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The New Pali Course Part II [6-4/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta even = api (indec). female musician = naa.tikaa (f). forenoon = pubba.nha (m). from afar = duurato (indec).
    Message 1 of 8 , Apr 10, 2008
      The New Pali Course Part II

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      even = api (indec).
      female musician = naa.tikaa (f).
      forenoon = pubba.nha (m).
      from afar = duurato (indec).
      imitation = anukara.na (n).
      leading a holy life = brahmacariya.m caranta (phrase).
      love = mettaa (f). pasaada (m).
      miserly = luddha (adj).
      of peerless beauty = anopamava.n.na (adj).
      promised = pa.tijaani (v).
      robing [himself] = nivaasetvaa (abs).
      servitor = upa.t.thaaka (m).
      shining = tapamaana (pr.p).
      struck = pahari (v).
      to join = saha bhavitu.m, samaagamitu.m (inf).
      towards the Exalted One = use the loc. of Bhagavantu.
      towards [him] = [tassa] santika.m (adv).
      was born = nibbatti (v).
      was staying = vihari (v).

      (i) Saama~n~na - (3) Atthyattha

      119. Suffixes -ava, -ala, -ila, -ika, -ii, -vii and -ssii are annexed
      to different nouns to denote possession or the meaning "endowed with".

      -ava:
      kesa + ava = kesava (having much hair)

      -ala:
      vaacaa + ala = vaacaala (having many words, i.e. talkative, garrulous)

      -ila:
      ja.taa + ila = ja.tila (having matted hair, an ascetic)
      phe.na + ila = phe.nila (frothy, the soap plant)
      tu.n.da + ila = tu.n.dila (having a beak, a pecker)

      -ika:
      da.n.da + ika = da.n.dika (having a staff in hand)
      maalaa + ika = maalika (having a garland)
      chatta + ika = chattika (possessing an umbrella)
      ga.na + ika = ga.nika (having a large following)

      -ii:
      maalaa + ii = maalii (having a garland)
      vamma + ii = vammii (having an armour, a warrior)
      bhoga + ii = bhogii (wealthy, a rich person, a serpent)
      ku.t.tha + ii = ku.t.thii (leper)
      manta + ii = mantii (endowed with a political knowledge, a minister)
      danta + ii = dantii (having tusks, an elephant)

      -vii:
      medhaa + vii = medhaavii (endowed with knowledge, wise)
      maayaa + vii = maayaavii (having a knowledge of jugglery, juggler)

      -ssii:
      tapa + ssii = tapassii (a hermit)
      yasa + ssii = yasassii (famous)
      teja + ssii = tejassii (brilliant, powerful)

      Note. The feminine forms of the nouns annexed with -ii, -vii and -ssii
      are formed by adding another suffix, -inii to them.

      maalii + inii = maalinii (a woman who has a garland)
      mantii + inii = mantinii (a ministress)
      medhaavii + inii = medhaavinii (a wise woman)
      tapassii + inii = tapassinii (a nun)

      120. To denote possession, "-vantu" and "-mantu" are suffixed to
      different nouns (-vantu is suffixed to the nouns ending in a, and the
      other to those ending in i and u).

      gu.na + vantu = gu.navantu (virtuous)
      dhana + vantu = dhanavantu (rich)
      buddhi + mantu = buddhimantu (wise)
      bhaanu + mantu = bhaanumantu (luminous, the sun)
      aayu + mantu becomes aayasmantu through aayusmantu, but not aayumantu.

      More words of this kind and their declension are given under §28 of
      the First Book.

      The feminine of these is formed by adding an ii at the end of the
      suffix and dropping u before it.

      gu.navantu + ii = gu.navantii (a virtuous woman)
      satimantu + ii = satimantii (a mindful woman)

      Sometimes they drop not only u but also n of the suffix.

      dhana + vantu + ii = dhanavatii (a rich woman)
      buddhi + mantu + ii = buddhimatii (a wise woman)

      121. An additional -ii is annexed to form the feminine of the
      derivatives formed with the suffixes .nava, .nika, .neyya, .na, -vantu
      and -mantu.

      .nava: maa.nava + ii = maa.navii (a lass)
      .nika: naavika + ii = naavikii (woman sailor)
      .neyya: bhaagineyya + ii = bhaagineyyii (sister's daughter)
      .na: gotama + ii = gotamii (a woman of the Gotama clan)

      122. "-a" is suffixed to some nouns to denote possession.

      saddhaa (faith) + a = saddha (faithful)
    • Ong Yong Peng
      The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta pa~n~naa (wisdom) + a = pa~n~na (wise) paapa (sin) + a = paapa (sinful) 123. -tara is suffixed to form the
      Message 2 of 8 , Apr 17, 2008
        The New Pali Course Part II

        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        pa~n~naa (wisdom) + a = pa~n~na (wise)
        paapa (sin) + a = paapa (sinful)

        123. "-tara" is suffixed to form the adjectives of the comparative
        degree, and "-tama" to form those of the superlative.

        positive: paapa (sinful)
        comparative: paapatara (more or very sinful)
        superlative: paapatama (most sinful)

        positive: sundara (good)
        comparative: sundaratara (better)
        superlative: sundaratama (best)

        Exercise 21

        Translate into English and define the derivatives

        1. Ucchinda sineham attano
        Kumuda.m saaradika.m va paa.ninaa." [Dhp.285]

        2. "N'eva kho asakkhi Vaase.t.tho maa.navo Bhaaradvaaja.m maa.nava.m
        sa~n~naapetu.m; na pana asakkhi Bhaaradvaajo maa.navo pi Vaase.t.tha.m
        maa.nava.m sa~n~naapetu.m." [D.i.236]

        3. "Kusaavatiyaa, Aananda, raajadhaaniyaa... eka.m dvaara.m
        sova.n.namaya.m, eka.m ruupiyamaya.m, eka.m ve.luriyamaya.m, eka.m
        phalikamaya.m." [D.ii.170]

        4. "Mayha.m bhaagineyyo imassa rajjassa saamiko'va; dhiitara.m
        etass'eva detvaa abhisekam assa karissaamii ti." [J.Asilakkha.na]

        5. "Atiite Baaraa.nasiya.m Brahmadatte rajja.m kaarente bodhisatto
        bhaatikasatassa ka.ni.t.tho ahosi.' [J.Pa~ncagaru]

        6. "Baaraa.nasiya.m Yaso naama kulaputto se.t.thiputto sukhumaalo
        hoti; tassa tayo paasaadaa honti; eko hemantiko, eko gimhiko, eko
        vassiko." [V.i.15]

        7. "Ida.m kho, mahaaraaja, sandi.t.thika.m saama~n~naphala.m purimehi
        sandi.t.thikehi saama~n~naphalehi abhikkantatara~n ca pa.niitatara~n
        ca." [D.i.85]

        8. "Ra~n~no Mahaa-Sudassanassa... uparipaasaada-vara-gatassa dibba.m
        cakkaratana.m paaturahosi, sahassaara.m, sanemika.m, sanaabhika.m,
        sabbaakaara-paripuura.m."

        9. "Tassaa ca saaminii tattha
        Kuve.nii naama yakkhinii
        Nisiidi rukkhamuulamhi
        Kantantii taapasii viya." [Mahaava.msa]

        10. "Mahaa-Kassapathero ca,
        Anuruddho mahaaga.nii,
        Upaalitthero satimaa,
        Aanando ca bahussuto,
        A~n~ne bahuu abhi~n~naataa
        Saavakaa Satthu-va.n.nitaa
        Sabbe pa~ncasataa theraa
        Nava`nga.m Jinasaasana.m
        Uggahetvaana dhaaresu.m
        Buddhase.t.thassa santike." [Mahaava.msa]

        New Words.

        abhi~n~naata (pp) well-known.
        abhikkantatara (adj) more brilliant.
        ucchindati (v) breaks up, destroys.
        ka.ni.t.tha (adj) youngest.
        kantantii (f/pr.p) spinning.
        kulaputta (m) son of a respectable family.
        gimhika (adj) suited for the summer.
        cakkaratana (n) the wheel-gem [of a universal monarch].
        taapasii (f) female hermit.
        dibba (adj) celestial.
        nava`nga (adj) that which has nine divisions.
        pa.niitatara (adj) sweeter, higher.
        paaturahosi (v) manifested.
        purima (adj) former, first.
        phalika (m) crystal.
        bahussuta (adj) much learned.
        bhaatika (m) brother.
        mahaaga.nii (m/n) having a great following.
        raajadhaanii (f) royal city.
        va.n.nita (adj) praised.
        vassika (adj) suited for the rainy season.
        ve.luriya (n) turquoise.
        sa~n~naapetu.m (inf) to convince.
        sandi.t.thika (adj) seen in this life.
        sanaabhika (adj) having a nave or hub.
        sanemika (adj) having a tyre.
        sabbaakaara-paripuura (adj) complete in every way.
        sahassaara (adj) having one thousand spokes.
        saamika (m) owner, master.
        saaminii (f) mistress.
        saaradika (adj) autumnal.
        saama~n~naphala (n) fruit of the life of a recluse.
        sineha (m) love.
        sukhumaala (adj) delicate.
        hemantika (adj) suited for the winter.

        Translate into Pali, using derivatives where it is possible

        1. There were in the city of Kusaavatii seven ramparts and seven gates
        all made of seven kinds of precious things.
      • Ong Yong Peng
        The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 2. There were eighty-four thousand ponds in the neighbourhood of the palace of King Mahaa-Sudassana; he also
        Message 3 of 8 , Apr 22, 2008
          The New Pali Course Part II

          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          2. There were eighty-four thousand ponds in the neighbourhood of the
          palace of King Mahaa-Sudassana; he also possessed 48,000 horses, and
          the same amount of elephants and chariots.

          3. "Now his mother at Raajagaha, seeing other councillors' sons and
          their wives dressed in their best, enjoying themselves at a festival,
          thought of her son and wept." [P.B.228]

          4. "Now when our Master had attained omniscience and begun rolling the
          wheel of the Norm, and was staying at Raajagaha, King Bimbisaara sent
          for So.na." [Ibid. 275]

          5. "He, having arrived with a great company of fellow townsmen, heard
          the Master teach the Norm, and, winning faith, obtained his parents'
          consent to enter the Order." [Ibid. 275]

          6. "Then the young Brahman Vaase.t.tha said to the young Brahman
          Bhaaradvaaja: That Sama.na Gotama, Bhaaradvaaja, of the sons of the
          Saakyas... is now staying at Manasaaka.ta, in the mango grove, on the
          bank of the river Aciravatii." [D.B.i.301]

          7. "Then you say Vaase.t.tha, that none of the Brahmans, or of their
          teachers, or of their pupils, even up to the seventh generation, has
          ever seen Brahmaa face to face." [Ibid. i.304]

          8. "Just, Vaase.t.tha, as when a string of blind men are clinging one
          to the other, neither can the foremost see, nor can the middle one
          see, nor can the hindermost see - just even so... is the talk of the
          Brahmans." {Ibid. i.305]

          9. "As they passed along he pointed out to him a field that had been
          burnt over, and on a charred stump was seated a she-monkey with her
          nose and tail destroyed." [B.T.270]

          10. "But the youngest of them all, a youth whose clan-name was
          Ko.n.da~n~na... raised only one finger... saying: There is here naught
          to make him stay in the household life." [Ibid. 52]

          New Words.

          began rolling = pavattesi or pava.t.tesi (v).
          burnt over = da.d.dha, jhaapita (pp).
          charred = jhaama (adj).
          clinging = alliina (adj).
          consent = anu~n~naa, anumati (f).
          destroyed = vinaasita (pp).
          enjoying = abhiramanta (pr.p).
          face to face = sakkhi (indec). paccakkha.m (adv).
          fellow townsman = sakanaagarika (m).
          festival = cha.na, ussava (m).
          foremost = sabbapa.thama (adj).
          generation = kulapariva.t.ta (n).
          hindermost = sabbapacchima (adj).
          household life = gharaavaasa (m).
          just as = seyyathaa pi (indec).
          just so = evam eva (indec).
          naught = na ki~nci (indec).
          neighbourhood = aasanna.t.thaana, saamanta (n).
          norm = dhamma (m).
          omniscience = sabba~n~nutaa (f).
          precious thing = ratana (n).
          raised = ukkhipi (v).
          same amount = tattaka (adj).
          sent for = pakkosaapesi (v).
          string [of blind] = [andha-]paramparaa (f).
          stump = khaa.nu (m).
          tail = na`ngu.t.tha (n). vaaladhi (m).
          to make stay = nivattetu.m, vasaapetu.m (inf).
          wept = parodi (v).
          winning = [use here] pa.tilabhitvaa (abs).

          (i) Saama~n~na - (4) Sa`nkhyaataddhita

          Numerical derivatives

          124. "-ma" is suffixed to the cardinal numerals to form ordinals.

          pa~nca + ma = pa~ncama (fifth)
          satta + ma = sattama (seventh)
          a.t.tha + ma = a.t.thama (eighth)

          Being adjectives, these are in the three genders. In the feminine they
          take in addition the feminine suffix aa or ii.

          pa~ncama + aa = pa~ncamaa (the fifth [woman])
          pa~ncama + ii = pa~ncamii (the fifth [division])

          And so on in every case.

          125. "-tiya" is suffixed to "dvi" and "ti" to form ordinals. "Dvi"
          becomes "du" and "ti" becomes "ta" before that suffix.

          dvi + tiya = du + tiya = dutiya (second)
          ti + tiya = ta + tiya = tatiya (third)

          Dvi takes the forms du and di when it is followed by some other nouns
          or suffixes.

          dvi + vidha = duvidha (of two kinds)
          dvi + rattiiyo = diratta.m (two nights)
          dvi + gu.na = digu.na (twofold)

          126. "-ttha" is suffixed to "catu" and ".t.tha" to "cha" in order to
          form the ordinals.

          catu + ttha = catuttha (fourth)
          cha + .t.tha = cha.t.tha (sixth)
        • Ong Yong Peng
          The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 127. -ii is suffixed to dasa, when it is preceded by some other numeral, to form ordinals denoting a lunar
          Message 4 of 8 , Apr 28, 2008
            The New Pali Course Part II

            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

            127. "-ii" is suffixed to dasa, when it is preceded by some other
            numeral, to form ordinals denoting a lunar day. In that compound the
            last vowel of the preceding numeral sometimes becomes aa.

            eka + dasa + ii = ekaadasii (the 11th day)
            dvi + dasa + ii = dvaadasii (the 12th day)
            pa~nca + dasa + ii = pa~ncadasii or pa.n.narasii (the 15th day)
            catu + dasa + ii = caatuddasii (the 14th day)
            (The first vowel is lengthened here)

            128. "-ka" is suffixed to the numerals to form the collective nouns.

            dvi + ka = dvika (a pair)
            ti + ka = tika (a triad)
            catu + ka = catukka (consisting of four)
            sata + ka = sataka (a group of a hundred)
            dasa + ka = dasaka (a group of ten)

            (ii) Bhaava (Gerundial)

            129. -taa, -tta, -ttana, .nya and .neyya are suffixed to some nouns to
            denote the state, nature or quality of being.

            -taa:
            lahu (light) + taa = lahutaa (lightness)
            suura (hero) + taa = suurataa (heroism)
            se.t.tha (highest) + taa = se.t.thataa (greatness)
            hiina (vulgar) + taa = hiinataa (vulgarity)

            -tta:
            manussa + tta = manussatta (state of a man, humanity)
            yaacaka + tta = yaacakatta (state of a beggar)
            bahussuta + tta = bahussutatta (learned state)

            -ttana:
            puthujjana + ttana = puthujjanattana (state of an unconverted person)
            jaayaa + ttana = jaayattana (state of a wife)

            .nya:
            aroga (health) + .nya = aarogya (healthfulness)
            dubbala (feeble) + .nya = dubbalya (feebleness)

            .n in .nya is indicative of strengthening of the first vowel.

            130. Many consonants before .nya change their forms together with ya
            of the suffix.

            t + .nya = tya becomes cca
            l + .nya = lya becomes lla
            d + .nya = dya becomes jja
            .n + .nya = .nya becomes ~n~na
            j + .nya = jya becomes jja
            s + .nya = sya becomes ssa

            pa.n.dita + .nya = pa.n.ditya = pa.n.dicca (scholarship, erudition)
            adhipati + .nya = aadhipatya = aadhipacca (lordship, government)
            bahusuta + .nya = baahusutya = baahusacca (learnedness). u of suta is
            changed into a.
            kusala + .nya = vepulya = vepulla (increase, abundance)
            suhada + .nya = sohadya = sohajja (friendliness)
            raaja + .nya = raajya = rajja (kingship, kingdom)
            nipuna + .nya = nepu.nya = nepu~n~na (skill, experience)
            gilaana + .nya = gelanya = gela~n~na (sickness)
            sumana + .nya = (adding an s to the stem) somanasya = somanassa (joy,
            joyful)
            bhisaja (physician) + .nya = bhesajya = bhesajja (medicine, work of a
            physician)

            .neyya:
            adhipati + .neyya = aadhipateyya (lordship, power)
            sa.tha + .neyya = saa.theyya (craft, fraud)
            patha + .neyya = paatheyya (provision for a journey)

            131. .na is suffixed to a few nouns to denote the state.

            pa.tu + .na = paa.tava (dexterity, expertness)
            garu + .na = gaarava (heaviness, respect)

            Remark. The derivatives formed with -taa are in the feminine; those
            formed with -tta, -ttana, .nya and .neyya are in the neuter. Paa.tava
            and gaarava are in the masculine. Pa.tutaa, garutaa and pa.tutta.m,
            garutta.m, which are in the feminine and the neuter respectively are
            also found.

            (iii) Avyaya (Indeclinables and adverbials)

            132. "-kkhattu.m" is suffixed to the numerals to form the
            multiplicative adverbs.

            eka + kkhattu.m = ekakkhattu.m (once)
            dvikkhattu.m (twice)
            dasakkhattu.m (ten times)
            sahassakkhattu.m (thousand times)
            bahukkhattu.m (many times)

            133. "-dhaa" is suffixed to the numerals to form the adverbs of manner.

            pa~nca + dhaa = pa~ncadhaa (in five ways)
            dasadhaa (in ten ways)
          • Ong Yong Peng
            The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta satadhaa (in hundred ways) bahudhaa (in many ways) katidhaa (in how many ways) 134. -so is suffixed to
            Message 5 of 8 , May 4, 2008
              The New Pali Course Part II

              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              satadhaa (in hundred ways)
              bahudhaa (in many ways)
              katidhaa (in how many ways)

              134. "-so" is suffixed to some nouns to form the distributive adverbs.

              pa~ncaso (five by five)
              .thaanaso (according to the place or cause)
              pada (word) + so = padaso (word by word)
              sabbaso (in every way)
              yoni (origin) + so = yoniso (according to origin or insight)
              bahuso (in many ways, almost)

              135. "-thaa" and "-tha.m" are suffixed to some pronouns in order to
              form the adverbs of manner.

              ta + thaa = tathaa (so, like that, in that way)
              ya + thaa = yathaa (as, like)
              a~n~na + thaa = a~n~nathaa (in another way)
              ubhaya + thaa = ubhayathaa (in both ways)
              sabba + thaa = sabbathaa (in every way)
              ki.m + tha.m = katha.m (how, in what way)
              ima + tha.m = ittha.m (thus)
              (ima becomes i, and th of the suffix is reduplicated)

              136. "-tana" is suffixed to some indeclinables to form adjectives from
              them.

              ajja + tana = ajjatana (belonging to this day)
              sve + tana = svaatana (belonging to tomorrow)
              hiiyo + tana = hiiyattana (belonging to yesterday)
              puraa + tana = puraatana (belonging to the olden days, old)
              sana.m + tana = sanantana (ancient)
              (sve becomes svaa, and hiiyo becomes hiiya before -tana)

              137. "-tra", "-ttha", "-hi.m" and "ha.m" are suffixed to some pronouns
              in order to form adverbs of place.

              sabba + tra = sabbatra (everywhere)
              sabba + ttha = sabbattha (everywhere)
              ta + tra = tatra (there)
              ta + ttha = tattha (there)
              ya + ttha = yattha (wherever)
              a~n~na + tra = a~n~natra (in another place or without)
              ima + ttha = ettha (here). ma is elided, and i becomes e.
              ima + tra = atra (here). ma is elided, and i becomes a.
              ki.m + hi.m = kuhi.m. ki.m becomes ku.
              ta + hi.m, ha.m = tahi.m, taha.m (there)

              138. "-daa", "-daani" and "-daacana.m" are suffixed to some pronouns
              in order to form adverbs of time.

              ya + daa = yadaa (whenever)
              ta + daa = tadaa (then)
              sabba + daa = sabbadaa (ever)
              eka + daa = ekadaa (one day, once)
              ki.m + daa = kadaa (when?)
              ima + daani = idaani (now)
              ki.m + daacana.m = kudaacana.m (sometimes). na kudaacana.m = never.

              139. "-ha" and "-dha" are suffixed to "-ima" to form two adverbs of place.

              ima + ha = iha (here)
              ima + dha = idha (here)
              ma of ima is elided before these.

              Exercise 22

              Translate into English and define the derivatives

              1. Aayasmaa Aanandatthero Bhagavato saavakesu baahusaccena
              pa.n.diccena ca aggo ahosi.

              2. Medhaavinii maa.navii dullabha.m manussatta.m labhitvaa bahu.m
              pu~n~na.m upaci.naati.

              3. Rogii vejjena dinna-bhesajjam upasevitvaa aarogya.m pa.tilabhitvaa
              attano somanassa.m pakaasesi.

              4. Ekadaa Mahaa-Kassapatthero gela~n~nenaabhipii.lito Raajagahato
              aviduure Pipphaliguhaaya.m vihari.

              5. Medhaavino sissaa garuuna.m mahanta.m gaarava.m dassetvaa
              naanaasatthesu paa.tava.m labhanti.

              6. "Yathaa tasmi.m gehe .thapetvaa maa.navakassa palla`nka.m a~n~na.m
              ki~nci aasana.m na dissati, tathaa adhi.t.thaasi." [Samp. i.38]

              7. "Tato pa.t.thaaya yattha yattha pa.n.dita-samanabraahma.naa atthii
              vadanti, tattha tattha gantvaa saakaccha.m karonti." [Dh.A. i.90]

              8. "Sahassakkhattu.m attaana.m
              Nimminitvaana Panthako
              Nisiid'ambavane ramme
              Yaava kaalappavedanaa." [Dh.A. i.248]
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