                  1133 budha bodhane
                                                  1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                                  We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                                  the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                                  entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                                  (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                                  budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                                  under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                                  "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                                  part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                                  to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                                  the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                                  further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                                  work with.

                                                  Best wishes,
                                                  Jim
                                                • Gabriel Jaeger
                                                  Dear Jim, Thanks very much! How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found? With metta, Gabriel From: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                                  Message 24 of 29 , Jun 21, 2008
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                                                    Dear Jim,



                                                    Thanks very much!

                                                    How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                                    With metta,

                                                    Gabriel



                                                    From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                                    Sent: 20 June 2008 21:07
                                                    To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                                    Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                                    Gabriel,

                                                    > But besides the grammar does the Saddaniti, Suttamala say
                                                    > something about the meaning of the root “Buddh”?

                                                    The root is "budh", not "buddh".

                                                    > As I posted before the article that I found mention three
                                                    > meanings for “Buddha”:

                                                    1-to know, understand (avagamana)

                                                    2-Awake or destruction of the sleep state (niddakkhaya,)

                                                    3-open or blossom (vikasana)

                                                    ==============
                                                    Jim: I have checked the Dhaatumaalaa of the Saddaniiti (Smtih's ed.).

                                                    It has the following four entries for the root "budh":

                                                    517 budha bodhane
                                                    1132 budha avagamane
                                                    1133 budha bodhane
                                                    1206 budhi hi.msaaya.m (to injure, harm)

                                                    We can disregard the last one as it is the root for the verb "bundheti" and
                                                    the noun "palibodho" and has nothing to do with the noun "buddha". In the
                                                    entry for 1132, the Saddaniiti glosses "avagamana.m" with "jaanana.m"
                                                    (knowing) and in 1133, "bodhane" is explained as including the following:
                                                    budha ~naa.ne, budha vikasane, budha niddakkhaye. So your no. 2 and 3 belong
                                                    under "budha bodhane". For studying the traditional explanation of the word
                                                    "buddha", the Khuddakapaa.tha commentarial passage fhat Nina quoted from, in
                                                    part, is a good place to start. But I do find it and the Pali text difficult
                                                    to follow and grasp. Reading the translation probably won't be enough for
                                                    the serious student. One has to delve into it deep and devote many hours of
                                                    further study for a better understanding. And have the resources at hand to
                                                    work with.

                                                    Best wishes,
                                                    Jim





                                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                  • Jim Anderson
                                                    Dear Gabriel, The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha. I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist.
                                                    Message 25 of 29 , Jun 22, 2008
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                                                      Dear Gabriel,

                                                      The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                                      I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                                      me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                                      could also try tipitaka.org.

                                                      Best wishes,
                                                      Jim

                                                      ----- Original Message -----
                                                      From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@...>
                                                      To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
                                                      Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                                      Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha


                                                      Dear Jim,



                                                      Thanks very much!

                                                      How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?



                                                      With metta,

                                                      Gabriel
                                                    • Gabriel Jaeger
                                                      Dear Jim, Thanks very much for your attention. Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind. Thanks again, With metta,
                                                      Message 26 of 29 , Jun 24, 2008
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                                                        Dear Jim,



                                                        Thanks very much for your attention.

                                                        Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding, would be very kind.



                                                        Thanks again,

                                                        With metta,

                                                        Gabriel



                                                        From: Pali@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Pali@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jim Anderson
                                                        Sent: 22 June 2008 21:02
                                                        To: Pali@yahoogroups.com
                                                        Subject: Re: [Pali] Re: buddha



                                                        Dear Gabriel,

                                                        The passage (a couole of pages) is in the commentary to the Khuddakapaa.tha.
                                                        I could extract it from CST4 and send it to you by email offlist. Just let
                                                        me know whether you would like it in the unicode or velthuis encoding. You
                                                        could also try tipitaka.org.

                                                        Best wishes,
                                                        Jim

                                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                                        From: "Gabriel Jaeger" <lotsawanet@... <mailto:lotsawanet%40gmail.com> >
                                                        To: <Pali@yahoogroups.com <mailto:Pali%40yahoogroups.com> >
                                                        Sent: Saturday, June 21, 2008 9:59 AM
                                                        Subject: RE: [Pali] Re: buddha

                                                        Dear Jim,

                                                        Thanks very much!

                                                        How could I get access to the Khuddakapaa.tha in páli that you found?

                                                        With metta,

                                                        Gabriel





                                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                      • Ong Yong Peng
                                                        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl) sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort) tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya
                                                        Message 27 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                                          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                                          patta.m + gahA + .na = pattagaaha (bearer of a bowl)
                                                          sukha.m + kamU + .na = sukhakaama (seeking comfort)
                                                          tanta.m + ve + .na = tantavaaya (weaver)
                                                          kamma.m + karA + .na = kammakaara (worker, labourer)

                                                          A. y is inserted between .na and the roots ending with a long aa.

                                                          daana.m + daa + .na = daanadaaya (alms-giver)
                                                          dha~n~na.m + maa + .na = dha~n~namaaya (measurer of corn)

                                                          B. Some gerundial nouns too are formed with this suffix.

                                                          pacA + .na = paaka (cooking)
                                                          gahA + .na = gaaha (taking)
                                                          cajA + .na = caaga (leaving, forsaking)
                                                          harA + .na = haara (carrying)

                                                          152. -a, -aka, -ana, -aavii and -tu are suffixed to the roots when
                                                          there is an object before them.

                                                          (1) suffix -a

                                                          dhamma.m + dharA + a = dhammadhara (learned in the Norm)
                                                          hita.m + karA + a = hitakara (benefactor, advantageous)
                                                          dina.m + karA + a = dinakara (sun, maker of the day)
                                                          dhanu.m + gahA + a = dhanuggaha (archer)
                                                          sabba.m + daa + a = sabbada (donor of everything)
                                                          majja.m + paa + a = majjapa (drunkard)

                                                          When there are nouns in cases other than that of the object before the
                                                          roots:-
                                                          vane + carA + a = vanacara (a forester, wanderer in forests)
                                                          thale + .thaa + a = thala.t.tha (situated or living on the land)
                                                          jale + .thaa + a = jala.t.tha (situated in or on the water)
                                                          sirasmi.m + ruhA + a = siroruha (hair. lit. grown on the head)

                                                          (2) -aka (sometimes requires strengthening)

                                                          daa (to give) + aka = daayaka (giver), y is inserted
                                                          nii (to lead) + aka = neaka = naayaka (leader), e becomes ay
                                                          karA + aka = kaaraka (doer)
                                                          su + aka = soaka = saavaka (hearer, disciple), o becomes av
                                                          pu (to clean) + aka = paavaka (fire)
                                                          gahA + aka = gaahaka (taker, bearer)
                                                          yaacA + aka = yaacaka (beggar)
                                                          paalA + aka = paalaka (protector)

                                                          (3) some gerunds are formed with -ana

                                                          gahA + ana = gahana (taking, holding)
                                                          nandA (to be glad) + ana = nandana (rejoicing)
                                                          bhujA (to eat) + ana = bhojana (food, feeding)
                                                          su + ana = sava.na (hearing)
                                                          pacA + ana = pacana (cooking)
                                                          bhuu + ana = bhavana (becoming)

                                                          (4) -aavii

                                                          bhaya.m + disA (to see) + aavii = bhayadassaavii (one who sees
                                                          danger), disa becomes dassa

                                                          (5) -tu

                                                          A. Last consonant of the root before this is sometimes assimilated to t.
                                                          karA + tu = kattu (doer, maker, author)
                                                        • Nina van Gorkom
                                                          Dear Gabriel and friends, I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis. I like to share it.
                                                          Message 28 of 29 , Jun 25, 2008
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                                                            Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                            I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                            gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                            I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                            left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                            http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm

                                                            Nina.

                                                            Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:

                                                            > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                            > would be very kind.





                                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                          • Piya Tan
                                                            Thanks Nina, very useful device. With metta, Piya Tan ... -- The Minding Centre Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr) Singapore 650644 Tel: 8211 0879
                                                            Message 29 of 29 , Jun 26, 2008
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                                                              Thanks Nina, very useful device.

                                                              With metta,

                                                              Piya Tan


                                                              On Thu, Jun 26, 2008 at 3:14 AM, Nina van Gorkom <vangorko@...> wrote:

                                                              > Dear Gabriel and friends,
                                                              > I installed VRI for the Pali diacritical signs. A friend very kindly
                                                              > gave me a pad to convert text into Velthuis.
                                                              > I like to share it. You put the Pali with diacritical signs to the
                                                              > left side and to the right will come the Velthuis.
                                                              > http://www.library.websangha.org/earlybuddhism/convertpad.htm
                                                              >
                                                              > Nina.
                                                              >
                                                              > Op 24-jun-2008, om 17:26 heeft Gabriel Jaeger het volgende geschreven:
                                                              >
                                                              > > Please, if you could send in both Unicode and velthuis encoding,
                                                              > > would be very kind.
                                                              >
                                                              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                                              >
                                                              >
                                                              >



                                                              --
                                                              The Minding Centre
                                                              Blk 644 Bukit Batok Central #01-68 (2nd flr)
                                                              Singapore 650644
                                                              Tel: 8211 0879
                                                              Meditation courses & therapy: http://themindingcentre.googlepages.com
                                                              Website: dharmafarer.googlepages.com


                                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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