Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

The New Pali Course Part II [4-3/8]

Expand Messages
  • Ong Yong Peng
    [4-3/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta law-book = niitigantha (m). novice (-monk) = saama.nera (m). preceptor = upajjhaaya (m). pondering =
    Message 1 of 24 , Dec 30, 2007
    • 0 Attachment
      [4-3/8]

      The New Pali Course Part II

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      law-book = niitigantha (m).
      novice (-monk) = saama.nera (m).
      preceptor = upajjhaaya (m).
      pondering = vitakkenta, jhaayanta (pr.p).
      refuse = kacavara (m).
      shares = bhaajeti (v).
      to keep silence = tu.nhii bhavitu.m (inf).
      vexed = ru.t.tha, appatiita (pp).
      war = yuddha (n).
      ware = bha.n.da (n).
      weaver = tantavaaya (m).
      weaves = vaayati, vinaati (v).

      Verbal Prefixes

      79. The prefixes or prepositions are called upasaggas in Pali. They
      are sometimes prefixed to verbs and their derivatives.

      Generally they modified the meaning of the root, or intensify it, and
      sometimes alter it; in some cases they add nothing to the original
      meaning of the root.

      80. The prefixes are 20 in number, viz., aa, ati, adhi, anu, abhi,
      apa, api, ava, u, upa, du, ni, nii, pa, paraa, pari, pati, vi, sa.m, su.

      Examples

      From the root kamU (to go) verb kamati (goes) is formed without adding
      any prefix to it.

      The following are formed with the prefixes:-

      Prefix Root Verb Meaning
      abhi + kamU = abhikkamati (goes ahead, proceeds)
      pa.ti + kamU = pa.tikkamati (goes back, steps backwards, retreats)
      apa + kamU = apakkamati (goes aside, deviates)
      ati + kamU = atikkamati (goes beyond, surpasses)
      aa + kamU = akkamati (treads upon)
      pa + kamU = pakkamati (goes forth)
      nii + kamU = nikkhamati (goes out)
      upa + kamU = upakkamati (strives, plans)
      sa.m + kamU = sa`nkamati (moves from one place to another)
      paraa + kamU = parakkamati (strives, makes an effort)
      anu + kamU = anukkamati (follows)
      (noun from the same): anukkama (order)

      The above examples show how these prefixes alter the meaning of a root.

      81. It is difficult to define all the different meanings of each
      prefix; therefore we give below a few words formed with each prefix
      together with their meanings.

      aa

      1. aaka.d.dhati (v) drags near.
      2. aasanna (adj) near.
      3. aakirati (v) scatters over.
      4. aapabbataa (aa + abl.) as far as the mountain.
      5. aagacchati (v) comes.

      ati

      1. atikkamati (v) goes beyond, leaves behind.
      2. atirocati (v) shines very much.
      3. ativu.t.thi (f) excess of rain.
      4. atichatta (n) special umbrella.
      5. atibhaariya (adj) very serious.

      adhi

      1. adhipati (m) lord, superior.
      2. adhigacchati (v) attains, obtains.
      3. adhi.t.thaana (ger) determination.
      4. adhivasati (v) lives in.

      anu

      1. anugacchati (v) follows.
      2. anughara.m (adv) in order of the houses, i.e. from house to house.
      3. anuvassa.m (adv) year by year, annually.
      4. anuvitakketi (v) ponders over.
      5. anukkama (m) order.

      abhi

      1. abhimukha (adj) facing, opposite.
      2. abhiruupa (adj) handsome, very beautiful.
      3. abhidhamma (m) special doctrine.
      4. abhivaadeti (v) salutes, bows down.
      5. abhirati (f) delight, satisfaction.

      apa

      1. apagacchati (v) moves away.
      2. aparaadha (m) crime.
      3. apaciti (f) reverence.
      4. apacinaati (v) makes less, diminishes.
      5. apakaara (m) injury, mischief.

      api

      Words formed with this prefix are very rare. This is often seen with
      a, and as a separate particle.

      1. apadhaana/pidhaana (n) lid.
      2. api.landha (adj) adorned.
      3. apilaapeti (v) talks idly, boasts.

      (to be continued...)
    • Ong Yong Peng
      [4-4/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta ava 1. avajaanaati (v) despises. 2. avaharati (v) takes away, steals. 3. avasi.t.tha (adj, pp)
      Message 2 of 24 , Jan 4, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        [4-4/8]

        The New Pali Course Part II

        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        ava

        1. avajaanaati (v) despises.
        2. avaharati (v) takes away, steals.
        3. avasi.t.tha (adj, pp) remaining.
        4. avasitta (pp) besprinkled.

        ava often becomes o

        5. onamati (v) bends down.
        6. omu~ncati (v) takes off [shoes, etc.], unfastens.
        7. okkamati (v) descends.
        8. oniita (pp) removed from.

        u

        1. ukkhipati (v) throws up, raises up.
        2. ucchindati (v) cuts off.
        3. uppanna (pp) born, risen.
        4. ummagga (m) wrong path, a tunnel.
        5. uttama (adj) highest, greatest. [lit. void of darkness or folly]
        6. udaya (m) increase, rise.
        7. ussahati (v) strives, endeavours.
        8. ussaara.naa (f) causing to move back.

        upa

        1. upakkama (m) attack, plan, means.
        2. upakaara (m) help.
        3. upanisiidati (v) sits near.
        4. upamaana (n) comparison.
        5. upavaada (m) blaming, finding fault.
        6. upanayhati (v) wraps in, twists around.

        du

        1. duggandha (m) bad smell.
        2. dukkara (adj) difficult to do.
        3. dubbhikkha (m) scarcity of food, famine.
        4. dukkha (n) misery, pain.

        nii (Sanskrit: nih)

        1. nikkhamati (v) goes out.
        2. nimmita (pp) created.
        3. niyyaati (v) goes out.
        4. niivara.na (n) hindrance to the progress of the mind.
        5. niiharati (v) ejects.

        ni

        1. nicaya (m) heaping up, a heap.
        2. nigacchati (v) goes down to, undergoes, suffers.
        3. nikhaata (pp) dug out.
        4. nikhila (adj) whole.
        5. nikuujati (v) chirps, warbles.

        pa

        1. pabhavati (v) begins or springs from.
        2. pakkhipati (v) puts or throws in.
        3. padhaana (adj) chief, foremost.
        4. pasanna (adj) clear, joyful.
        5. pa.nidahati (v) longs for, aspires to.
        6. pajaanaati (v) knows clearly.

        paraa

        1. paraajeti (v) vanquishes, overcomes.
        2. paraabhava (m) ruin, disgrace.
        3. paraamasati (v) touches, deals with.
        4. parakkama (m) exertion, strife.

        pari

        1. paricarati (v) serves, attends.
        2. paricchindati (v) marks out, makes a limit.
        3. paridhaavana (ger) running about.
        4. parijaanaati (v) knows perfectly.
        5. parivisati (v) feeds, serves while eating.
        6. paribhaasati (v) abuses, reviles.
        7. pariharati (v) uses, bears.
        8. parippu.n.na (pp) completely filled.

        pati or pa.ti

        1. pa.tikkhipati (v) refuses. [lit. throws back]
        2. patiruupa (adj) suitable, resembling, disguised as.
        3. pa.tiraaja (m) hostile king.
        4. pa.tibhaati (v) dawns on, comes to one's mind.
        5. pa.tinissajati (v) gives up.
        6. patiga.nhaati (v) receives, takes in.
        7. pa.tivedha (m) attainment, insight.

        vi

        1. vigacchati (v) departs, goes away.
        2. vikirati (v) scatters about.
        3. vijaanana (ger) recognition, knowledge.
        4. vividha (adj) various.
        5. vighaa.tana (ger) unfastening, opening.
        6. vidhuuma (adj) smokeless.
        7. visi.t.tha (pp) distinguished, diversified.

        sa.m

        1. sa.mvasati (v) lives together.
        2. sambodhi (f) complete knowledge.
        3. sa`nki.n.na (pp) mixed.
        4. sa.msara.na (ger) moving or going about.
        5. sammukha (adj) face to face with, present.
        6. sammuti (f) common consent, convention.

        (to be continued...)
      • Ong Yong Peng
        [4-5/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta su 1. sugandha (m) fragrance. (adj) fragrant. 2. subhikkha (adj) plentiful with food. 3. sukara
        Message 3 of 24 , Jan 11, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          [4-5/8]

          The New Pali Course Part II

          Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

          su

          1. sugandha (m) fragrance. (adj) fragrant.
          2. subhikkha (adj) plentiful with food.
          3. sukara (adj) easily done.
          4. sudukkara (adj) very difficult.
          5. sugati (f) happy state.
          6. suci.n.na (pp) well practised or gathered.

          Exercise 15

          Translate into English

          1. "Sace bhava.m So.nada.n.do sama.na.m Gotama.m dassanaaya
          upasa`nkamissati, bhoto So.nada.n.dassa yaso parihaayissati;
          sama.nassa Gotamassa yaso abhiva.d.dhissati." [D.i.113]

          2. "So gantvaa ta.m bhatta.m pa~ncahi pacceka-buddh-asatehi saddhi.m
          sa.mvibhaji; ... te pi olokentaa eva a.t.tha.msu." [Dh.A.iii.371]

          3. "So tato cuto devaloke nibbattitvaa deva-manussesu sa.msaranto
          imasmi.m Buddhuppaade Bhaddiyanagare se.t.thikule nibbatti." [Ibid.
          iii.372]

          4. "So... nikkhitta-dha~n~ne parikkhii.ne parijana.m pakkosaapetvaa
          aaha; 'gacchatha, taataa, pabbata.m pavisitvaa jiivantaa
          subhikkhakaale mama santika.m aagantukaamaa aagacchatha;
          anaagantukaamaa tatth'eva jiivathaa'ti." [Ibid. iii.366]

          5. "Puna ka.tacchu.m puuretvaa aadaaya aagacchanti.m Uttaraaya daasiyo
          disvaa: 'apehi, dubbiniite, na tva.m amhaaka.m ayyaaya upari
          pakka-sappi.m aasi~ncitu.m anucchavikaa'ti santajjentiyo... pothetvaa
          bhuumiya.m paatesu.m." [Ibid. iii.311]

          6. "Seyyathaa pi bhante nikkujjita.m vaa ukkujjeyya, pa.ticchanna.m
          vaa vivareyya, muu.lhassa vaa magga.m aacikkheyya... evam eva.m
          Bhagavataa anekapariyaayena dhammo pakaasito." [D.ii.41, etc.]

          7. "Atha kho Amba.t.tho maa.navo yena so vihaaro sa.mvuta-dvaaro tena
          appasaddo upasa`nkamitvaa ataramaano aalinda.m pavisitvaa ukkaasitvaa
          aggala.m aako.tesi. Vivari Bhagavaa dvaara.m." [Ibid. i.89]

          8. "Atha kho Ambapaalii ga.nikaa Bhagavato adhivaasana.m viditvaa
          u.t.thaayaasanaa Bhagavanta.m abhivaadetvaa padakkhi.na.m katvaa
          pakkaami." [D.ii.95]

          9. "Attano vaamapaade dviihi a`nguliihi tassa paade gahetvaa
          vihaara`nga.ne pothento tato tato aaka.d.dhi. So parivattanto
          thaamasaa vissajjetu.m ussahanto pi vissajjetu.m naasakkhi."
          [Rasavaahinii]

          10. "Atha yakkho gajjanto bhuje appo.thento abhidhaavi. Yodho pi
          tattha .thito vegena aakaasam abbhuggantvaa vaamapaada.nguliihi tassa
          hanuka.t.thi.m pahari." [Ibid.]

          New Words.

          aggala (n) cross-bar, latch.
          adhivaasanaa (f) assent, endurance.
          ataramaana (pr.p) being unhurried.
          anucchavika (adj) fit, suitable.
          apeti (v) moves aside.
          appo.thenta (pr.p) clapping hands.
          abhidhaavati (v) runs against.
          abhiva.d.dhati (v) increases.
          abbhuggantvaa (abs) having jumped up.
          asakkhi (v) was able.
          aako.teti (v) knocks upon.
          aagantukaama (adj) willing to come.
          aacikkheyya (v) should tell or inform.
          aalinda (m) terrace.
          ukkaasitvaa (abs) having coughed or cleared the throat.
          ukkujjeyya (v) should turn up.
          ussahanta (pr.p) trying.
          ka.tacchu (m) spoon.
          gajjanta (pr.p) roaring.
          ga.nikaa (f) courtesan.
          taata (m) dear son or father.
          thaama (m) strength.
          dubbiniita (pp) badly trained.
          nikkujjita (pp) turned down.
          pakka (pp) boiled.
          pakkaami (v) went.
          pakkosaapetvaa (abs) having caused to call.
          pa.ticchanna (pp) covered.
          parivattanta (pr.p) rolling or turning round.
          parihaayati (v) decreases, dwindles.
          pariyaaya (m) method, manner, synonym.
          parikkhii.na (pp) exhausted.
          pothenta (pr.p) dashing, hitting, striking.
          buddhuppaada (m) time when a Buddha appears.
          bhuja (m) hand.
          muu.lha (pp) gone astray, foolish.
          vaama (adj) left.
          viditvaa (abs) having known.
          vissajjetu.m (inf) to release.
          vega (m) speed.
          santajjentii (f/pr.p) menacing.
          sa.mvuta (pp) closed.
          sa.mvibhajati (v) shares.
          sa.msaranta (pr.p) moving about continuously, transmigrating.

          Translate into Pali

          1. The young prince Du.t.thagaami.nii having collected a huge army
          marched against the Tamil ruler E.laara.

          2. On the fourth day of the first half of the month of Vesaakha, you
          should go forth from home to homelessness.

          (to be continued...)
        • Ong Yong Peng
          [4-6/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 3. The rivers in this province spring from the range of hills around Adam s Peak. 4. Having
          Message 4 of 24 , Jan 17, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            [4-6/8]

            The New Pali Course Part II

            Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

            3. The rivers in this province spring from the range of hills around
            Adam's Peak.

            4. Having deposited the relics of the royal sage in the vault of the
            dagoba, the king went there to do homage to them every year.

            5. The lord of the yakkhas surpassed even Sakka in point of wealth.

            6. The night being far spent, the deities who had assembled to hear
            the sage's discourse saluted him and disappeared.

            7. The queen pondered over this question for a long time and finally
            ordered her maids to bring the stranger to her presence.

            8. The thieves have taken away all the gold coins that the old woman
            had deposited in the brass vessel under the floor of her bedroom.

            9. She despises her husband because he did not send her even a single
            letter since he left the country.

            10. The remaining portion of his inheritance he handed over to his
            beloved sister, and bidding good-bye to her, set forth from the city,
            bound for an unknown destination.

            New Words.

            Adam's Peak = samantakuu.ta-pabbata (m).
            bedroom = sayanaagaara (n).
            beloved = piya (adj).
            bidding good-bye = viyogaasa.msana.m katvaa.
            bound for = [must here be translated] gamanaaya or gantukaamo.
            deposited = nidahita (pp).
            despises = avamaaneti, nindati (v).
            destination = patthita.t.thaana (n).
            disappeared = antaradhaayi (v).
            even = api (indec).
            far spent = abhikkanta (pp).
            finally = osaane, ante (loc).
            handed over = pa.ticchaapesi (v).
            having deposited = nidahitvaa (abs).
            homelessness = anagaariya (n).
            inheritance = daayaada (m).
            in point of wealth = dhanena (ins).
            maid = paricaarikaa (f).
            marched against = abbhuyyaasi (v).
            ponders = jhaayati, anuvitakketi (v).
            presence = abhimukha (n).
            province = padesa, janapada (m).
            range of hills = pabbataraaji (f).
            remaining = avasi.t.tha (pp).
            royal sage = raajisi (m).
            set forth = nikkhami (v).
            since = [-kaalato] pa.t.thaaya (indec).
            single = ekaka (adj).
            stranger = aagantuka (m).
            surpassed = atikkami (v).
            unknown = avidita, apaaka.ta (pp).
            vault = abbhantara [-gabbha] (m).

            Passive Voice

            82. It was stated in §65 that the passive base is formed by adding ya
            to the root. This ya is affixed to the root in various ways:

            A. It is directly added after roots ending in a vowel. In that case
            the radical aa of the root is changed to ii; i and u are lengthened.

            B. To the roots ending in a consonant (when the euphonic vowel is
            removed) it is added with the help of an ii (or i).

            C. In many cases y of ya after a root ending in a consonant is
            assimilated to that consonant or changed together with it.

            Examples

            A.

            daa (to give) + ya + ti = diiyati (is given)
            paa (to drink) + ya + ti = piiyati (is drunk)
            ci (to collect) + ya + ti = ciiyati (is collected)
            su (to hear) + ya + ti = suuyati (is heard)
            ni (to lead) + ya + ti = niiyati (is lead or carried)
            bhuu (to be) + ya + ti = bhuuyati (is becoming)

            Note. Sometimes y is reduplicated and a long vowel before it is shortened.

            su + ya + ti = suyyati (is heard)
            ni + ya + ti = niyyati (is led or carried)

            B.

            karA (to do) + ii + ya + ti = kariiyati (is done)
            hasA (to laugh) + ii + ya + ti = hasiiyati (is laughed at)
            sarA (to remember) + ii + ya + ti = sariiyati (is remembered)
            [base] bhu~nja (to eat) + ii + ya + ti = bhu~njiiyati (is eaten)
            [base] iccha (to wish) + ii + ya + ti = icchiiyati (is wished)

            C.

            pacA (to cook) + ya + ti = paccati (is cooked)
            hanA (to kill) + ya + ti = ha~n~nati (is killed)
            khaadA (to eat) + ya + ti = khajjati (is eaten)
            badhA (to bind) + ya + ti = bajjhati (is bound or confined)
            labhA (to get) + ya + ti = labbhati (is got)

            (to be continued...)
          • Nina van Gorkom
            Dear Yong Peng, I just want to thank you. We learnt these things, and met them in texts, but this is a good freshing up to see them printed again. That is why
            Message 5 of 24 , Jan 18, 2008
            • 0 Attachment
              Dear Yong Peng,
              I just want to thank you. We learnt these things, and met them in
              texts, but this is a good freshing up to see them printed again. That
              is why I like discussions about these things, it helps not to forget.
              Nina.
              Op 17-jan-2008, om 23:02 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

              > su (to hear) + ya + ti = suuyati (is heard)
              > ni (to lead) + ya + ti = niiyati (is lead or carried)



              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • bayinnaung
              Dear Yong Peng, I also would like to thank you. Your grammatical breakdowns of sentences are wonderful. The flashcards from your site are great too. They are
              Message 6 of 24 , Jan 18, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                Dear Yong Peng,

                I also would like to thank you.
                Your grammatical breakdowns of sentences are wonderful.
                The flashcards from your site are great too.
                They are the one thing that has really helped me start
                to catch on to Pali grammar.

                I began with New Course in Reading Pali. Gair/Karunatillake with
                Bhikku Bodhi's lectures but I think they assume some background work
                in grammar first.

                This is the first time I heard of "The new Pali course" by Buddhadatta
                Thera. (There's a copy at Silpakorn University Central Library across
                from the Grand Palace for people who live in Thailand).

                Anyone interested in forming a Pali study group in Bangkok?

                Sincerely,
                Jon Fernquest
              • Dmytro O. Ivakhnenko
                Dear Jon, ... Ven.Dhammanando is starting such group: http://www.lioncity.net/buddhism/index.php?showtopic=63476 Sincerely, Dmytro Sadhu! Theravada Buddhism
                Message 7 of 24 , Jan 19, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  Dear Jon,

                  > Anyone interested in forming a Pali study group in Bangkok?

                  Ven.Dhammanando is starting such group:
                  http://www.lioncity.net/buddhism/index.php?showtopic=63476

                  Sincerely,
                  Dmytro

                  Sadhu! Theravada Buddhism Web Directory http://dhamma.ru/sadhu/
                • Nina van Gorkom
                  Dear Yong Peng, please show me where to find the flashcards. Thank you, Nina. ... [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  Message 8 of 24 , Jan 19, 2008
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Dear Yong Peng,
                    please show me where to find the flashcards.
                    Thank you,
                    Nina.
                    Op 19-jan-2008, om 4:09 heeft bayinnaung het volgende geschreven:

                    > The flashcards from your site are great too.
                    > They are the one thing that has really helped me start
                    > to catch on to Pali grammar.



                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • bayinnaung
                    ... Dear Nina; To find the flashcards. Look on webpage: http://www.geocities.com/paligroup/ Look for: Pali Primer: Materials for book by Lily de Silva
                    Message 9 of 24 , Jan 19, 2008
                    • 0 Attachment
                      > please show me where to find the flashcards.

                      Dear Nina;

                      To find the flashcards.
                      Look on webpage:

                      http://www.geocities.com/paligroup/

                      Look for:

                      Pali Primer: Materials for book by Lily de Silva

                      2.flashcards chs 1-5 Pali Primer.pdf
                      Flashcards for Pali Primer Chapters 1-5

                      3. flashcards chs 6-11 Pali Primer.pdf

                      -------------
                      Print cards, cut out, match Pali with English card,
                      glue or staple onto a small blank name card. That's
                      what I did.

                      I believe that the computer program Inputeasy on the
                      same page created them, but the instructions are rather long,
                      haven't finished reading them.

                      The good thing about sentences on flashcards as opposed to plain words
                      is that it forces you to figure out the grammatical endings
                      (inflections) like Bhikku Bodhi is always asking his students during
                      his lecture which seems more important than memorizing the tables.

                      I'm going to make some flashcards for practicing the different
                      compounds like tatpurisa that Bhikku Bodhi mentions in his course.

                      Sincerely,

                      Jon Fernquest
                    • Nina van Gorkom
                      Dear Jon F, Thank you very much. Yes, compounds, very important. Maybe you can help us, the more I hear the better. Maybe you can share something you learn
                      Message 10 of 24 , Jan 20, 2008
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Dear Jon F,
                        Thank you very much.
                        Yes, compounds, very important. Maybe you can help us, the more I
                        hear the better. Maybe you can share something you learn from Ven.
                        Bodhi about this subject.
                        Nina.
                        Op 20-jan-2008, om 5:10 heeft bayinnaung het volgende geschreven:

                        > I'm going to make some flashcards for practicing the different
                        > compounds like tatpurisa that Bhikku Bodhi mentions in his course.



                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Ong Yong Peng
                        Dear Nina, Jon and Dmytro, Nina, I was finishing a new drop-down menu on the homepage. Hence, I was a bit busy earlier. Luckily, Jon came to help, which was
                        Message 11 of 24 , Jan 20, 2008
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Dear Nina, Jon and Dmytro,

                          Nina, I was finishing a new drop-down menu on the homepage. Hence, I
                          was a bit busy earlier. Luckily, Jon came to help, which was good.

                          Jon, welcome to the group. Thanks for helping out Nina. Also, thanks
                          to Dmytro for helping out Jon. The flashcards were provided by a
                          member known as "swishsticks" in 2004. It is great to know how useful
                          they are.

                          Jon, please create a new post, instead of replying to an existing
                          message, if you are starting a new topic. Some technical explanation
                          is provided by Yahoo! here:
                          http://help.yahoo.com/l/us/yahoo/groups/original/members/email/email-18.html

                          metta,
                          Yong Peng.


                          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

                          Maybe you can share something you learn from Ven. Bodhi about this
                          subject.
                        • bayinnaung
                          Dear Nina; ... I think it is his general approach to teaching, glossing or translating Pali to English **phrase by phrase** that is most interesting (and can
                          Message 12 of 24 , Jan 20, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Dear Nina;

                            > Maybe you can share something you learn from Ven.
                            > Bodhi about this subject.

                            I think it is his general approach to teaching, glossing or
                            translating Pali to English **phrase by phrase** that is most
                            interesting (and can also be turned into flash cards for self-testing
                            and drilling maybe).

                            Early Burmese books often have large parts of them that are called
                            "Nissaya" Burmese which are essentially teaching Burmese readers Pali
                            phrase by phrase in the same manner as Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi's lectures.

                            This is almost 500 years ago, for example in the historical chronicle
                            that I've been studying for several years U Kala's Maha-yaza-win-gyi
                            was written in the early 1700s and has many parts where it glosses
                            phrase for phrase Pali like this.

                            You could almost say that written Burmese might have been bootstrapped
                            off of Pali via Nissaya Burmese, at least it seems like that. The
                            ideas in Burmese literature also go back to Pali.

                            Anyway, Ven. Bhiikhu Bodhi's lectures are great. If and when I turn
                            his phrase by phrase glosses into flash cards, I'll be sure to share them.

                            Sincerely,

                            Jon Fernquest
                          • Nina van Gorkom
                            Dear Jon F, ... N: This is interesting. your links did not work for me. I downloaded some flashcards, but no idea what to do with them. I do not like to print
                            Message 13 of 24 , Jan 21, 2008
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Dear Jon F,
                              Op 20-jan-2008, om 19:25 heeft bayinnaung het volgende geschreven:

                              > Early Burmese books often have large parts of them that are called
                              > "Nissaya" Burmese which are essentially teaching Burmese readers Pali
                              > phrase by phrase in the same manner as Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi's lectures.
                              --------
                              N: This is interesting. your links did not work for me.
                              I downloaded some flashcards, but no idea what to do with them. I do
                              not like to print and cut, too much paperwork on my desk.
                              Nina.



                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • Ong Yong Peng
                              [4-7/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta 83. Explanation of these assimilations or changes: c + y or t + y becomes cc ch + y or th + y
                              Message 14 of 24 , Jan 23, 2008
                              • 0 Attachment
                                [4-7/8]

                                The New Pali Course Part II

                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                83. Explanation of these assimilations or changes:

                                c + y or t + y becomes cc
                                ch + y or th + y becomes cch
                                j + y or d + y becomes jj
                                jh + y or dh + y becomes jjh
                                ~n + y or n + y becomes ~n~n
                                v + y becomes bb
                                s + y becomes ss

                                Note. Not only the y of passive sign but also that of the
                                conjugational sign of the third conjugation undergoes some of these
                                changes. For examples, see §74.

                                Exercise 16

                                Translate into English

                                1. "Paccati munino bhatta.m
                                Thoka-thoka.m kule kule." [Thg. 31]

                                2. "Samitattaa hi paapaana.m
                                Sama.no ti pavuccati." [Dhp. 265]

                                3. "So bajjhata.m paasasatehi chabbhi,
                                Rammaa vanaa niyyatu raajadhaani.m,
                                Tuttehi so ha~n~natu paacanehi,
                                Bhisaani te, braahma.na, yo ahaasi." [J. Bhisa]

                                4. "So... 'bhante, ajja aadi.m katvaa agginaa pi mama santaka.m maa
                                .dayhatu, udakenaa pi maa vuyhatuu'ti patthana.m akaasi." [Dh.A.iv 206]

                                5. "Addasaa kho a~n~nataro upaasako ta.m bhikkha.m Kii.taagirismi.m
                                pi.n.daaya caranta.m, disvaana... ta.m bhikkhu.m abhivaadetvaa etad
                                avoca: 'api bhante pi.n.do labbhatii'ti." [V. Cullavagga]

                                6. Kacchapo ha.msehi niiyamaano da.t.tha.t.thaanato da.n.daka.m
                                vissajjetvaa aakaasa`nga.ne patitvaa dvedhaa bhijji. [See p.92, iv, Dh.A.]

                                7. "Ath'eko makka.to tattha tattha gocara.m pariyesamaano phalavanta.m
                                ta.m rukkha.m aaruyha phalaani khaadanto tasmi.m paase paadena
                                bajjhi." [Rasavaahinii]

                                8. "Eva.m kir'assa ahosi: saddhaa taava dhamma.m sotukaamaa gamissanti
                                yeva; assaddhaa pi pana dhanalobhena gantvaa dhamma.m sutvaa dukkhaa
                                muccissantii ti." [Dh.A.iv 205]

                                9. "Ekamanta.m nisinna.m kho Anaathapi.n.dika.m gahapati.m Bhagavaa
                                etad avoca: Api nu te, gahapati, kule daana.m diiyatii ti." [A.iv 392]

                                10. "Diighassa addhuno accayena tassa mahaanirayassa puratthima.m
                                dvaara.m avaapuriiyati; so tattha siighena javena dhaavati; tassa
                                siighena javena dhaavato chavi pi .dayhati, cammam pi .dayhati,
                                ma.msam pi .dayhati." [M.iii 184]

                                New Words.

                                addhaa (m) long time.
                                avaapuriiyati (v) is opened.
                                ahaasi (v) carried, took by force, stole.
                                kii.taagiri (m) name of a village.
                                gocara (m) food, object. [lit. a pasture]
                                chavi (f) upper skin.
                                java (m) speed.
                                .dayhati (v) is burnt.
                                tutta (n) a pike for guiding an elephant.
                                thoka (adj) a little.
                                niyyati (v) is led.
                                pariyesamaana (pr.p) seeking.
                                pavuccati (v) is said.
                                paacana (n) goad.
                                paasa (m) snare.
                                bajjhi (v) was bound.
                                bajjhata.m (v) let [him] be bound.
                                bhijji (v) was broken.
                                makka.ta (m) monkey.
                                muccissati (v) will be released.
                                ramma (adj) delightful.
                                raajadhaani (f) metropolis.
                                labbhati (v) is got.
                                vissajjetvaa (abs) having left.
                                vuyhati (v) is floated, is carried away by water.
                                santaka (n) property.
                                samitatta (n) state of being calmed.
                                ha~n~nati (v) is killed.

                                Translate into Pali

                                1. The fraudulent are esteemed by nobody; they are despised by everybody.

                                2. Have you been tormented by your enemies when you were walking alone
                                in the desert?

                                3. It is heard that our neighbour is avoided by all his friends on
                                account of his wicked actions.

                                4. The prince was accompanied by his tutor, ministers, and body-guards
                                on all his journeys.

                                5. Fifty soldiers and 30 horses were wounded and killed in the battle
                                field; their corpses were buried by some men who were bidden by the
                                chief of the army.

                                6. The traveller is attacked and plundered by robbers as he is alone
                                and has no weapons to fight with.

                                7. He was fed on exquisite rice which was served to him in a golden
                                dish, and the ground of his stable was perfumed with the four odours.

                                8. Round the stable were hung crimson curtains, while overhead was a
                                canopy studded with stars of gold.

                                9. This excellent novel is read with pleasure by many, and is always
                                esteemed by them.

                                10. Your picture will be admired by many, but will not be bought by
                                anybody.

                                (to be continued...)
                              • Ong Yong Peng
                                [4-8/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta New Words. bidden = aa.natta (pp). body-guard = a`ngarakkhaka (m). canopy = vitaana (m,n). chief of
                                Message 15 of 24 , Jan 29, 2008
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  [4-8/8]

                                  The New Pali Course Part II

                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                  New Words.

                                  bidden = aa.natta (pp).
                                  body-guard = a`ngarakkhaka (m).
                                  canopy = vitaana (m,n).
                                  chief of the army = senaapati (m).
                                  crimson = lohitava.n.na (adj).
                                  curtain = saa.ni (f).
                                  desert = kantaara (m).
                                  excellent = atisundara (adj).
                                  exquisite = ativisi.t.tha (pp).
                                  fraudulent = sa.tha (adj).
                                  is accompanied = parivaariiyati (v).
                                  is admired = vimhayena olokiiyati, patimaaniiyati (v).
                                  is avoided = cajiiyati, vajjiiyati (v).
                                  is attacked = pahariiyati (v).
                                  is buried = nikha.niiyati (v).
                                  is bought = ki.niiyati (v).
                                  is deposited = nidhiiyati (v).
                                  is esteemed = agghiiyati (v).
                                  is fed = bhojiiyati (v).
                                  is heard = suuyati (v).
                                  is hung = olambiiyati (v).
                                  is killed = maariiyati (v).
                                  is perfumed = vaasiiyati (v).
                                  is plundered = acchindiiyati (v).
                                  is read = pa.thiiyati (v).
                                  is served up = upaniiyati (v).
                                  is tormented = hi.msiiyati (v).
                                  is wounded = va.niiyati (v).
                                  journey = caarikaa (f).
                                  novel = navakathaa (f), navappabandha (m).
                                  odour = gandha (m).
                                  on account of = nissaaya (indec).
                                  overhead = upari (indec).
                                  pleasure = piiti, tu.t.thi (f).
                                  round = samantaa (adv).
                                  studded = khacita (pp).
                                  tutor = sikkhaapaka (m).

                                  Causal Suffixes

                                  The causal suffixes and the method of forming causal verbs are given
                                  in §74 of the First Book.

                                  84. Of the four causal suffixes only e and aya are annexed to the
                                  roots ending in u or uu; only aape and aapaya are annexed to the roots
                                  ending in aa, and to all the roots of the 8th conjugation.

                                  Any one of the four may be annexed to the roots ending in a vowel
                                  other than the above, or in a consonant.

                                  85. To the passive verbs these are annexed together with an i inserted
                                  between the suffix and the passive sign ya, e.g.

                                  Causal active: haraapeti (causes to carry)
                                  Causal passive: haraapiiyati (is caused to carry)

                                  86. The causal suffixes are annexed not only to verbs but also to the
                                  Participles, Absolutives, Infinitives and Primary Derivatives when
                                  they are expressing a causal meaning.

                                  Participles
                                  pacA (to cook) + e + nta = paacenta (causing to cook)
                                  karA (to do) + e + nta = kaarenta (causing to do)

                                  Absolutives
                                  harA (to carry) + aape + tvaa = haraapetvaa (having caused to carry)
                                  bhujA (to eat) + aape + tvaa = bhojaapetvaa (having fed or caused to eat)

                                  Infinitives
                                  marA (to die) + aape + tu.m = maaraapetu.m (to kill)
                                  [base] ga.nha (to take) + aape + tu.m = ga.nhaapetu.m (to cause to take)

                                  Primary Derivatives
                                  daa (to give) + aape + tu = daapetu (one who causes to give)
                                  gahA (to take) + aape + aka = gaahaapaka (one who causes to take)

                                  87. A causal verb formed from a transitive root takes more than one
                                  object. When it has taken two objects, one of them is called the
                                  "direct", and the other "indirect".

                                  Puriso kammakaara.m rukkha.m chindaapeti (the man causes the labourer
                                  to cut a tree).

                                  Here, rukkha.m is the direct object, being the thing wanted by the
                                  man. Kammakaara.m is the indirect object, as the man's requirement
                                  does not lie with him.

                                  88. It should be noted that this indirect object often takes the
                                  instrumental case.

                                  Gahapataanii daasiyaa odana.m paacaapeti (the mistress of the house
                                  causes the slave woman to cook rice).

                                  Here, daasiyaa is in the instrumental. This may be changed to daasi.m
                                  without altering the sense.

                                  89. The subject in a sentence formed with a simple verb may become the
                                  indirect object when the same sentence is reconstructed with a causal
                                  verb.

                                  Suudo odana.m pacati (the cook boils the rice) is a sentence with a
                                  simple verb. When this verb is replaced with a causal one from the
                                  same root the subject becomes the object, and someone else becomes the
                                  subject.

                                  Suudaje.t.tho suuda.m odana.m paaceti (the head-cook causes the cook
                                  to boil rice).

                                  Suudo in the first sentence has become suuda.m in the second.

                                  Exercise 17

                                  Translate into English

                                  1. "Raajaa pasanno aparaani pi pa~nca-vattha-sataani aaharaapetvaa
                                  paadamuule .thapaapesi." [Dh.A.i.219]

                                  (to be continued...)
                                • Nina van Gorkom
                                  Dear Yong Peng, Just the first paras I did not get. The other paras with examples are clear. Which book do you refer to? Sorry, I missed it. You must have
                                  Message 16 of 24 , Jan 30, 2008
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    Dear Yong Peng,
                                    Just the first paras I did not get. The other paras with examples are
                                    clear.
                                    Which book do you refer to? Sorry, I missed it. You must have
                                    mentioned it before.
                                    Nina.
                                    Op 30-jan-2008, om 4:05 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

                                    > Causal Suffixes
                                    >
                                    > The causal suffixes and the method of forming causal verbs are given
                                    > in §74 of the First Book.
                                    >
                                    > 84. Of the four causal suffixes only e and aya are annexed to the
                                    > roots ending in u or uu; only aape and aapaya are annexed to the roots
                                    > ending in aa, and to all the roots of the 8th conjugation.
                                    >
                                    > Any one of the four may be annexed to the roots ending in a vowel
                                    > other than the above, or in a consonant.



                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  • Ong Yong Peng
                                    Dear Nina, my apologies for this late reply. I am back in Singapore for the Chinese New Year holidays since Monday, and have been busy shopping, visiting
                                    Message 17 of 24 , Feb 3, 2008
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      Dear Nina,

                                      my apologies for this late reply. I am back in Singapore for the
                                      Chinese New Year holidays since Monday, and have been busy shopping,
                                      visiting family and friends, and catching up on some other stuff. I
                                      got to watch CNN live telecast of United States President Bush's final
                                      State of the Union Address on Tuesday, and was glad to hear him
                                      mentioned Burma (once). Hopefully, he will do something to improve the
                                      situation in Burma before his presidential term ends this year.

                                      The reference paragraph is from the first book, which is available
                                      here: http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/pali1.10.cdv

                                      I am currently posting the second book, or Part II, to the list. As
                                      mentioned sometimes earlier, there is also a Part III, which discusses
                                      advance topics but there is no exercises in the book. Since I am now
                                      in Singapore, and the book is sitting on my shelf, I shall provide a
                                      quick overview of its contents, as follows:

                                      The book deals with advance topics in Pali, and the chapters vary very
                                      much in length. Chapter 1 deals with uncommon word forms, such as
                                      saa, kara, mahaaraaja, santa, etc. Chapters II to VI are short
                                      chapters on verbs, syntax of nouns, and sentence analysis. Chapter VII
                                      contains a list of indeclinables and their definitions. Chapter IX
                                      explains idioms and antithetics.

                                      metta,
                                      Yong Peng.


                                      --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

                                      Just the first paras I did not get. The other paras with examples are
                                      clear. Which book do you refer to? Sorry, I missed it.

                                      > The causal suffixes and the method of forming causal verbs are given
                                      in §74 of the First Book.
                                    • Jon Fernquest
                                      Thanks Yong Peng, For this link and the description of the book: http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/pali1.10.cdv I find your simple Pali sentences with
                                      Message 18 of 24 , Feb 4, 2008
                                      • 0 Attachment
                                        Thanks Yong Peng,

                                        For this link and the description of the book:
                                        http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/pali1.10.cdv

                                        I find your simple Pali sentences with English translation, particulary in
                                        the exercise keys, the most effective self-learning tool, to gradually build
                                        familiarity with new vocabulary and vocabulary, and then self-test myself.

                                        I really wasn't getting anywhere until I found these.

                                        Thanks again,
                                        Jon Fernquest


                                        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, "Ong Yong Peng" <pali.smith@...> wrote:
                                        >
                                        > Dear Nina,
                                        >
                                        > my apologies for this late reply. I am back in Singapore for the
                                        > Chinese New Year holidays since Monday, and have been busy
                                        shopping,
                                        > visiting family and friends, and catching up on some other stuff. I
                                        > got to watch CNN live telecast of United States President Bush's final
                                        > State of the Union Address on Tuesday, and was glad to hear him
                                        > mentioned Burma (once). Hopefully, he will do something to improve
                                        the
                                        > situation in Burma before his presidential term ends this year.
                                        >
                                        > The reference paragraph is from the first book, which is available
                                        > here: http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/pali1.10.cdv
                                        >
                                        > I am currently posting the second book, or Part II, to the list. As
                                        > mentioned sometimes earlier, there is also a Part III, which discusses
                                        > advance topics but there is no exercises in the book. Since I am now
                                        > in Singapore, and the book is sitting on my shelf, I shall provide a
                                        > quick overview of its contents, as follows:
                                        >
                                        > The book deals with advance topics in Pali, and the chapters vary very
                                        > much in length. Chapter 1 deals with uncommon word forms, such as
                                        > saa, kara, mahaaraaja, santa, etc. Chapters II to VI are short
                                        > chapters on verbs, syntax of nouns, and sentence analysis. Chapter VII
                                        > contains a list of indeclinables and their definitions. Chapter IX
                                        > explains idioms and antithetics.
                                        >
                                        > metta,
                                        > Yong Peng.
                                        >
                                        >
                                        > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:
                                        >
                                        > Just the first paras I did not get. The other paras with examples are
                                        > clear. Which book do you refer to? Sorry, I missed it.
                                        >
                                        > > The causal suffixes and the method of forming causal verbs are
                                        given
                                        > in §74 of the First Book.
                                        >
                                      • Nina van Gorkom
                                        Dear Yong Peng, First of all a happy New Year. I know that you always go to Singapore and I am sure you have a good time there. Thank you for the link. Under
                                        Message 19 of 24 , Feb 6, 2008
                                        • 0 Attachment
                                          Dear Yong Peng,
                                          First of all a happy New Year. I know that you always go to Singapore
                                          and I am sure you have a good time there.
                                          Thank you for the link. Under which heading is this on the home page?
                                          I tried to find it, but it is hard.
                                          Nina.
                                          Op 3-feb-2008, om 19:15 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

                                          > The reference paragraph is from the first book, which is available
                                          > here: http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/pali1.10.cdv



                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        • Ong Yong Peng
                                          Dear Nina, Jon, Piya and friends, happy Chinese New Year to all. Nina, the way to get to the page is as follows: Homepage PaliScape Pali Synthesis ... Jon,
                                          Message 20 of 24 , Feb 6, 2008
                                          • 0 Attachment
                                            Dear Nina, Jon, Piya and friends,

                                            happy Chinese New Year to all.

                                            Nina, the way to get to the page is as follows:

                                            Homepage > PaliScape > Pali Synthesis
                                            > [left-hand column] The New Pali Course Part I
                                            > [right-hand column] Part 10

                                            Jon, I am glad that the online resources is of good to you.

                                            metta,
                                            Yong Peng.


                                            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

                                            Thank you for the link. Under which heading is this on the home page?

                                            > http://www.tipitaka.net/pali/synthesis/pali1.10.cdv
                                          • Nina van Gorkom
                                            Dear Yong Peng, thank you. On my computer the letters Paliscape are almost the same dark green as the background, so I forgot to take it. I shall watch out
                                            Message 21 of 24 , Feb 7, 2008
                                            • 0 Attachment
                                              Dear Yong Peng,
                                              thank you.
                                              On my computer the letters Paliscape are almost the same dark green
                                              as the background, so I forgot to take it. I shall watch out more.
                                              Nina.
                                              Op 7-feb-2008, om 3:27 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

                                              > the way to get to the page is as follows:
                                              >
                                              > Homepage > PaliScape > Pali Synthesis
                                              > > [left-hand column] The New Pali Course Part I
                                              > > [right-hand column] Part 10



                                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            • Ong Yong Peng
                                              Dear Nina, thanks for your feedback. I have taken note of this and will make some adjustments to the colour scheme of the affected webpages. metta, Yong Peng.
                                              Message 22 of 24 , Feb 10, 2008
                                              • 0 Attachment
                                                Dear Nina,

                                                thanks for your feedback. I have taken note of this and will make some
                                                adjustments to the colour scheme of the affected webpages.

                                                metta,
                                                Yong Peng.


                                                --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

                                                On my computer the letters Paliscape are almost the same dark green as
                                                the background, so I forgot to take it.
                                              Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.