Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

The New Pali Course Part II [6-3/8]

Expand Messages
  • Ong Yong Peng
    The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 7. Tena kho pana samayena Raajagahikassa se.t.thissa sattavassiko siisaabaadho ahosi. Bahuu mahantaa
    Message 1 of 8 , Apr 4, 2008
    • 0 Attachment
      The New Pali Course Part II

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      7. "Tena kho pana samayena Raajagahikassa se.t.thissa sattavassiko
      siisaabaadho ahosi. Bahuu mahantaa mahantaa disaapaamokkhaa vejjaa
      aagantvaa naasakkhi.msu aroga.m kaatu.m." [Ibid. 273]

      8. "Atha kho Jiivako Komaarabhacco se.t.thi.m gahapati.m ma~ncake
      nipajjaapetvaa ma~ncakena sambandhitvaa siisacchavi.m phaaletvaa...
      dve paa.nake niiharitvaa janassa dassesi." [Ibid. 274]

      9. "Se.t.thiputto: niyyaanika.m vata Buddhasaasanan ti pasiiditvaa
      yojanika.m suva.n.nacetiya.m kambalaka~ncukena parikkhipitvaa tattha
      tattha rathacakkappamaa.nehi suva.n.na-padumehi ala`nkari." [A.A.]

      10. "Tasmi.m samaye catusattati-sahassaja.tilaa pa.niita-pa.niitaa.ni
      ojavantaani phalaaphalaani gahetvaa aacariyassa santika.m sampattaa."
      [Ibid. i,150]

      New Words.

      aroga (adj) free from sickness.
      asakkhi (v) was able.
      aabaadha (m) sickness.
      aavasathaagaara (n) rest-house.
      ojavanta (adj) rich in sap, nourishing.
      ka~ncuka (m) a mantle.
      kambala (m,n) [woollen] blanket.
      komaarabhacca (adj) master of the medical treatment of infants,
      brought up by a prince.
      jana (m) a person, people.
      tena kho pana samayena (phrase) at that time.
      daaru (n) wood, timber.
      disaapaamokkha (adj) famed far and wide, eminent in a district.
      nipphanna (pp) made, conditioned.
      nissaaya (abs) close to, on account of, concerning.
      niyyaanika (adj) leading to [salvation].
      niiyi (v) was carried.
      pakkhaaletvaa (abs) having washed.
      pacchimaabhimukha (adj) facing the west.
      pa.niita (adj) delicious.
      paa.naka (m) a living being, an insect.
      paa.taligaamika (adj) living or born in Paa.taligaama.
      purakkhatvaa (abs) having in front, looking at.
      puratthima (adj) eastern.
      phaaletvaa (abs) having split, having torn.
      bhadra (adj) worthy.
      ma~ncaka (m) a small bed.
      yojaapetvaa (abs) having caused to harness.
      sandi.t.thika (adj) belonging to this life, that should be understood
      by one self.
      sattavassika (adj) that which existed for seven years.
      sambandhitvaa (abs) having connected or tied.
      sampatta (pp) arrived.
      siisacchavi (f) the scalp.

      Translate into Pali, using the secondary derivatives where it is possible

      1. The dealer in oil struck the door keeper of the rice merchant with
      a weapon made of iron.

      2. The Brahman lad, Ma.t.taku.n.dalii, was born in a golden mansion in
      the Taavati.msa heaven, on account of his devotion and love towards
      the Exalted One.

      3. The miserly Brahman, father of Ma.t.taku.n.dalii, promised him to
      give a pair of wheels made of brass, silver or gold.

      4. At that time Devadatta was seated preaching the Dhamma. And when he
      saw from afar Saariputta and Moggallaana coming towards him, he said
      to the monks: "See, monks, even the two chief disciples of the Samana
      Gotama are coming to join me."

      5. "These many distinguished young Magadha clansmen are now leading a
      holy life under the Samana Gotama." [L.G.B. 98]

      6. The Blessed One, robing himself in the forenoon, and taking his
      alms-bowl and robe, entered Kosambii for alms. And without informing
      his servitor or the bhikkhus he departed alone in the direction of
      Paarileyyaka.

      7. "Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Anupiya, a town
      belonging to Mallas. Then the most distinguished young men of the
      Sakyan clan had renounced the world in imitation of the Blessed One."
      [L.G.B. 142]

      8. The mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan said to her son: "If, dear
      Anuruddha, Bhaddiya, the ruler of Sakyans will renounce the world, you
      also may go forth into the houseless state."

      9. "Then the Sakyas showed to Asita, the child, their prince, who was
      like the shining gold... and of peerless beauty." [L.G.B. 1]

      10. "When in the palace for rainy season, surrounded during the four
      months by female musicians, I did not go down from the palace." [Ibid. 5]

      New Words.

      alone = ekaka (adj).
      also = api, ca (indec).
      brass = tamba (m).
      chief = agga (adj).
      clansman = kulaputta (m).
      dear = piya, pemaniiya (adj).
      devotion = bhatti (f). pasaada (m).
      distinguished = abhi~n~naata (pp).
    • Ong Yong Peng
      The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta even = api (indec). female musician = naa.tikaa (f). forenoon = pubba.nha (m). from afar = duurato (indec).
      Message 2 of 8 , Apr 10, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        The New Pali Course Part II

        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        even = api (indec).
        female musician = naa.tikaa (f).
        forenoon = pubba.nha (m).
        from afar = duurato (indec).
        imitation = anukara.na (n).
        leading a holy life = brahmacariya.m caranta (phrase).
        love = mettaa (f). pasaada (m).
        miserly = luddha (adj).
        of peerless beauty = anopamava.n.na (adj).
        promised = pa.tijaani (v).
        robing [himself] = nivaasetvaa (abs).
        servitor = upa.t.thaaka (m).
        shining = tapamaana (pr.p).
        struck = pahari (v).
        to join = saha bhavitu.m, samaagamitu.m (inf).
        towards the Exalted One = use the loc. of Bhagavantu.
        towards [him] = [tassa] santika.m (adv).
        was born = nibbatti (v).
        was staying = vihari (v).

        (i) Saama~n~na - (3) Atthyattha

        119. Suffixes -ava, -ala, -ila, -ika, -ii, -vii and -ssii are annexed
        to different nouns to denote possession or the meaning "endowed with".

        -ava:
        kesa + ava = kesava (having much hair)

        -ala:
        vaacaa + ala = vaacaala (having many words, i.e. talkative, garrulous)

        -ila:
        ja.taa + ila = ja.tila (having matted hair, an ascetic)
        phe.na + ila = phe.nila (frothy, the soap plant)
        tu.n.da + ila = tu.n.dila (having a beak, a pecker)

        -ika:
        da.n.da + ika = da.n.dika (having a staff in hand)
        maalaa + ika = maalika (having a garland)
        chatta + ika = chattika (possessing an umbrella)
        ga.na + ika = ga.nika (having a large following)

        -ii:
        maalaa + ii = maalii (having a garland)
        vamma + ii = vammii (having an armour, a warrior)
        bhoga + ii = bhogii (wealthy, a rich person, a serpent)
        ku.t.tha + ii = ku.t.thii (leper)
        manta + ii = mantii (endowed with a political knowledge, a minister)
        danta + ii = dantii (having tusks, an elephant)

        -vii:
        medhaa + vii = medhaavii (endowed with knowledge, wise)
        maayaa + vii = maayaavii (having a knowledge of jugglery, juggler)

        -ssii:
        tapa + ssii = tapassii (a hermit)
        yasa + ssii = yasassii (famous)
        teja + ssii = tejassii (brilliant, powerful)

        Note. The feminine forms of the nouns annexed with -ii, -vii and -ssii
        are formed by adding another suffix, -inii to them.

        maalii + inii = maalinii (a woman who has a garland)
        mantii + inii = mantinii (a ministress)
        medhaavii + inii = medhaavinii (a wise woman)
        tapassii + inii = tapassinii (a nun)

        120. To denote possession, "-vantu" and "-mantu" are suffixed to
        different nouns (-vantu is suffixed to the nouns ending in a, and the
        other to those ending in i and u).

        gu.na + vantu = gu.navantu (virtuous)
        dhana + vantu = dhanavantu (rich)
        buddhi + mantu = buddhimantu (wise)
        bhaanu + mantu = bhaanumantu (luminous, the sun)
        aayu + mantu becomes aayasmantu through aayusmantu, but not aayumantu.

        More words of this kind and their declension are given under §28 of
        the First Book.

        The feminine of these is formed by adding an ii at the end of the
        suffix and dropping u before it.

        gu.navantu + ii = gu.navantii (a virtuous woman)
        satimantu + ii = satimantii (a mindful woman)

        Sometimes they drop not only u but also n of the suffix.

        dhana + vantu + ii = dhanavatii (a rich woman)
        buddhi + mantu + ii = buddhimatii (a wise woman)

        121. An additional -ii is annexed to form the feminine of the
        derivatives formed with the suffixes .nava, .nika, .neyya, .na, -vantu
        and -mantu.

        .nava: maa.nava + ii = maa.navii (a lass)
        .nika: naavika + ii = naavikii (woman sailor)
        .neyya: bhaagineyya + ii = bhaagineyyii (sister's daughter)
        .na: gotama + ii = gotamii (a woman of the Gotama clan)

        122. "-a" is suffixed to some nouns to denote possession.

        saddhaa (faith) + a = saddha (faithful)
      • Ong Yong Peng
        The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta pa~n~naa (wisdom) + a = pa~n~na (wise) paapa (sin) + a = paapa (sinful) 123. -tara is suffixed to form the
        Message 3 of 8 , Apr 17, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          The New Pali Course Part II

          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          pa~n~naa (wisdom) + a = pa~n~na (wise)
          paapa (sin) + a = paapa (sinful)

          123. "-tara" is suffixed to form the adjectives of the comparative
          degree, and "-tama" to form those of the superlative.

          positive: paapa (sinful)
          comparative: paapatara (more or very sinful)
          superlative: paapatama (most sinful)

          positive: sundara (good)
          comparative: sundaratara (better)
          superlative: sundaratama (best)

          Exercise 21

          Translate into English and define the derivatives

          1. Ucchinda sineham attano
          Kumuda.m saaradika.m va paa.ninaa." [Dhp.285]

          2. "N'eva kho asakkhi Vaase.t.tho maa.navo Bhaaradvaaja.m maa.nava.m
          sa~n~naapetu.m; na pana asakkhi Bhaaradvaajo maa.navo pi Vaase.t.tha.m
          maa.nava.m sa~n~naapetu.m." [D.i.236]

          3. "Kusaavatiyaa, Aananda, raajadhaaniyaa... eka.m dvaara.m
          sova.n.namaya.m, eka.m ruupiyamaya.m, eka.m ve.luriyamaya.m, eka.m
          phalikamaya.m." [D.ii.170]

          4. "Mayha.m bhaagineyyo imassa rajjassa saamiko'va; dhiitara.m
          etass'eva detvaa abhisekam assa karissaamii ti." [J.Asilakkha.na]

          5. "Atiite Baaraa.nasiya.m Brahmadatte rajja.m kaarente bodhisatto
          bhaatikasatassa ka.ni.t.tho ahosi.' [J.Pa~ncagaru]

          6. "Baaraa.nasiya.m Yaso naama kulaputto se.t.thiputto sukhumaalo
          hoti; tassa tayo paasaadaa honti; eko hemantiko, eko gimhiko, eko
          vassiko." [V.i.15]

          7. "Ida.m kho, mahaaraaja, sandi.t.thika.m saama~n~naphala.m purimehi
          sandi.t.thikehi saama~n~naphalehi abhikkantatara~n ca pa.niitatara~n
          ca." [D.i.85]

          8. "Ra~n~no Mahaa-Sudassanassa... uparipaasaada-vara-gatassa dibba.m
          cakkaratana.m paaturahosi, sahassaara.m, sanemika.m, sanaabhika.m,
          sabbaakaara-paripuura.m."

          9. "Tassaa ca saaminii tattha
          Kuve.nii naama yakkhinii
          Nisiidi rukkhamuulamhi
          Kantantii taapasii viya." [Mahaava.msa]

          10. "Mahaa-Kassapathero ca,
          Anuruddho mahaaga.nii,
          Upaalitthero satimaa,
          Aanando ca bahussuto,
          A~n~ne bahuu abhi~n~naataa
          Saavakaa Satthu-va.n.nitaa
          Sabbe pa~ncasataa theraa
          Nava`nga.m Jinasaasana.m
          Uggahetvaana dhaaresu.m
          Buddhase.t.thassa santike." [Mahaava.msa]

          New Words.

          abhi~n~naata (pp) well-known.
          abhikkantatara (adj) more brilliant.
          ucchindati (v) breaks up, destroys.
          ka.ni.t.tha (adj) youngest.
          kantantii (f/pr.p) spinning.
          kulaputta (m) son of a respectable family.
          gimhika (adj) suited for the summer.
          cakkaratana (n) the wheel-gem [of a universal monarch].
          taapasii (f) female hermit.
          dibba (adj) celestial.
          nava`nga (adj) that which has nine divisions.
          pa.niitatara (adj) sweeter, higher.
          paaturahosi (v) manifested.
          purima (adj) former, first.
          phalika (m) crystal.
          bahussuta (adj) much learned.
          bhaatika (m) brother.
          mahaaga.nii (m/n) having a great following.
          raajadhaanii (f) royal city.
          va.n.nita (adj) praised.
          vassika (adj) suited for the rainy season.
          ve.luriya (n) turquoise.
          sa~n~naapetu.m (inf) to convince.
          sandi.t.thika (adj) seen in this life.
          sanaabhika (adj) having a nave or hub.
          sanemika (adj) having a tyre.
          sabbaakaara-paripuura (adj) complete in every way.
          sahassaara (adj) having one thousand spokes.
          saamika (m) owner, master.
          saaminii (f) mistress.
          saaradika (adj) autumnal.
          saama~n~naphala (n) fruit of the life of a recluse.
          sineha (m) love.
          sukhumaala (adj) delicate.
          hemantika (adj) suited for the winter.

          Translate into Pali, using derivatives where it is possible

          1. There were in the city of Kusaavatii seven ramparts and seven gates
          all made of seven kinds of precious things.
        • Ong Yong Peng
          The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 2. There were eighty-four thousand ponds in the neighbourhood of the palace of King Mahaa-Sudassana; he also
          Message 4 of 8 , Apr 22, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            The New Pali Course Part II

            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

            2. There were eighty-four thousand ponds in the neighbourhood of the
            palace of King Mahaa-Sudassana; he also possessed 48,000 horses, and
            the same amount of elephants and chariots.

            3. "Now his mother at Raajagaha, seeing other councillors' sons and
            their wives dressed in their best, enjoying themselves at a festival,
            thought of her son and wept." [P.B.228]

            4. "Now when our Master had attained omniscience and begun rolling the
            wheel of the Norm, and was staying at Raajagaha, King Bimbisaara sent
            for So.na." [Ibid. 275]

            5. "He, having arrived with a great company of fellow townsmen, heard
            the Master teach the Norm, and, winning faith, obtained his parents'
            consent to enter the Order." [Ibid. 275]

            6. "Then the young Brahman Vaase.t.tha said to the young Brahman
            Bhaaradvaaja: That Sama.na Gotama, Bhaaradvaaja, of the sons of the
            Saakyas... is now staying at Manasaaka.ta, in the mango grove, on the
            bank of the river Aciravatii." [D.B.i.301]

            7. "Then you say Vaase.t.tha, that none of the Brahmans, or of their
            teachers, or of their pupils, even up to the seventh generation, has
            ever seen Brahmaa face to face." [Ibid. i.304]

            8. "Just, Vaase.t.tha, as when a string of blind men are clinging one
            to the other, neither can the foremost see, nor can the middle one
            see, nor can the hindermost see - just even so... is the talk of the
            Brahmans." {Ibid. i.305]

            9. "As they passed along he pointed out to him a field that had been
            burnt over, and on a charred stump was seated a she-monkey with her
            nose and tail destroyed." [B.T.270]

            10. "But the youngest of them all, a youth whose clan-name was
            Ko.n.da~n~na... raised only one finger... saying: There is here naught
            to make him stay in the household life." [Ibid. 52]

            New Words.

            began rolling = pavattesi or pava.t.tesi (v).
            burnt over = da.d.dha, jhaapita (pp).
            charred = jhaama (adj).
            clinging = alliina (adj).
            consent = anu~n~naa, anumati (f).
            destroyed = vinaasita (pp).
            enjoying = abhiramanta (pr.p).
            face to face = sakkhi (indec). paccakkha.m (adv).
            fellow townsman = sakanaagarika (m).
            festival = cha.na, ussava (m).
            foremost = sabbapa.thama (adj).
            generation = kulapariva.t.ta (n).
            hindermost = sabbapacchima (adj).
            household life = gharaavaasa (m).
            just as = seyyathaa pi (indec).
            just so = evam eva (indec).
            naught = na ki~nci (indec).
            neighbourhood = aasanna.t.thaana, saamanta (n).
            norm = dhamma (m).
            omniscience = sabba~n~nutaa (f).
            precious thing = ratana (n).
            raised = ukkhipi (v).
            same amount = tattaka (adj).
            sent for = pakkosaapesi (v).
            string [of blind] = [andha-]paramparaa (f).
            stump = khaa.nu (m).
            tail = na`ngu.t.tha (n). vaaladhi (m).
            to make stay = nivattetu.m, vasaapetu.m (inf).
            wept = parodi (v).
            winning = [use here] pa.tilabhitvaa (abs).

            (i) Saama~n~na - (4) Sa`nkhyaataddhita

            Numerical derivatives

            124. "-ma" is suffixed to the cardinal numerals to form ordinals.

            pa~nca + ma = pa~ncama (fifth)
            satta + ma = sattama (seventh)
            a.t.tha + ma = a.t.thama (eighth)

            Being adjectives, these are in the three genders. In the feminine they
            take in addition the feminine suffix aa or ii.

            pa~ncama + aa = pa~ncamaa (the fifth [woman])
            pa~ncama + ii = pa~ncamii (the fifth [division])

            And so on in every case.

            125. "-tiya" is suffixed to "dvi" and "ti" to form ordinals. "Dvi"
            becomes "du" and "ti" becomes "ta" before that suffix.

            dvi + tiya = du + tiya = dutiya (second)
            ti + tiya = ta + tiya = tatiya (third)

            Dvi takes the forms du and di when it is followed by some other nouns
            or suffixes.

            dvi + vidha = duvidha (of two kinds)
            dvi + rattiiyo = diratta.m (two nights)
            dvi + gu.na = digu.na (twofold)

            126. "-ttha" is suffixed to "catu" and ".t.tha" to "cha" in order to
            form the ordinals.

            catu + ttha = catuttha (fourth)
            cha + .t.tha = cha.t.tha (sixth)
          • Ong Yong Peng
            The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 127. -ii is suffixed to dasa, when it is preceded by some other numeral, to form ordinals denoting a lunar
            Message 5 of 8 , Apr 28, 2008
            • 0 Attachment
              The New Pali Course Part II

              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              127. "-ii" is suffixed to dasa, when it is preceded by some other
              numeral, to form ordinals denoting a lunar day. In that compound the
              last vowel of the preceding numeral sometimes becomes aa.

              eka + dasa + ii = ekaadasii (the 11th day)
              dvi + dasa + ii = dvaadasii (the 12th day)
              pa~nca + dasa + ii = pa~ncadasii or pa.n.narasii (the 15th day)
              catu + dasa + ii = caatuddasii (the 14th day)
              (The first vowel is lengthened here)

              128. "-ka" is suffixed to the numerals to form the collective nouns.

              dvi + ka = dvika (a pair)
              ti + ka = tika (a triad)
              catu + ka = catukka (consisting of four)
              sata + ka = sataka (a group of a hundred)
              dasa + ka = dasaka (a group of ten)

              (ii) Bhaava (Gerundial)

              129. -taa, -tta, -ttana, .nya and .neyya are suffixed to some nouns to
              denote the state, nature or quality of being.

              -taa:
              lahu (light) + taa = lahutaa (lightness)
              suura (hero) + taa = suurataa (heroism)
              se.t.tha (highest) + taa = se.t.thataa (greatness)
              hiina (vulgar) + taa = hiinataa (vulgarity)

              -tta:
              manussa + tta = manussatta (state of a man, humanity)
              yaacaka + tta = yaacakatta (state of a beggar)
              bahussuta + tta = bahussutatta (learned state)

              -ttana:
              puthujjana + ttana = puthujjanattana (state of an unconverted person)
              jaayaa + ttana = jaayattana (state of a wife)

              .nya:
              aroga (health) + .nya = aarogya (healthfulness)
              dubbala (feeble) + .nya = dubbalya (feebleness)

              .n in .nya is indicative of strengthening of the first vowel.

              130. Many consonants before .nya change their forms together with ya
              of the suffix.

              t + .nya = tya becomes cca
              l + .nya = lya becomes lla
              d + .nya = dya becomes jja
              .n + .nya = .nya becomes ~n~na
              j + .nya = jya becomes jja
              s + .nya = sya becomes ssa

              pa.n.dita + .nya = pa.n.ditya = pa.n.dicca (scholarship, erudition)
              adhipati + .nya = aadhipatya = aadhipacca (lordship, government)
              bahusuta + .nya = baahusutya = baahusacca (learnedness). u of suta is
              changed into a.
              kusala + .nya = vepulya = vepulla (increase, abundance)
              suhada + .nya = sohadya = sohajja (friendliness)
              raaja + .nya = raajya = rajja (kingship, kingdom)
              nipuna + .nya = nepu.nya = nepu~n~na (skill, experience)
              gilaana + .nya = gelanya = gela~n~na (sickness)
              sumana + .nya = (adding an s to the stem) somanasya = somanassa (joy,
              joyful)
              bhisaja (physician) + .nya = bhesajya = bhesajja (medicine, work of a
              physician)

              .neyya:
              adhipati + .neyya = aadhipateyya (lordship, power)
              sa.tha + .neyya = saa.theyya (craft, fraud)
              patha + .neyya = paatheyya (provision for a journey)

              131. .na is suffixed to a few nouns to denote the state.

              pa.tu + .na = paa.tava (dexterity, expertness)
              garu + .na = gaarava (heaviness, respect)

              Remark. The derivatives formed with -taa are in the feminine; those
              formed with -tta, -ttana, .nya and .neyya are in the neuter. Paa.tava
              and gaarava are in the masculine. Pa.tutaa, garutaa and pa.tutta.m,
              garutta.m, which are in the feminine and the neuter respectively are
              also found.

              (iii) Avyaya (Indeclinables and adverbials)

              132. "-kkhattu.m" is suffixed to the numerals to form the
              multiplicative adverbs.

              eka + kkhattu.m = ekakkhattu.m (once)
              dvikkhattu.m (twice)
              dasakkhattu.m (ten times)
              sahassakkhattu.m (thousand times)
              bahukkhattu.m (many times)

              133. "-dhaa" is suffixed to the numerals to form the adverbs of manner.

              pa~nca + dhaa = pa~ncadhaa (in five ways)
              dasadhaa (in ten ways)
            • Ong Yong Peng
              The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta satadhaa (in hundred ways) bahudhaa (in many ways) katidhaa (in how many ways) 134. -so is suffixed to
              Message 6 of 8 , May 4 12:54 PM
              • 0 Attachment
                The New Pali Course Part II

                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                satadhaa (in hundred ways)
                bahudhaa (in many ways)
                katidhaa (in how many ways)

                134. "-so" is suffixed to some nouns to form the distributive adverbs.

                pa~ncaso (five by five)
                .thaanaso (according to the place or cause)
                pada (word) + so = padaso (word by word)
                sabbaso (in every way)
                yoni (origin) + so = yoniso (according to origin or insight)
                bahuso (in many ways, almost)

                135. "-thaa" and "-tha.m" are suffixed to some pronouns in order to
                form the adverbs of manner.

                ta + thaa = tathaa (so, like that, in that way)
                ya + thaa = yathaa (as, like)
                a~n~na + thaa = a~n~nathaa (in another way)
                ubhaya + thaa = ubhayathaa (in both ways)
                sabba + thaa = sabbathaa (in every way)
                ki.m + tha.m = katha.m (how, in what way)
                ima + tha.m = ittha.m (thus)
                (ima becomes i, and th of the suffix is reduplicated)

                136. "-tana" is suffixed to some indeclinables to form adjectives from
                them.

                ajja + tana = ajjatana (belonging to this day)
                sve + tana = svaatana (belonging to tomorrow)
                hiiyo + tana = hiiyattana (belonging to yesterday)
                puraa + tana = puraatana (belonging to the olden days, old)
                sana.m + tana = sanantana (ancient)
                (sve becomes svaa, and hiiyo becomes hiiya before -tana)

                137. "-tra", "-ttha", "-hi.m" and "ha.m" are suffixed to some pronouns
                in order to form adverbs of place.

                sabba + tra = sabbatra (everywhere)
                sabba + ttha = sabbattha (everywhere)
                ta + tra = tatra (there)
                ta + ttha = tattha (there)
                ya + ttha = yattha (wherever)
                a~n~na + tra = a~n~natra (in another place or without)
                ima + ttha = ettha (here). ma is elided, and i becomes e.
                ima + tra = atra (here). ma is elided, and i becomes a.
                ki.m + hi.m = kuhi.m. ki.m becomes ku.
                ta + hi.m, ha.m = tahi.m, taha.m (there)

                138. "-daa", "-daani" and "-daacana.m" are suffixed to some pronouns
                in order to form adverbs of time.

                ya + daa = yadaa (whenever)
                ta + daa = tadaa (then)
                sabba + daa = sabbadaa (ever)
                eka + daa = ekadaa (one day, once)
                ki.m + daa = kadaa (when?)
                ima + daani = idaani (now)
                ki.m + daacana.m = kudaacana.m (sometimes). na kudaacana.m = never.

                139. "-ha" and "-dha" are suffixed to "-ima" to form two adverbs of place.

                ima + ha = iha (here)
                ima + dha = idha (here)
                ma of ima is elided before these.

                Exercise 22

                Translate into English and define the derivatives

                1. Aayasmaa Aanandatthero Bhagavato saavakesu baahusaccena
                pa.n.diccena ca aggo ahosi.

                2. Medhaavinii maa.navii dullabha.m manussatta.m labhitvaa bahu.m
                pu~n~na.m upaci.naati.

                3. Rogii vejjena dinna-bhesajjam upasevitvaa aarogya.m pa.tilabhitvaa
                attano somanassa.m pakaasesi.

                4. Ekadaa Mahaa-Kassapatthero gela~n~nenaabhipii.lito Raajagahato
                aviduure Pipphaliguhaaya.m vihari.

                5. Medhaavino sissaa garuuna.m mahanta.m gaarava.m dassetvaa
                naanaasatthesu paa.tava.m labhanti.

                6. "Yathaa tasmi.m gehe .thapetvaa maa.navakassa palla`nka.m a~n~na.m
                ki~nci aasana.m na dissati, tathaa adhi.t.thaasi." [Samp. i.38]

                7. "Tato pa.t.thaaya yattha yattha pa.n.dita-samanabraahma.naa atthii
                vadanti, tattha tattha gantvaa saakaccha.m karonti." [Dh.A. i.90]

                8. "Sahassakkhattu.m attaana.m
                Nimminitvaana Panthako
                Nisiid'ambavane ramme
                Yaava kaalappavedanaa." [Dh.A. i.248]
              Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.