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The New Pali Course Part II [6-1/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 2. On arriving there, they strewed the council-hall with fresh sand, placed seats in it, set up a water-pot
    Message 1 of 8 , Mar 23, 2008
      The New Pali Course Part II

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      2. On arriving there, they strewed the council-hall with fresh sand,
      placed seats in it, set up a water-pot at the entrance, and fixed an
      oil lamp.

      3. The Exalted One robed himself, took his bowl, went with the
      bhikkhus to the council-hall, washed his feet, entered the hall, and
      took his seat at the central pillar, with his face towards the east.

      4. "Go now, Aananda, and enter into Kusinaaraa, and inform the Mallas
      of Kusinaaraa, saying: 'This day, O Vaase.t.thas, in the last watch of
      the night, the final passing away of the Tathaagata will take place.'"

      5. "Now at that time the venerable Mahaa-Kassapa was journeying along
      the high road from Paavaa to Kusinaaraa with a great company of the
      brethren. And the venerable Mahaa-Kassapa left the high road, and sat
      down at the foot of a certain tree." [Ibid. 232]

      6. "Mahaa-Pajaapatii the Gotamii cut off her hair, put on
      orange-coloured robes, and set out, with a number of women of the
      Saakya clan, towards Vesaalii; and in due course arrived at Vesaalii,
      at Mahaavana, at the Kuu.taagaara Hall." [Ibid. 116]

      7. "Just, Aananda, as houses in which there are many women but few
      men, are easily violated by robbers...; just so, Aananda, under
      whatever doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go out from the
      household life into the homeless state, that religion will not last
      long." [Ibid. 119]

      8. Bimbisaara, the king of Magadha, took a garden pitcher filled with
      water, and pouring the water over the Buddha's hand, presented the
      pleasure garden, Ve.luvana, to the fraternity of monks with the Buddha
      at its head.

      New Words.

      allowed = anu~n~naata (pp).
      arrival = aagamana (ger).
      central = majjhima (adj).
      certain = a~n~natara (adj).
      discipline = vinaya (m).
      fraternity = sa`ngha (m).
      fresh = nava (adj).
      high road = addhaanamagga (m).
      homeless state = anagaariya (n).
      in due course = anupubena (adv).
      informs = nivedeti (v).
      invites = nimanteti (v).
      journeying = maggapa.tipanna (pr.p).
      just as = yathaa (indec).
      just so = tathaa (indec).
      last = pacchima (adj).
      lasts = pavattati (v).
      left [the high road] = [maggaa] okkami (v).
      long [time] = cira.m (indec).
      pitcher = ku.n.dikaa (f).
      pouring = aakiranta (pr.p).
      religion = saasana (n).
      robber = cora (m).
      strews = okirati (v).
      violated = padha.msiya (adj).
      with Buddha at its head = buddhapamukha (adj).
      with the face towards the east = puratthaabhimukha (adj).

      112. Suffix ".na" is added to some nouns to denote the meanings: dyed
      with, the flesh of, belonging to, knowing of, (a place) where someone
      lives or is born, where something exists or has arisen, possession, etc.

      A. Dyed with:
      kasaava + .na = kaasaava (dyed with a reddish yellow dye, i.e. a
      Buddhist monk's robe)
      halidda + .na = haalidda (dyed with turmeric)
      niila + .na = niila (dyed with a blue dye or of blue colour)

      B. The flesh of:
      suukara + .na = sokara (pork, the flesh of a pig)
      mahisa + .na = maahisa (buffalo's flesh)
      saku.na + .na = saakuna (bird's flesh)

      C. Belonging to:
      sugata + .na = sogata (belonging to the Buddha)
      magadha + .na = maagadha (belonging to Magadha)
      purisa + .na = porisa (belonging to a man, manual)

      D. Knowing:
      vyaakara.na + .na = veyyaakara.na (grammarian)
      vyaa becomes veyyaa (through viyaakara.na)

      E. Places where someone lives or is born:
      nagara + .na = naagara (a citizen, belonging to a city)
      sara + .na = saarasa (born or arisen in a lake, a lotus or a water-bird)
      mana + .na = maanasa (arisen in the mind, a thought)
      ura + .na = orasa (self-begotten, belonging to one's own breast)
      (s is inserted in these three examples as they belong to the mano-group)

      F. Possession:
      saddhaa + .na = saddha (believing, faithful)
      pa~n~naa + .na = pa~n~na (wise, possessing wisdom)

      113. "-ima" and "-iya" are suffixed to some nouns to denote
      possession, position, etc.

      pacchaa + ima = pacchima (last, western)
      anta + ima = antima (last, final)
      majjha + ima = majjhima (middling, central)

      The New Pali Course Part II [5-1/8]
    • Ong Yong Peng
      The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta he.t.thaa + ima = he.t.thima (the lowest) loka + iya = lokiya (belonging ot the world, worldly) putta + iya
      Message 2 of 8 , Mar 29, 2008
        The New Pali Course Part II

        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        he.t.thaa + ima = he.t.thima (the lowest)
        loka + iya = lokiya (belonging ot the world, worldly)
        putta + iya = puttiya (a person who has sons)
        putta + ima = puttima (a person who has sons)
        ja.taa + iya = ja.tiya (wearing matted hair, an ascetic)
        bodhipakkha + iya = bodhipakkhiya (belonging to enlightenment)
        pa~ncavagga + iya = pa~ncavaggiya (belonging to the group of five)
        udara + iya = udariya (that which is in the stomach, undigested food)

        114. "-taa" is suffixed to some nouns to denote multitude or
        collection. The derivatives formed with this are in the feminine.

        jana + taa = janataa (a multitude of persons, populace)
        gaama + taa = gaamataa (a group of villages)
        deva + taa = devataa (a deity; this, however, does not give a
        collective meaning)

        115. The suffix ".na" too sometimes gives a collective meaning.

        dvi + .na = dve + a = dvaya (a pair)
        ti + .na = te + a = taya (a triad)
        Here, e becomes ay.

        116. "-aalu" is suffixed to some nouns to denote tendency and abundance.

        dayaa + aalu = dayaalu (compassionate)
        abhijjhaa + aalu = abhijjhaalu (covetous)
        dhaja + aalu = dhajaalu (full of streamers)

        "-ka" is often added to the end of these words, which are always
        adjectives, and dayaaluka, etc. are formed.

        117. "-ka" is suffixed to some nouns to denote smallness, contempt,
        collection, etc. But sometimes it adds nothing whatever to the primary
        meaning of the word.

        putta (son), puttaka (a little son)
        luddha (hunter), luddaka (a despicable hunter)
        pa.n.dita (wise-man), pa.n.ditaka (a despicable wise-man, pedant)
        gha.ta (water-pot), gha.taka (a small water-pot)
        pii.tha (a chair), pii.thaka (a small chair)


        catu + ka = catukka (a group of four), and many other words formed
        with numerals will come in the (4) Sa`nkhyaataddhita.

        Adding nothing to the primary meaning:
        kumaara = kumaaraka (a boy)
        maa.nava = maa.navaka (a young man)
        mudu = muduka (soft)

        This is sometimes added (a) to the derivatives formed with suffix .na,
        denoting the place where someone lives or is born, and (b) to
        Bahubbiihi compounds, denoting possession, necessarily when the last
        member ends in a vowel other than a.

        (a) kusinaaraa + .na = kosinaara = kosinaaraka (born in or living in
        raajagaha + .na = raajagaha = raajagahaka (born in or living in

        (b) bahu + nadii + ka = bahunadika (having many rivers)

        118. "-maya" is suffixed to some nouns to form adjectives denoting
        made of, arisen from.

        suva.n.na (gold), suva.n.namaya (made of gold, golden)
        rajatamaya (made of silver)
        daarumaya (wooden)
        mattikaamaya (made of clay)
        manomaya (born of the mind)

        Exercise 20

        Translate into English and define the secondary derivatives

        1. "Yathaa pana daaruaadiihi nipphannaani taani taani bha.n.daani
        daarumayaadiini naama honti, tathaa ete pi manato nipphannattaa
        manomayaa naama." [Dh.A.i.23]

        2. "Maa.nava, aha.m te suva.n.namaya.m vaa ma.nimaya.m vaa
        rajatamaya.m vaa lohamaya.m vaa cakkayuga.m dassaamii"ti braahma.no vadi.

        3. Maagadho Bimbisaaro raajaa attano paasaadassa uparimatale .thito
        pi.n.daaya caranta.m Bodhisattam anugacchante naagare disvaa "Kim
        etan"ti pucchi.

        4. Dayaalu Bhagavaa mahaajanata.m anukampanto sabbadaa ekattha
        avasitvaa tattha tattha vicaranto sandi.t.thika.m dhamma.m desesi.

        5. "Paa.taligaamikaa pi kho upaasakaa paade pakkhaaletvaa
        aavasathaagaara.m pavisitvaa puratthima.m bhitti.m nissaaya
        pacchimaabhimukhaa nisiidi.msu, Bhagavanta.m yeva purakkhatvaa." [V.i.227]

        6. "Assosu.m kho Vesaalikaa Licchavii: Bhagavaa kira Ko.tigaama.m
        anuppatto ti. Atha kho Vesaalikaa Licchavii bhadraani bhadraani
        yaanaani yojaapetvaa... Vesaaliyaa niiyi.msu, Bhagavanta.m
        dassanaaya." [Ibid. 231]
      • Ong Yong Peng
        The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 7. Tena kho pana samayena Raajagahikassa se.t.thissa sattavassiko siisaabaadho ahosi. Bahuu mahantaa
        Message 3 of 8 , Apr 4, 2008
          The New Pali Course Part II

          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          7. "Tena kho pana samayena Raajagahikassa se.t.thissa sattavassiko
          siisaabaadho ahosi. Bahuu mahantaa mahantaa disaapaamokkhaa vejjaa
          aagantvaa naasakkhi.msu aroga.m kaatu.m." [Ibid. 273]

          8. "Atha kho Jiivako Komaarabhacco se.t.thi.m gahapati.m ma~ncake
          nipajjaapetvaa ma~ncakena sambandhitvaa siisacchavi.m phaaletvaa...
          dve paa.nake niiharitvaa janassa dassesi." [Ibid. 274]

          9. "Se.t.thiputto: niyyaanika.m vata Buddhasaasanan ti pasiiditvaa
          yojanika.m suva.n.nacetiya.m kambalaka~ncukena parikkhipitvaa tattha
          tattha rathacakkappamaa.nehi suva.n.na-padumehi ala`nkari." [A.A.]

          10. "Tasmi.m samaye catusattati-sahassaja.tilaa pa.niita-pa.niitaa.ni
          ojavantaani phalaaphalaani gahetvaa aacariyassa santika.m sampattaa."
          [Ibid. i,150]

          New Words.

          aroga (adj) free from sickness.
          asakkhi (v) was able.
          aabaadha (m) sickness.
          aavasathaagaara (n) rest-house.
          ojavanta (adj) rich in sap, nourishing.
          ka~ncuka (m) a mantle.
          kambala (m,n) [woollen] blanket.
          komaarabhacca (adj) master of the medical treatment of infants,
          brought up by a prince.
          jana (m) a person, people.
          tena kho pana samayena (phrase) at that time.
          daaru (n) wood, timber.
          disaapaamokkha (adj) famed far and wide, eminent in a district.
          nipphanna (pp) made, conditioned.
          nissaaya (abs) close to, on account of, concerning.
          niyyaanika (adj) leading to [salvation].
          niiyi (v) was carried.
          pakkhaaletvaa (abs) having washed.
          pacchimaabhimukha (adj) facing the west.
          pa.niita (adj) delicious.
          paa.naka (m) a living being, an insect.
          paa.taligaamika (adj) living or born in Paa.taligaama.
          purakkhatvaa (abs) having in front, looking at.
          puratthima (adj) eastern.
          phaaletvaa (abs) having split, having torn.
          bhadra (adj) worthy.
          ma~ncaka (m) a small bed.
          yojaapetvaa (abs) having caused to harness.
          sandi.t.thika (adj) belonging to this life, that should be understood
          by one self.
          sattavassika (adj) that which existed for seven years.
          sambandhitvaa (abs) having connected or tied.
          sampatta (pp) arrived.
          siisacchavi (f) the scalp.

          Translate into Pali, using the secondary derivatives where it is possible

          1. The dealer in oil struck the door keeper of the rice merchant with
          a weapon made of iron.

          2. The Brahman lad, Ma.t.taku.n.dalii, was born in a golden mansion in
          the Taavati.msa heaven, on account of his devotion and love towards
          the Exalted One.

          3. The miserly Brahman, father of Ma.t.taku.n.dalii, promised him to
          give a pair of wheels made of brass, silver or gold.

          4. At that time Devadatta was seated preaching the Dhamma. And when he
          saw from afar Saariputta and Moggallaana coming towards him, he said
          to the monks: "See, monks, even the two chief disciples of the Samana
          Gotama are coming to join me."

          5. "These many distinguished young Magadha clansmen are now leading a
          holy life under the Samana Gotama." [L.G.B. 98]

          6. The Blessed One, robing himself in the forenoon, and taking his
          alms-bowl and robe, entered Kosambii for alms. And without informing
          his servitor or the bhikkhus he departed alone in the direction of

          7. "Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Anupiya, a town
          belonging to Mallas. Then the most distinguished young men of the
          Sakyan clan had renounced the world in imitation of the Blessed One."
          [L.G.B. 142]

          8. The mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan said to her son: "If, dear
          Anuruddha, Bhaddiya, the ruler of Sakyans will renounce the world, you
          also may go forth into the houseless state."

          9. "Then the Sakyas showed to Asita, the child, their prince, who was
          like the shining gold... and of peerless beauty." [L.G.B. 1]

          10. "When in the palace for rainy season, surrounded during the four
          months by female musicians, I did not go down from the palace." [Ibid. 5]

          New Words.

          alone = ekaka (adj).
          also = api, ca (indec).
          brass = tamba (m).
          chief = agga (adj).
          clansman = kulaputta (m).
          dear = piya, pemaniiya (adj).
          devotion = bhatti (f). pasaada (m).
          distinguished = abhi~n~naata (pp).
        • Ong Yong Peng
          The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta even = api (indec). female musician = naa.tikaa (f). forenoon = pubba.nha (m). from afar = duurato (indec).
          Message 4 of 8 , Apr 10, 2008
            The New Pali Course Part II

            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

            even = api (indec).
            female musician = naa.tikaa (f).
            forenoon = pubba.nha (m).
            from afar = duurato (indec).
            imitation = anukara.na (n).
            leading a holy life = brahmacariya.m caranta (phrase).
            love = mettaa (f). pasaada (m).
            miserly = luddha (adj).
            of peerless beauty = anopamava.n.na (adj).
            promised = pa.tijaani (v).
            robing [himself] = nivaasetvaa (abs).
            servitor = upa.t.thaaka (m).
            shining = tapamaana (pr.p).
            struck = pahari (v).
            to join = saha bhavitu.m, samaagamitu.m (inf).
            towards the Exalted One = use the loc. of Bhagavantu.
            towards [him] = [tassa] santika.m (adv).
            was born = nibbatti (v).
            was staying = vihari (v).

            (i) Saama~n~na - (3) Atthyattha

            119. Suffixes -ava, -ala, -ila, -ika, -ii, -vii and -ssii are annexed
            to different nouns to denote possession or the meaning "endowed with".

            kesa + ava = kesava (having much hair)

            vaacaa + ala = vaacaala (having many words, i.e. talkative, garrulous)

            ja.taa + ila = ja.tila (having matted hair, an ascetic)
            phe.na + ila = phe.nila (frothy, the soap plant)
            tu.n.da + ila = tu.n.dila (having a beak, a pecker)

            da.n.da + ika = da.n.dika (having a staff in hand)
            maalaa + ika = maalika (having a garland)
            chatta + ika = chattika (possessing an umbrella)
            ga.na + ika = ga.nika (having a large following)

            maalaa + ii = maalii (having a garland)
            vamma + ii = vammii (having an armour, a warrior)
            bhoga + ii = bhogii (wealthy, a rich person, a serpent)
            ku.t.tha + ii = ku.t.thii (leper)
            manta + ii = mantii (endowed with a political knowledge, a minister)
            danta + ii = dantii (having tusks, an elephant)

            medhaa + vii = medhaavii (endowed with knowledge, wise)
            maayaa + vii = maayaavii (having a knowledge of jugglery, juggler)

            tapa + ssii = tapassii (a hermit)
            yasa + ssii = yasassii (famous)
            teja + ssii = tejassii (brilliant, powerful)

            Note. The feminine forms of the nouns annexed with -ii, -vii and -ssii
            are formed by adding another suffix, -inii to them.

            maalii + inii = maalinii (a woman who has a garland)
            mantii + inii = mantinii (a ministress)
            medhaavii + inii = medhaavinii (a wise woman)
            tapassii + inii = tapassinii (a nun)

            120. To denote possession, "-vantu" and "-mantu" are suffixed to
            different nouns (-vantu is suffixed to the nouns ending in a, and the
            other to those ending in i and u).

            gu.na + vantu = gu.navantu (virtuous)
            dhana + vantu = dhanavantu (rich)
            buddhi + mantu = buddhimantu (wise)
            bhaanu + mantu = bhaanumantu (luminous, the sun)
            aayu + mantu becomes aayasmantu through aayusmantu, but not aayumantu.

            More words of this kind and their declension are given under §28 of
            the First Book.

            The feminine of these is formed by adding an ii at the end of the
            suffix and dropping u before it.

            gu.navantu + ii = gu.navantii (a virtuous woman)
            satimantu + ii = satimantii (a mindful woman)

            Sometimes they drop not only u but also n of the suffix.

            dhana + vantu + ii = dhanavatii (a rich woman)
            buddhi + mantu + ii = buddhimatii (a wise woman)

            121. An additional -ii is annexed to form the feminine of the
            derivatives formed with the suffixes .nava, .nika, .neyya, .na, -vantu
            and -mantu.

            .nava: maa.nava + ii = maa.navii (a lass)
            .nika: naavika + ii = naavikii (woman sailor)
            .neyya: bhaagineyya + ii = bhaagineyyii (sister's daughter)
            .na: gotama + ii = gotamii (a woman of the Gotama clan)

            122. "-a" is suffixed to some nouns to denote possession.

            saddhaa (faith) + a = saddha (faithful)
          • Ong Yong Peng
            The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta pa~n~naa (wisdom) + a = pa~n~na (wise) paapa (sin) + a = paapa (sinful) 123. -tara is suffixed to form the
            Message 5 of 8 , Apr 17, 2008
              The New Pali Course Part II

              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              pa~n~naa (wisdom) + a = pa~n~na (wise)
              paapa (sin) + a = paapa (sinful)

              123. "-tara" is suffixed to form the adjectives of the comparative
              degree, and "-tama" to form those of the superlative.

              positive: paapa (sinful)
              comparative: paapatara (more or very sinful)
              superlative: paapatama (most sinful)

              positive: sundara (good)
              comparative: sundaratara (better)
              superlative: sundaratama (best)

              Exercise 21

              Translate into English and define the derivatives

              1. Ucchinda sineham attano
              Kumuda.m saaradika.m va paa.ninaa." [Dhp.285]

              2. "N'eva kho asakkhi Vaase.t.tho maa.navo Bhaaradvaaja.m maa.nava.m
              sa~n~naapetu.m; na pana asakkhi Bhaaradvaajo maa.navo pi Vaase.t.tha.m
              maa.nava.m sa~n~naapetu.m." [D.i.236]

              3. "Kusaavatiyaa, Aananda, raajadhaaniyaa... eka.m dvaara.m
              sova.n.namaya.m, eka.m ruupiyamaya.m, eka.m ve.luriyamaya.m, eka.m
              phalikamaya.m." [D.ii.170]

              4. "Mayha.m bhaagineyyo imassa rajjassa saamiko'va; dhiitara.m
              etass'eva detvaa abhisekam assa karissaamii ti." [J.Asilakkha.na]

              5. "Atiite Baaraa.nasiya.m Brahmadatte rajja.m kaarente bodhisatto
              bhaatikasatassa ka.ni.t.tho ahosi.' [J.Pa~ncagaru]

              6. "Baaraa.nasiya.m Yaso naama kulaputto se.t.thiputto sukhumaalo
              hoti; tassa tayo paasaadaa honti; eko hemantiko, eko gimhiko, eko
              vassiko." [V.i.15]

              7. "Ida.m kho, mahaaraaja, sandi.t.thika.m saama~n~naphala.m purimehi
              sandi.t.thikehi saama~n~naphalehi abhikkantatara~n ca pa.niitatara~n
              ca." [D.i.85]

              8. "Ra~n~no Mahaa-Sudassanassa... uparipaasaada-vara-gatassa dibba.m
              cakkaratana.m paaturahosi, sahassaara.m, sanemika.m, sanaabhika.m,

              9. "Tassaa ca saaminii tattha
              Kuve.nii naama yakkhinii
              Nisiidi rukkhamuulamhi
              Kantantii taapasii viya." [Mahaava.msa]

              10. "Mahaa-Kassapathero ca,
              Anuruddho mahaaga.nii,
              Upaalitthero satimaa,
              Aanando ca bahussuto,
              A~n~ne bahuu abhi~n~naataa
              Saavakaa Satthu-va.n.nitaa
              Sabbe pa~ncasataa theraa
              Nava`nga.m Jinasaasana.m
              Uggahetvaana dhaaresu.m
              Buddhase.t.thassa santike." [Mahaava.msa]

              New Words.

              abhi~n~naata (pp) well-known.
              abhikkantatara (adj) more brilliant.
              ucchindati (v) breaks up, destroys.
              ka.ni.t.tha (adj) youngest.
              kantantii (f/pr.p) spinning.
              kulaputta (m) son of a respectable family.
              gimhika (adj) suited for the summer.
              cakkaratana (n) the wheel-gem [of a universal monarch].
              taapasii (f) female hermit.
              dibba (adj) celestial.
              nava`nga (adj) that which has nine divisions.
              pa.niitatara (adj) sweeter, higher.
              paaturahosi (v) manifested.
              purima (adj) former, first.
              phalika (m) crystal.
              bahussuta (adj) much learned.
              bhaatika (m) brother.
              mahaaga.nii (m/n) having a great following.
              raajadhaanii (f) royal city.
              va.n.nita (adj) praised.
              vassika (adj) suited for the rainy season.
              ve.luriya (n) turquoise.
              sa~n~naapetu.m (inf) to convince.
              sandi.t.thika (adj) seen in this life.
              sanaabhika (adj) having a nave or hub.
              sanemika (adj) having a tyre.
              sabbaakaara-paripuura (adj) complete in every way.
              sahassaara (adj) having one thousand spokes.
              saamika (m) owner, master.
              saaminii (f) mistress.
              saaradika (adj) autumnal.
              saama~n~naphala (n) fruit of the life of a recluse.
              sineha (m) love.
              sukhumaala (adj) delicate.
              hemantika (adj) suited for the winter.

              Translate into Pali, using derivatives where it is possible

              1. There were in the city of Kusaavatii seven ramparts and seven gates
              all made of seven kinds of precious things.
            • Ong Yong Peng
              The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 2. There were eighty-four thousand ponds in the neighbourhood of the palace of King Mahaa-Sudassana; he also
              Message 6 of 8 , Apr 22, 2008
                The New Pali Course Part II

                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                2. There were eighty-four thousand ponds in the neighbourhood of the
                palace of King Mahaa-Sudassana; he also possessed 48,000 horses, and
                the same amount of elephants and chariots.

                3. "Now his mother at Raajagaha, seeing other councillors' sons and
                their wives dressed in their best, enjoying themselves at a festival,
                thought of her son and wept." [P.B.228]

                4. "Now when our Master had attained omniscience and begun rolling the
                wheel of the Norm, and was staying at Raajagaha, King Bimbisaara sent
                for So.na." [Ibid. 275]

                5. "He, having arrived with a great company of fellow townsmen, heard
                the Master teach the Norm, and, winning faith, obtained his parents'
                consent to enter the Order." [Ibid. 275]

                6. "Then the young Brahman Vaase.t.tha said to the young Brahman
                Bhaaradvaaja: That Sama.na Gotama, Bhaaradvaaja, of the sons of the
                Saakyas... is now staying at Manasaaka.ta, in the mango grove, on the
                bank of the river Aciravatii." [D.B.i.301]

                7. "Then you say Vaase.t.tha, that none of the Brahmans, or of their
                teachers, or of their pupils, even up to the seventh generation, has
                ever seen Brahmaa face to face." [Ibid. i.304]

                8. "Just, Vaase.t.tha, as when a string of blind men are clinging one
                to the other, neither can the foremost see, nor can the middle one
                see, nor can the hindermost see - just even so... is the talk of the
                Brahmans." {Ibid. i.305]

                9. "As they passed along he pointed out to him a field that had been
                burnt over, and on a charred stump was seated a she-monkey with her
                nose and tail destroyed." [B.T.270]

                10. "But the youngest of them all, a youth whose clan-name was
                Ko.n.da~n~na... raised only one finger... saying: There is here naught
                to make him stay in the household life." [Ibid. 52]

                New Words.

                began rolling = pavattesi or pava.t.tesi (v).
                burnt over = da.d.dha, jhaapita (pp).
                charred = jhaama (adj).
                clinging = alliina (adj).
                consent = anu~n~naa, anumati (f).
                destroyed = vinaasita (pp).
                enjoying = abhiramanta (pr.p).
                face to face = sakkhi (indec). paccakkha.m (adv).
                fellow townsman = sakanaagarika (m).
                festival = cha.na, ussava (m).
                foremost = sabbapa.thama (adj).
                generation = kulapariva.t.ta (n).
                hindermost = sabbapacchima (adj).
                household life = gharaavaasa (m).
                just as = seyyathaa pi (indec).
                just so = evam eva (indec).
                naught = na ki~nci (indec).
                neighbourhood = aasanna.t.thaana, saamanta (n).
                norm = dhamma (m).
                omniscience = sabba~n~nutaa (f).
                precious thing = ratana (n).
                raised = ukkhipi (v).
                same amount = tattaka (adj).
                sent for = pakkosaapesi (v).
                string [of blind] = [andha-]paramparaa (f).
                stump = khaa.nu (m).
                tail = na`ngu.t.tha (n). vaaladhi (m).
                to make stay = nivattetu.m, vasaapetu.m (inf).
                wept = parodi (v).
                winning = [use here] pa.tilabhitvaa (abs).

                (i) Saama~n~na - (4) Sa`nkhyaataddhita

                Numerical derivatives

                124. "-ma" is suffixed to the cardinal numerals to form ordinals.

                pa~nca + ma = pa~ncama (fifth)
                satta + ma = sattama (seventh)
                a.t.tha + ma = a.t.thama (eighth)

                Being adjectives, these are in the three genders. In the feminine they
                take in addition the feminine suffix aa or ii.

                pa~ncama + aa = pa~ncamaa (the fifth [woman])
                pa~ncama + ii = pa~ncamii (the fifth [division])

                And so on in every case.

                125. "-tiya" is suffixed to "dvi" and "ti" to form ordinals. "Dvi"
                becomes "du" and "ti" becomes "ta" before that suffix.

                dvi + tiya = du + tiya = dutiya (second)
                ti + tiya = ta + tiya = tatiya (third)

                Dvi takes the forms du and di when it is followed by some other nouns
                or suffixes.

                dvi + vidha = duvidha (of two kinds)
                dvi + rattiiyo = diratta.m (two nights)
                dvi + gu.na = digu.na (twofold)

                126. "-ttha" is suffixed to "catu" and ".t.tha" to "cha" in order to
                form the ordinals.

                catu + ttha = catuttha (fourth)
                cha + .t.tha = cha.t.tha (sixth)
              • Ong Yong Peng
                The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 127. -ii is suffixed to dasa, when it is preceded by some other numeral, to form ordinals denoting a lunar
                Message 7 of 8 , Apr 28, 2008
                  The New Pali Course Part II

                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                  127. "-ii" is suffixed to dasa, when it is preceded by some other
                  numeral, to form ordinals denoting a lunar day. In that compound the
                  last vowel of the preceding numeral sometimes becomes aa.

                  eka + dasa + ii = ekaadasii (the 11th day)
                  dvi + dasa + ii = dvaadasii (the 12th day)
                  pa~nca + dasa + ii = pa~ncadasii or pa.n.narasii (the 15th day)
                  catu + dasa + ii = caatuddasii (the 14th day)
                  (The first vowel is lengthened here)

                  128. "-ka" is suffixed to the numerals to form the collective nouns.

                  dvi + ka = dvika (a pair)
                  ti + ka = tika (a triad)
                  catu + ka = catukka (consisting of four)
                  sata + ka = sataka (a group of a hundred)
                  dasa + ka = dasaka (a group of ten)

                  (ii) Bhaava (Gerundial)

                  129. -taa, -tta, -ttana, .nya and .neyya are suffixed to some nouns to
                  denote the state, nature or quality of being.

                  lahu (light) + taa = lahutaa (lightness)
                  suura (hero) + taa = suurataa (heroism)
                  se.t.tha (highest) + taa = se.t.thataa (greatness)
                  hiina (vulgar) + taa = hiinataa (vulgarity)

                  manussa + tta = manussatta (state of a man, humanity)
                  yaacaka + tta = yaacakatta (state of a beggar)
                  bahussuta + tta = bahussutatta (learned state)

                  puthujjana + ttana = puthujjanattana (state of an unconverted person)
                  jaayaa + ttana = jaayattana (state of a wife)

                  aroga (health) + .nya = aarogya (healthfulness)
                  dubbala (feeble) + .nya = dubbalya (feebleness)

                  .n in .nya is indicative of strengthening of the first vowel.

                  130. Many consonants before .nya change their forms together with ya
                  of the suffix.

                  t + .nya = tya becomes cca
                  l + .nya = lya becomes lla
                  d + .nya = dya becomes jja
                  .n + .nya = .nya becomes ~n~na
                  j + .nya = jya becomes jja
                  s + .nya = sya becomes ssa

                  pa.n.dita + .nya = pa.n.ditya = pa.n.dicca (scholarship, erudition)
                  adhipati + .nya = aadhipatya = aadhipacca (lordship, government)
                  bahusuta + .nya = baahusutya = baahusacca (learnedness). u of suta is
                  changed into a.
                  kusala + .nya = vepulya = vepulla (increase, abundance)
                  suhada + .nya = sohadya = sohajja (friendliness)
                  raaja + .nya = raajya = rajja (kingship, kingdom)
                  nipuna + .nya = nepu.nya = nepu~n~na (skill, experience)
                  gilaana + .nya = gelanya = gela~n~na (sickness)
                  sumana + .nya = (adding an s to the stem) somanasya = somanassa (joy,
                  bhisaja (physician) + .nya = bhesajya = bhesajja (medicine, work of a

                  adhipati + .neyya = aadhipateyya (lordship, power)
                  sa.tha + .neyya = saa.theyya (craft, fraud)
                  patha + .neyya = paatheyya (provision for a journey)

                  131. .na is suffixed to a few nouns to denote the state.

                  pa.tu + .na = paa.tava (dexterity, expertness)
                  garu + .na = gaarava (heaviness, respect)

                  Remark. The derivatives formed with -taa are in the feminine; those
                  formed with -tta, -ttana, .nya and .neyya are in the neuter. Paa.tava
                  and gaarava are in the masculine. Pa.tutaa, garutaa and pa.tutta.m,
                  garutta.m, which are in the feminine and the neuter respectively are
                  also found.

                  (iii) Avyaya (Indeclinables and adverbials)

                  132. "-kkhattu.m" is suffixed to the numerals to form the
                  multiplicative adverbs.

                  eka + kkhattu.m = ekakkhattu.m (once)
                  dvikkhattu.m (twice)
                  dasakkhattu.m (ten times)
                  sahassakkhattu.m (thousand times)
                  bahukkhattu.m (many times)

                  133. "-dhaa" is suffixed to the numerals to form the adverbs of manner.

                  pa~nca + dhaa = pa~ncadhaa (in five ways)
                  dasadhaa (in ten ways)
                • Ong Yong Peng
                  The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta satadhaa (in hundred ways) bahudhaa (in many ways) katidhaa (in how many ways) 134. -so is suffixed to
                  Message 8 of 8 , May 4, 2008
                    The New Pali Course Part II

                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                    satadhaa (in hundred ways)
                    bahudhaa (in many ways)
                    katidhaa (in how many ways)

                    134. "-so" is suffixed to some nouns to form the distributive adverbs.

                    pa~ncaso (five by five)
                    .thaanaso (according to the place or cause)
                    pada (word) + so = padaso (word by word)
                    sabbaso (in every way)
                    yoni (origin) + so = yoniso (according to origin or insight)
                    bahuso (in many ways, almost)

                    135. "-thaa" and "-tha.m" are suffixed to some pronouns in order to
                    form the adverbs of manner.

                    ta + thaa = tathaa (so, like that, in that way)
                    ya + thaa = yathaa (as, like)
                    a~n~na + thaa = a~n~nathaa (in another way)
                    ubhaya + thaa = ubhayathaa (in both ways)
                    sabba + thaa = sabbathaa (in every way)
                    ki.m + tha.m = katha.m (how, in what way)
                    ima + tha.m = ittha.m (thus)
                    (ima becomes i, and th of the suffix is reduplicated)

                    136. "-tana" is suffixed to some indeclinables to form adjectives from

                    ajja + tana = ajjatana (belonging to this day)
                    sve + tana = svaatana (belonging to tomorrow)
                    hiiyo + tana = hiiyattana (belonging to yesterday)
                    puraa + tana = puraatana (belonging to the olden days, old)
                    sana.m + tana = sanantana (ancient)
                    (sve becomes svaa, and hiiyo becomes hiiya before -tana)

                    137. "-tra", "-ttha", "-hi.m" and "ha.m" are suffixed to some pronouns
                    in order to form adverbs of place.

                    sabba + tra = sabbatra (everywhere)
                    sabba + ttha = sabbattha (everywhere)
                    ta + tra = tatra (there)
                    ta + ttha = tattha (there)
                    ya + ttha = yattha (wherever)
                    a~n~na + tra = a~n~natra (in another place or without)
                    ima + ttha = ettha (here). ma is elided, and i becomes e.
                    ima + tra = atra (here). ma is elided, and i becomes a.
                    ki.m + hi.m = kuhi.m. ki.m becomes ku.
                    ta + hi.m, ha.m = tahi.m, taha.m (there)

                    138. "-daa", "-daani" and "-daacana.m" are suffixed to some pronouns
                    in order to form adverbs of time.

                    ya + daa = yadaa (whenever)
                    ta + daa = tadaa (then)
                    sabba + daa = sabbadaa (ever)
                    eka + daa = ekadaa (one day, once)
                    ki.m + daa = kadaa (when?)
                    ima + daani = idaani (now)
                    ki.m + daacana.m = kudaacana.m (sometimes). na kudaacana.m = never.

                    139. "-ha" and "-dha" are suffixed to "-ima" to form two adverbs of place.

                    ima + ha = iha (here)
                    ima + dha = idha (here)
                    ma of ima is elided before these.

                    Exercise 22

                    Translate into English and define the derivatives

                    1. Aayasmaa Aanandatthero Bhagavato saavakesu baahusaccena
                    pa.n.diccena ca aggo ahosi.

                    2. Medhaavinii maa.navii dullabha.m manussatta.m labhitvaa bahu.m
                    pu~n~na.m upaci.naati.

                    3. Rogii vejjena dinna-bhesajjam upasevitvaa aarogya.m pa.tilabhitvaa
                    attano somanassa.m pakaasesi.

                    4. Ekadaa Mahaa-Kassapatthero gela~n~nenaabhipii.lito Raajagahato
                    aviduure Pipphaliguhaaya.m vihari.

                    5. Medhaavino sissaa garuuna.m mahanta.m gaarava.m dassetvaa
                    naanaasatthesu paa.tava.m labhanti.

                    6. "Yathaa tasmi.m gehe .thapetvaa maa.navakassa palla`nka.m a~n~na.m
                    ki~nci aasana.m na dissati, tathaa adhi.t.thaasi." [Samp. i.38]

                    7. "Tato pa.t.thaaya yattha yattha pa.n.dita-samanabraahma.naa atthii
                    vadanti, tattha tattha gantvaa saakaccha.m karonti." [Dh.A. i.90]

                    8. "Sahassakkhattu.m attaana.m
                    Nimminitvaana Panthako
                    Nisiid'ambavane ramme
                    Yaava kaalappavedanaa." [Dh.A. i.248]
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