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The New Pali Course Part II [5-1/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 2. Raajaa te sabbe gaahaapetvaa... aavaa.te kha.naapetvaa te tattha nisiidaapetvaa upari palaala.m
    Message 1 of 10 , Feb 4, 2008
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      The New Pali Course Part II

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      2. "Raajaa te sabbe gaahaapetvaa... aavaa.te kha.naapetvaa te tattha
      nisiidaapetvaa upari palaala.m vikiraapetvaa aggi.m daapesi." [Ibid.
      i.223]

      3. "Pa~ncasata-taapase Himavantato aagantvaa nagare bhikkhaaya carante
      disvaa pasiiditvaa nisiidaapetvaa bhojetvaa pa.ti~n~na.m gahetvaa
      cattaaro maase attano santike vasaapetvaa... uyyojesu.m." [Ibid. i.203]

      4. "Daharakaalato pa.t.thaaya hi ta.m maaraapetu.m vaayamanto va
      se.t.thii maaraapetu.m naasakkhi; ki.m akkharasamaya.m
      sikkhaapessati?" [Ibid. i.180]

      5. "Gaamamajjhe vuttappakaara.m geha.m kaaretvaa-gaamasatato
      pa.n.naakaara.m aaharaapetvaa janapadase.t.thino dhiitara.m aaharitvaa
      ma`ngala.m katvaa se.t.thissa saasana.m pahi.ni." [Ibid. i.182]

      6. "Tassa he.t.thaabhaaga.m sodhaapetvaa paakaara-parikkhepa.m
      kaaraapetvaa vaalika.m okiraapetvaa dhaja-pataaka.m ussaapetvaa
      vanappati.m ala`nkaritvaa... patthana.m katvaa pakkaami." [Ibid. i.1]

      7. "Tena kho pana samayena aayasmato Saariputtassa upa.t.thaaka-kula.m
      aayasmato Saariputtassa santike daaraka.m paahesi: ima.m daaraka.m
      thero pabbaajetuu'ti." [V.i.83]

      8. "Sace vo dhanena attho, khippa.m ma.m bandhanaa mocetvaa siisa.m
      nahaapetvaa ahatavatthaani acchaadetvaa gandhehi vilimpaapetvaa
      pupphaani pilandhaapetvaa .thapethaa ti." [J. Vedabbha]

      9. "Sakko devaraajaa: 'ki.m no saadhaara.nena rajjenaa ti Asure
      dibbapaana.m paayetvaa matte samaane paadesu gahetvaa sinerupapaate
      khipaapesi." [J. Kulaavaka]

      10. "Raajaa pa~ncasate naggasama.nake gaahaapetvaa... aavaa.tesu
      nikha.naapetvaa palaalehi pa.ticchaadetvaa aggi.m daapesi." [Dh.A.iii.67]

      New Words.

      akkarasamaya (m) science of reading and writing.
      ahata (adj) new.
      aaharaapetvaa (abs) having caused to bring.
      uyyojesi (v) sent away.
      okiraapetvaa (abs) having caused to strew.
      dahara (adj) young.
      daapesi (v) caused to give.
      nagga (adj) naked.
      nikhanaapetvaa (abs) having caused to dig.
      pa.ti~n~naa (f) consent, promise.
      pa.n.naakaara (m) present.
      patthanaa (f) aspiration.
      pabbaajeti (v) causes to become a monk.
      parikkhepa (m) encircling.
      palaala (n) straw.
      paayetvaa (abs) having caused to drink.
      paahesi (v) caused to send.
      bandhana (n) bond, binding.
      ma`ngala (n) [marriage] ceremony.
      mocetvaa (abs) having untied or released.
      vanappati (m) a tree which bears fruit without flowers.
      vaayamanta (pr.p) trying.
      vilimpaapetvaa (abs) having caused to be toiletted.
      vikiraapetvaa (abs) having caused to scatter.
      vuttappakaara (adj) of the given description.
      saadhaara.na (adj) common.
      sikkhaapeti (v) teaches.
      sodhaapetvaa (abs) having caused to cleanse.

      Translate into Pali

      1. The monarch of the realm caused a great stuupa to be erected at the
      spot where the Elder was killed.

      2. He caused the great palace to be rebuilt at a cost of hundred
      thousand gold pieces.

      3. You must make him do this or else he is sure to cause the enemy
      king to attack your realm.

      4. "If you want the crown, release me from these bonds" said the
      clever brahmin to the young prince.

      5. The princess caused the three soothsayers to be brought to her and
      made them severally explain to her why she could not marry her lover.

      6. The brahmin Uddaalaka Aaru.ni taught his son Svetaketu all he knew.

      7. The farmer caused a well to be dug right in the middle of his field
      by the peasants.

      8. The mother caused the slave-woman to feed her baby.

      9. The evil monk Devadatta made the foolish prince Ajaatasattu kill
      his own father.

      10. Having caused red flowers to be hung round his neck, the Prime
      Minister had him led from junction to junction and street to street.

      New Words.

      causes to attack = hanaapeti (v).
      caused to feed = paayaapesi (v).
      caused to be rebuilt = puna kaaraapesi (v).
      clever = (upaaya-)kusala (adj).
      could not = na sakkhi [with infinitive] (v).
      cost = paribbaya (m).
      crown = maku.ta (n,m).
      else = no ce (indec).
      had (him) led = nayaapesi (v).
      having caused to be hung = olambaapetvaa (abs).
      (is) sure = addhaa, dhuva.m (adv).
      junction = si`nghaa.taka (n).
      lover = vaaritaka, piyaayaka (m).
      made (them) explain = vitthaaraapesi (v).

      (to be continued...)

      The New Pali Course Part II [4-1/8]
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11864
    • Ong Yong Peng
      The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta must make (him) do = kaaretabba.m (pot.p). peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m). realm = rajja (n). severally
      Message 2 of 10 , Feb 10, 2008
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        The New Pali Course Part II

        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        must make (him) do = kaaretabba.m (pot.p).
        peasant = gaamika, jaanapadika (m).
        realm = rajja (n).
        severally = visu.m visu.m (indec).
        soothsayer = nimittapaa.thaka (m).
        taught (he) = ugga.nhaapesi (v).
        to marry = aavaahetu.m, vivaahetu.m* (inf).

        SYNTAX

        Position of Words in a Sentence

        90. Words qualifying the subject or the object generally come before
        the subject or object respectively.

        Adverbs come before the verb; but the adverbs of time always come
        first in a sentence, e.g.,

        Tadaa tasmi.m gaame cattaaro purisaa mahanta.m rukkha.m siigha.m
        chindi.msu.

        Subject: purisaa
        Word qualifying it: cattaaro
        Object: rukkha.m
        Word qualifying it: mahanta.m
        Verb: chindi.msu
        Adverb: siigha.m
        Extension of Predicate: tadaa; tasmi.m gaame

        91. Addressing words (which are in the vocative) are very often placed
        first in a sentence.

        (1) "Bhante, imasmi.m saasane kati dhuraani?" (Reverend Sir, how many
        offices or responsibilities are there in this religion?) -- Dh.A.i.7

        (2) "Aavuso, ima.m temaasa.m katiihi iriyaapathehi viitinaamessatha?"
        (Brethren, in how many postures will you spend these three months?) --
        Ibid. i.9

        (3) "Bhoti, sace vejja.m aanessaami, bhattavetana.m daatabba.m
        bhavissati." (My dear, if I bring a physician, food and fees should be
        given to him.) -- Ibid. i.25

        92. A. Interrogation is expressed by using interrogative adverbs,
        pronouns, or particles at the beginning of a sentence.

        When there is an interrogative word in a sentence, the addressing
        word, if there be any, takes the second, the last, or some other place
        in it.

        (1) "Ki.m kathesi, bhaatika?" (What do you say, brother?) -- Dh.A.i.6

        (2) "Ap'aavuso, amhaaka.m satthaara.m jaanaasi?" (Do you, reverend
        friend, know our Master?) -- D.ii.162

        (3) "Kim pana, bhante, idaani pi dinne labhissantii ti?" (What, Sir,
        will they get it if it is given now?) -- Dh.A.i.104

        (4) "Kuhi.m yaasi, upaasaka?" (Where do you go, devotee?) -- Ibid. i.18

        (5) "Kaha.m gato'si, aavuso?" (Where did you go, friend (monk)?) --
        Ibid. ii.257

        (6) "Ko tattha vasati?" (Who is dwelling there?) -- Ibid. i.14

        (7) "Kasmaa so sappo eta.m na .dasi?" (Why did this serpent not bite
        him?) -- Ibid. ii.258

        B. Interrogation is also expressed by placing the verb first in a
        sentence, followed by the particle nu very often.

        "Passatha nu tumhe, bhikkhave, amu.m mahanta.m aggikkhandha.m...?" (Do
        you, O monks, see that great mass of fire?) -- A.iv.128

        93. Words of assent also are placed at the beginning of a sentence.
        Addressing words in such sentences are placed next to the assenting words.

        * To bring a woman in marriage is aavaaha; to give away a woman is
        vivaaha.

        (to be continued...)
      • Ong Yong Peng
        The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta (1) Aama, samma, idaanaaha.m vihaara.m gantvaa thera.m... disvaa aagato mhi. (Yes, friend, just now I went
        Message 3 of 10 , Feb 18, 2008
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          The New Pali Course Part II

          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          (1) "Aama, samma, idaanaaha.m vihaara.m gantvaa thera.m... disvaa
          aagato'mhi." (Yes, friend, just now I went to the monastery and came
          back having seen the thera.) -- Dh.A.i.19

          (2) "Evam, aavuso'ti kho aayasmaa Aanando tassa bhikkhuno pa.tissutvaa
          yena Bhagavaa ten'upasa`nkami." (Replying to that monk (saying) "yes,
          Sir," the venerable Aananda went to the place where the Blessed One
          was.) -- D.ii.144

          94. Extension of Predicate, be it a single word, a phrase, or a clause
          is placed before the verb.

          (1) "Ajja kho pan'Aananda, rattiyaa pacchime yaame, Kusinaaraaya.m...
          Mallaana.m saalavane, antarena yamakasaalaana.m, Tathaagatassa
          parinibbaa.na.m bhavissati." -- D.ii.134.

          Subject: parinibbaa.na.m
          Predicate: bhavissati
          Extensions of the same:
          (i) ajja
          (ii) rattiyaa pacchime yaame
          (iii) Kusinaaraaya.m Mallaana.m saalavane
          (iv) antarena yamaka-saalaana.m

          (2) Luddako miga.m maaretvaa ma.msa.m pacitvaa khaaditvaa paaniiya.m
          pivitvaa avasesam aadaaya ghara.m agamaasi.

          Extensions of the predicate here are:
          (i) miga.m maaretvaa
          (ii) ma.msa.m pacitvaa
          (iii) (ma.msa.m) khaaditvaa
          (iv) paaniiya.m pivitvaa
          (v) avasesam aadaaya

          95. The conditional particles "sace", "yadi" and the interjections are
          placed at the beginning of a sentence.

          96. Copulative ca, disjunctive vaa and the conditional ce are never
          placed at the beginning of a sentence.

          (1) "Sac'aaha.m geha.m gamissaami: Saamiko te kuhin? ti pucchissanti."
          (If I go home, they will ask me: "Where is your husband?") -- Dh.A.ii.222

          (2) "Yadi pana me paraajayo bhaveyya, matam me jiivitaa seyyo." (It is
          better to die if I am to be vanquished.) -- Guttilavimaana

          (3) "Paapa~n ce puriso kayiraa,
          Na ta.m kayiraa punappuna.m."
          (If a man does a bad action once, he should not do it again and
          again.) -- Dhp.117

          (4) "Aho! Imasmi.m loke ayutta.m vattati." (Alas! injustice prevails
          in this world!) -- J. Kukkura

          (5) Haa! Hato'smi. (Ah! lost am I.)

          (6) "Ekasmi.m pabbatapaade siiho ca vyaggho ca ekissaa yeva guhaaya
          vasanti." -- J. Maaluta

          Note here that the two subjects, which are in the singular, are
          connected with ca, and the verb is in the plural.

          97. The following indeclinables are used correlatively:-

          (i) yathaa (as); tathaa (so).
          (ii) yaava...; taava (as long as, until).
          (iii) yadaa (when); tadaa (then).
          (iv) yattha (where); tattha (there).

          (1) "Yathaa me dhanacchedo na hoti tathaa karissaami." (I shall so see
          to it (lit. do it) that there is no loss to my wealth.) -- Dh.A.i.25

          (2) Yaavaa'ha.m aagamissami taava idh'eva ti.t.thaahi. (Wait here till
          I come.)

          (3) "Yadaa te vivadissanti.
          Tadaa ehinti me vasa.m." -- J. Sammodamaana
          (They will (then) come under my power when they will begin to
          dispute among themselves.)

          (4) Yattha Bhagavaa dhamma.m deseti tattha mahaajano sannipatati. (A
          great crowd assembles (there) where the Blessed One preaches the
          doctrine.)

          Note that the clause containing the relative is placed first.

          Concord

          98. When there are several subjects of different persons and one verb
          in a sentence, the verb is put in the First Person plural.

          Should there be no subject of the First Person, the verb is put in the
          Second Person plural.

          (1) So ca tva~n ca aha~n ca gaama.m gacchaama. (He, you and I go to
          the village.)

          (2) Te ca tumhe ca nadiya.m nahaayatha. (They and you bathe in the river.)

          99. One subject may have more than one finite verb.

          "Ki.m bha.ne, ti.t.thatha? Ima.m kumaara.m ga.nhatha, hanatha,
          palaapetha." (Why do, you fellows, stand still? Take this prince, beat
          him, and drive him away.) -- J. Nidaana

          (to be continued...)
        • Ong Yong Peng
          The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta The subject tumhe here is understood. In analysing this, one must introduce the subject with each verb. 100.
          Message 4 of 10 , Feb 23, 2008
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            The New Pali Course Part II

            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

            The subject tumhe here is understood. In analysing this, one must
            introduce the subject with each verb.

            100. When there are more than one subject connected with "ca", in a
            sentence, the verb must be in the plural. In this case, the action of
            the various subjects must be similar.

            "Raajaa ca raajaputtaa ca janapade niyuttaka-puriso ca
            bha.n.daagaariko ca anupubbena kaala`nkatvaa saddhi.m parisaaya sagge
            uppajji.msu."

            (The king, the princes, the officer who was in charge of the remote
            district, and the treasurer died in their turn and were born in heaven
            with their own followers.)

            -- Khp.A.203

            101. When an action of many is the same, but if some of them are
            introduced by one of the particles "saha", "saddhi.m", or "sama.m"
            (denoting "with"), or with the instrumental case, the verb follows the
            subject which is in the nominative.

            (1) Raajaa saha parisaaya uyyaana.m agami. (The king went to the park
            together with his following.)

            (2) "Ajjaa'ha.m pa~ncahi bhikkhusatehi saddhi.m vihaare yeva
            nisiidissaami." (Today, I shall stay in the monastery together with
            five hundred monks.) -- Dh.A.i.369

            (3) Satthaa Aanandattherena pacchaasama.nena pi.n.daaya cari. (The
            master went on his begging round followed by his attendant, Elder
            Aananda.)

            In this third example, there is no connecting particle but only the
            instrumental case.

            Note: Saha is placed before the connected word, and saddhi.m after the
            same; sama.m is found very seldom, it is seen placed before the
            connected word.

            102. When the subject is a collective noun, the verb takes the
            singular form.

            (1) "Tesu gacchantesu sa~njayassa parisaa bhijji." (Sa~njaya's
            following was broken when they - Sariputta and Moggallaana - were
            going away.) -- Dh.A.i.95

            There were many persons, but as they were taken collectively the verb
            stands in the singular.

            (2) "Ra~n~no Udenassa orodho yen'aayasmaa Aanando ten'upasa`nkami."
            (The harem of King Udena came to the place where the venerable Aananda
            was.) -- V. Cullavagga

            103. The following couples of indeclinables, in the same sentence,
            give the following meanings:-

            (i) ca ... ca (both ... and)
            (ii) vaa ... vaa (whether ... or, either ... or)
            (iii) pi ... pi (both ... and)
            (iv) ca ... ca or vaa ... vaa in a negative sentence are equivalent to
            neither ... nor

            (1) "Tasmi.m kha.ne Mahaa-Moggallaanatthero ca Aanandatthero ca
            cintesu.m." (At that moment, both the Elders Mahaa-Moggallaana and
            Aananda thought.) -- Dh.A.

            (2) "Manasaa ce padu.t.thena bhaasati vaa karoti vaa." (If one speaks
            or acts with a corrupted mind.) -- Dhp.1

            (3) "Hatthe pi chindanti atho pi paade." (They cut both their hands
            and (also) their feet.) -- Revatii-Vimaana

            (4) (a) Tayaa vaa mayaa vaa tattha gantabba.m. (Either you or I must
            go there.)

            (b) Tehi vaa amhehi vaa ta.m na katabba.m. (Neither by them nor by us
            should it be done.)

            Another way of conveying the same meaning is:

            (c) N'eva tumhehi na amhehi ta.m bhu~njitabba.m. (Neither by you, nor
            by us should it be eaten.)

            (d) Na ca so na ca a~n~no paraloka.m gacchati. (Neither the same
            person, nor another (person) goes to the other world.)

            Exercise 18

            Translate into English

            1. "Na tassa.m parisaaya.m koci devo abhivaadeti vaa paccu.t.theti
            vaa." [D.ii.226]

            2. "Paa.taliputtassa kho, Aananda, tayo antarayaa bhavissanti: aggito
            vaa, udakato vaa, mithubhedaa vaa." [D.ii.88]

            3. "Mahaajano attano attano putta-dhiitu-~naatiina.m atthaaya
            paridevamaano mahaasaddam akaasi." [Dh.A.ii.6]

            4. "Te attano antevaasikehi a.d.dhateyyehi paribbaajakasatehi saddhi.m
            Ve.luvana.m agama.msu." [Dh.A.i.95]

            5. "Satthari Aggaa.lave cetiye viharante bahuu upaasikaa ca
            bhikkhuniyo ca vihaara.m dhammasava.naaya gacchanti." [J.i.160]

            6. "Kosalaraajaa mahantena balena aagantvaa Baaraa.nasi.m gahetvaa
            ta.m raajaana.m maaretvaa tass'eva aggamahesi.m attano aggamahesi.m
            akaasi." [J. Asaataruupa]

            7. "Sace ayyaa ima.m temaasa.m idha vasissanti, aha.m...
            uposathakamma.m karissaami." [Dh.A.i.290]

            (to be continued...)
          • Ong Yong Peng
            The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 8. Yaav assa a~n~no koci patta.m na ga.nhaati, taav assa gantvaa patta.m ga.nha. [Dh.A.iv.128] 9. Saadhu,
            Message 5 of 10 , Feb 28, 2008
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              The New Pali Course Part II

              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

              8. "Yaav'assa a~n~no koci patta.m na ga.nhaati, taav'assa gantvaa
              patta.m ga.nha." [Dh.A.iv.128]

              9. "Saadhu, maya.m, bhante, labheyyaama Bhagavanta.m dassanaaya." [V.
              Mahaavagga]

              10. "Musaa na bhaase na ca majjapo siyaa." [A.i.214]

              11. "Tasmi.m khopana, braahma.na, ya~n~ne n'eva gaavo ha~n~ni.msu, na
              ajelakaa ha~n~ni.msu." [D.i.141]

              12. "Ko nu kho, bho, pahoti ima.m mahaapa.thavi.m... sattadhaa,
              sama.m, suvibhatta.m vibhajitu.m?" [D.ii.234]

              104. Note - A. "A.d.dateyyehi paribbaajakasatehi" in the fourth
              sentence above, is a peculiar use of words. It ought to be:
              a.d.dhateyya-satehi paribbaajakehi (with 250 wandering ascetics); but
              sata here is compounded with paribbaajaka. Sattamanussa-ko.tiyo is
              another compound of this kind.

              B. The word a.d.dhateyya also deserves special notice.

              a.d.dhateyya = 2 1/2 (three minus a half)

              Two other numerals similar to this are:

              diya.d.dha = 1 1/2 (two minus a half)
              a.d.dhu.d.dha = 3 1/2 (four minus a half)

              New Words.

              aggamahesi (f) chief queen.
              aggaa.lava (n) name of a shrine.
              a~n~no koci (phrase) someone else.
              atthaaya (dat. sin.) for.
              antaraaya (m) danger.
              abhivaadeti (v) bows down.
              ayya (m) lord.
              assama (m) hermitage.
              aacikkhati (v) says, informs.
              uposathakamma (n) keeping of the Uposatha, observance of eight precepts.
              ~naati (m) relation.
              dassana (n) seeing, sight.
              paccu.t.theti (v) rises from the seat.
              paridevamaana (pr.p) weeping.
              pahoti (v) is able.
              paa.taliputta (n) name of a city, Patna.
              bala (n) force, army.
              bhaase (v) let say.
              bho (indec) my dear.
              majjapa (adj) one who drinks intoxicating liquors.
              maa (indec) don't.
              mithubheda (m) dissent among themselves.
              musaa (indec) lie, falsehood.
              ya~n~na (m) sacrifice.
              vibhajitu.m (inf) to divide.
              saadhu, labheyyaama (phrase) it is well if we get.
              siyaa (v) may be.
              suvibhatta (pp) well divided.
              ha~n~nati (v) is killed.

              Translate into Pali

              1. "Ko.n.da~n~na heard the news that the Great Being had retired from
              the world, and drawing near to the sons of those seven Brahmans, he
              spoke to them as follows." [B.T. 52]

              2. "Whether the young prince become a Buddha or a king, we will each
              one give a son: so that if he become a Buddha, he shall be followed...
              by monks of the warrior caste." [Ibid. 53]

              3. "Sir," replied the gods, "it is because a son has been born to King
              Suddhodana, who shall sit at the foot of the Bo-tree, and become a
              Buddha." [Ibid. 49]

              4. "Now those nuns said to Mahaa-Pajaapatii the Gotamii: Neither have
              you received the upasampadaa ordination, nor have we; for it has thus
              been laid down by the Blessed One: 'Nuns are to be ordained by
              monks.'" [L.G.B. 120]

              5. "Be it so," said the venerable So.na, and praising the words spoken
              by the venerable Mahaa-Kaccaana,... he put his sleeping place in
              order... and departed on his way to Saavatthi. [Ibid. 128]

              6. "But those ministers who had advised that neither should the prince
              be slain, nor Devadatta, nor monks, but that the king should be
              informed of it,... them he advanced to high positions." [Ibid. 150]

              7. "And the Raajaa of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisaara, said to the prince
              Ajaatasattu: Why did you want to kill me, prince?" [Ibid. 150]

              8. "If you then want the kingdom, prince, let this kingdom be yours."
              And he handed over the kingdom to Ajaatasattu, the prince. [Ibid. 150]

              9. "Yes, Reverend Sir," said the venerable Aananda to the Blessed One
              in assent, and spread the couch with its head to the north between
              twin sal-trees. [B.T. 95]

              10. "Why has my son returned so quickly?" asked the king. "Sire, he
              has seen an old man," was the reply; "and because he has seen an old
              man, he is about to retire from the world." [Ibid. 57]

              New Words.

              advanced = va.d.dhaapesi, paapesi (v).
              advised = anusaasi (v).
              assent = anumati (f).
              as follows = eva.m, vuccamaanaakaarena (adv).

              (to be continued...)
            • Ong Yong Peng
              The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta because* be ordained = upasampaadetabba (pot.p). couch = ma~ncaka (m). departed = nikkhami (v). drawing near
              Message 6 of 10 , Mar 5, 2008
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                The New Pali Course Part II

                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                because*
                be ordained = upasampaadetabba (pot.p).
                couch = ma~ncaka (m).
                departed = nikkhami (v).
                drawing near = upasa`nkamitvaa (abs).
                followed by = anugata, parivuta (pp).
                handed over = pa.ticchaapesi (v).
                high position = ucca.t.thaana (n).
                laid down = pa~n~natta (pp).
                let be = hotu (v).
                nun = bhikkhunii (f).
                ordination [higher] = upasampadaa (f).
                praising = thomenta (pr.p).
                puts in order = pa.tisaameti (v).
                reply = pa.tivacana (n).
                returns = pa.tinivattati, paccaagacchati (v).
                seen = di.t.tha (pp).
                should be informed = aarocetabba (pot.p).
                should be slain = maaretabba (pot.p).
                sire = deva (m).
                sleeping place = senaasana, sayana.t.thaana (n).
                spoken = vutta (pp).
                spreads = attharati, pattharati (v).
                twin = yamaka (adj).
                warrior = khattiya (m,adj).
                why = kasmaa (indec).

                Taddhita (or The Secondary Derivation)

                It was stated in the First Book (§45) that there are five classes of
                nouns, of which the first, second and the third classes have already
                been explained; the fifth, Taddhitanaama, has now to be explained.

                105. "Taddhita" or a secondary derivative is formed from a substantive
                or a primary derivative by adding another suffix, (denoting some
                special meaning), to it.

                A. These derivatives are adjectives in their nature, but in most cases
                are used as substantives.

                B. The final vowel of a word is often elided before a Taddhita suffix.

                C. The first vowel of the word, to which the suffix is added, is often
                strengthened when it is not followed by a double consonant. In this
                case a becomes aa; i, ii become e; u, uu become o.

                D. To indicate that some suffix required strengthening, an indicatory
                letter (anubandha) is affixed by the grammarians to it. This
                indicatory letter is generally .n.

                The main divisions of the Taddhitas are:
                (i) Saama~n~na-Taddhita (General)
                (ii) Bhaava-Taddhita (Gerundial)
                (iii) Avyaya-Taddhita (Indeclinable)

                The first division is again divided into the following sub-divisions:-
                (1) Appaccattha (suffixes denoting lineage)
                (2) Anekattha (suffixes denoting various meanings)
                (3) Atthyattha (suffixes denoting possession)
                (4) Sa.nkhyaa (suffixes denoting numbers)

                (i) Saama~n~na - (1) Appaccattha

                106. Suffix ".na" is added to some nouns to denote a lineage. (Note
                that .n is indicative of strengthening.)

                Examples
                vasi.t.thassa apacca.m (puriso) = vaasi.t.tho
                (Vasi.t.tha is the name of a sage; a person born in his lineage is
                known as vaasi.t.tha.)

                Formation
                vasi.t.tha + .na (when the last vowel and .n are dropped) becomes
                vasi.t.th + a; after strengthening the first vowel and joining the
                last one to the stem it becomes vaasi.t.tha.

                Now, this being an adjective may qualify any male, female, or a group
                born in the clan of Vasi.t.tha. Therefore it may take the gender of
                the person or the group for which it stands.

                If the person be a man, it is in the masculine.

                If the person be a woman, it takes the feminine form Vaasi.t.thii.

                If it be a family, it is in the neuter.

                Similarly formed are:
                bhaaradvaaja + .na = bhaaradvaaja (of the Bhaaradvaaja's lineage)

                * There is no word in Pali exactly corresponding to because, it should
                be translated with kaara.naa or ttaa (both in the ablative), joined to
                a past participle. For instance: "because he has seen" may be
                translated: di.t.thattaa di.t.thakaara.nena or di.t.thakaara.naa.

                (to be continued...)
              • Ong Yong Peng
                The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta gotama + .na = gotama (of the Gotama clan) vasudeva + .na = vaasudeva (of the Vaasudeva clan) baladeva + .na
                Message 7 of 10 , Mar 11, 2008
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                  The New Pali Course Part II

                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                  gotama + .na = gotama (of the Gotama clan)
                  vasudeva + .na = vaasudeva (of the Vaasudeva clan)
                  baladeva + .na = baaladeva (of the Baaladeva clan)

                  (There is no necessity of strengthening in Bhaaradvaaja and Gotama as
                  the first vowels of them are already strong.)

                  107. ".Naayana" and ".naana" are suffixed to Vaccha, Kacca and some
                  other names to denote the lineage.

                  vaccha + .naayana = vacchaayana (of the Vaccha's lineage)
                  kacca + .naayana = kaccaayana
                  kacca + .naana = kaccaana (of the Kacca's lineage)
                  moggalla + .naayana = moggallaayana
                  moggalla + .naana = moggallaana (of the clan of Moggalla)

                  In the first two instances the vowels are not strengthened because
                  they are followed by double consonants.

                  108. ".Neyya" is suffixed to Kattikaa, Vinataa and some other feminine
                  nouns to denote their offspring.

                  kattikaa + .neyya = kattikeyya (the offspring of Kattikaa)
                  vinataa + .neyya = venateyya (the offspring of Vinataa)
                  bhaginii + .neyya = bhaagi.neyya (the offspring of the sister)
                  rohi.nii + .neyya = rohi.neyya (the offspring of Rohi.nii)

                  109. ".Nava" is suffixed to Manu, Upagu and such others to denote the
                  offspring.

                  manu + .nava = maa.nava (Manu's offspring)
                  upagu + .nava = opagava (Upagu's offspring)
                  pa.n.du + .nava = pa.n.dava (of the lineage of Pa.n.du)

                  110. ".Nera" is suffixed to Vidhavaa and some others to denote the
                  offspring.

                  vidhavaa + .nera = vedhavera (the offspring of a widow)
                  sama.na + .nera = saama.nera (a novice of a monk)

                  (i) Saama~n~na - (2) Anekattha

                  111. ".Nika" is suffixed to some nouns to denote the meanings: mixed
                  with, engaged in, living by means of, going by means of, relating to,
                  playing upon, connected with, dealing with, carrying upon, born in or
                  belonging to a place, studying, possession, etc.

                  A. mixed with:
                  ghata + .nika = ghaatika (mixed with ghee)
                  lo.na + .nika = lo.nika (mixed with salt or salted)

                  B. engaged in:
                  naavaa + .nika = naavika (engaged in a ship)
                  saka.ta + .nika = saaka.tika (engaged in a cart)

                  C. living by means of:
                  balisa + .nika = baalisika (a fisherman, living by means of a hook)
                  vetana + .nika = vetanika (a labourer, one who lives upon wages)

                  D. going by means of:
                  pada + .nika = paadika or padika (a pedestrian)
                  ratha + .nika = rathika (one who goes in a chariot)

                  E. relating to:
                  samudda + .nika = saamuddika (marine, relating to the sea)
                  ra.t.tha + .nika = ra.t.thika (relating to the country)

                  F. playing upon:
                  vii.naa + .nika = ve.nika (a lutanist)
                  va.msa + .nika = va.msika (a flutist)

                  G. connected with:
                  dvaara + .nika = dovaarika* (a gate-keeper)
                  bha.n.daagaara + .nika = bha.n.daagaarika (a treasurer, connected with
                  a treasury)

                  H. dealing with:
                  ta.n.dula + .nika = ta.n.dulika (rice-merchant)
                  tela + .nika = telika (dealer in oil)
                  suukara + .nika = suukarika (dealer in swine)

                  I. carrying upon:
                  siisa + .nika = siisika (one who carries on the head)
                  khandha + .nika = khandhika (one who carries on the shoulder)

                  J. born in or belonging to a place:
                  magadha + .nika = maagadhika (born in or belonging to Magadha, the
                  kingdom)
                  ara~n~na + .nika = aara~n~nika (born in or living in a forest)
                  loka + .nika = lokika (belonging to the world)
                  apaaya + .nika = aapaayika (born in the hell)

                  K. studying:
                  vinaya + .nika = venayika (one who studies vinaya, the disciplinary code)

                  * dvaara becomes dovaara, through duvaara

                  (to be continued...)
                • Ong Yong Peng
                  The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta suttanta + .nika = suttantika (one who studies the discourses of the Buddha) takka + .nika = takkika (a
                  Message 8 of 10 , Mar 17, 2008
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                    The New Pali Course Part II

                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                    suttanta + .nika = suttantika (one who studies the discourses of the
                    Buddha)
                    takka + .nika = takkika (a logician)

                    L. possession:
                    sa`ngha + .nika = sa`nghika (belonging to the community of monks)
                    sariira + .nika = saariirika (belonging to or stationary in the body)

                    M. performed by:
                    kaaya + .nika = kaayika (performed through the body, bodily)
                    vaacaa + .nika = vaacasika (performed through speech, verbal)
                    mana + .nika = maanasika (mental)

                    (In the last two examples, s is inserted between the stem and the suffix.)

                    Exercise 19

                    Translate into English and define the derivatives

                    1. Aya.m maa.navo mayi mana.m pasaadetvaa kaala`nkatvaa
                    Taavati.msadevaloke ti.msayojanike kanakavimaane nibbattissati."
                    [Dh.A.i.26]

                    2. Suukarikaa, saaku.nikaa, jaalikaa ca, sa`nghika.m balakkaarena
                    gahetvaa khaadantaa ca ito cavitvaa aapaayikaa bhavissanti.

                    3. Ekuunati.msa-vasso Bodhisatto attano ekam eva putta.m
                    sabba-sampatti~n ca pahaaya gantvaa kaasaava nivattho mattikaapattam
                    aadaya a~n~nehi dinnaahaarena jiivika.m kappesi.

                    4. Bha.n.daagaariko ra~n~naa dhana.m labhitvaa mahanta.m paasaada.m
                    kaaretvaa dvaare dovaarika.m .thapetvaa uparipaasaada-gato
                    kaayikamaanasika.m sukha.m vindati.

                    5. Mahaa-kaccaayanatthere Kuraraghara-nagara.m upanissaaya viharante
                    So.no naama se.t.thiputto tassa santike pabbajitvaa aparabhaage "So.no
                    Ku.tika.n.no"ti paaka.to ahosi.

                    6. Atha kho aayasmaa Aanando Kosinaarakaana.m Mallaana.m aarocesi:
                    "Ajja kho, Vaasi.t.thaa, rattiyaa pacchime yaame Tathaagatassa
                    parinibbaa.na.m bhavissatii"ti.

                    7. Suttantikaa venayikaa aara~n~nikaa ca bahavo bhikkhavo La`nkaaya.m
                    mahaadubbhikkha-bhaye vattamaane samuddapaara.m gantvaa attano
                    jiivita.m rakkhantaa dhammavinaya~n ca rakkhi.msu.

                    8. Iddhimantaana.m aggo Mahaa-Moggallaanatthero Bhagavato
                    parinibbaa.nato puretaram eva parinibbaayi.

                    9. "Atha kho tesa.m dvaadasa-nahutaana.m Maagadhikaana.m
                    braahma.na-gahapatikaana.m etadahosi: Uruvela-Kassapo Mahaasama.ne
                    brahmacariya.m caratii ti." [V.i.36]

                    10. "Assosi kho raajaa Maagadho se.niyo Bimbisaaro: Sama.no khalu bho
                    Gotamo Sakyaputto, Sakyakulaa pabbajito Raajagaha.m anuppatto'ti."
                    [V.i.35]

                    New Words.

                    agga (adj) highest, foremost.
                    anuppatta (pp) arrived, attained.
                    aparabhaage (loc) afterwards.
                    assosi (v) heard.
                    aayasmantu (adj) venerable (lit. having a long life).
                    upanissaaya (abs) depending on, close by.
                    etad ahosi = this (thought), arose (in him).
                    kanaka (n) gold.
                    kaasaava (n) orange-coloured garment.
                    kosinaaraka (adj) born in Kusinaaraa.
                    khalu (indec) indeed.
                    cavitvaa (abs) having passed away.
                    jaalika (m) one who lives by fishing with a net.
                    jiivika.m kappeti (phrase) gains a livelihood.
                    nahuta (n) ten thousand.
                    nivattha (pp) clothed with, dressed.
                    parinibbaati (v) finally passes away.
                    parinibbaana (n) final passing away.
                    pasaadetva (abs) having gladdened.
                    puretara.m (adv) beforehand.
                    balakkaara (m) force.
                    bodhisatta (m) a being destined to attain Buddhahood.
                    brahmacariyaa (f) celibacy (lit. noble practice).
                    bho (indec) Sir, friend*.
                    yaama (m) a watch of the night.
                    yojanika (adj) having a league in height or length.
                    rakkhanta (pr.p) protecting, watching.
                    vimaana (m,n) mansion.
                    sama.na (m) recluse, monk.
                    samuddapaara (n) abroad.
                    se.niya (adj) possessing armies.

                    Translate into Pali, using the secondary derivatives wherever it is
                    possible

                    1. Now the disciples at Paa.taligaama heard of his arrival there, and
                    they went on to the place where he was, and invited him to their
                    council-hall.

                    * Bho is the vocative form of bhavanta; but here it seems to be in the
                    nominative singular and giving the meaning 'venerable'. There is an
                    indeclinable bho which is also used in the vocative sense.

                    (to be continued...)
                  • ong.yongpeng
                    Dear friends, can someone please help me to translate into Pali the following sentence. I am stuck with the first part, whether the young prince become a
                    Message 9 of 10 , Sep 9, 2008
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                      Dear friends,

                      can someone please help me to translate into Pali the following
                      sentence. I am stuck with the first part, "whether the young prince
                      become a Buddha or a king, we will each one give a son".

                      Thank you.

                      metta,
                      Yong Peng.


                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Ong Yong Peng wrote:

                      2. "Whether the young prince become a Buddha or a king, we will each
                      one give a son: so that if he become a Buddha, he shall be followed...
                      by monks of the warrior caste."
                    • Ong Yong Peng
                      Dear friends, after another read of the text, I have found the treatment for whether...or in Pali. Thanks again. metta, Yong Peng. ... 103. The following
                      Message 10 of 10 , Sep 10, 2008
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                        Dear friends,

                        after another read of the text, I have found the treatment for
                        "whether...or" in Pali. Thanks again.

                        metta,
                        Yong Peng.


                        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Ong Yong Peng wrote:

                        103. The following couples of indeclinables, in the same sentence,
                        give the following meanings:-

                        (i) ca ... ca (both ... and)
                        (ii) vaa ... vaa (whether ... or, either ... or)
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