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The New Pali Course Part II [3-4/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    [3-4/8] The New Pali Course Part II Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta The Passive or Reflexive is used when the effect or the consequence of the action expressed by the
    Message 1 of 88 , Nov 18, 2007
      [3-4/8]

      The New Pali Course Part II

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      The Passive or Reflexive is used when the effect or the consequence of
      the action expressed by the verb accrues to no one else but to the agent.

      64. There are two sets of inflections to form the verbs in either
      Voice; one set is named Parassapada, and the other Attanopada.

      It seems that the Parassapada set was formerly used only to form the
      Active Verbs, and the other set to form the Passive ones. But now they
      have lost their distinction, and are used to form the verbs in both
      the Voices.*

      First Conjugation

      Present Tense

      65. The inflections or the personal endings of the First Mode,
      Vattamaanaa or Present Tense, are:

      Parassapada Attanopada
      Person Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
      3rd ti nti te nte
      2nd si tha se vhe
      1st mi ma e mhe

      Conjugation of the root paca (to cook) in Present Indicative.

      Active Voice

      Parassapada
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd pacati (he cooks) pacanti (they cook)
      2nd pacasi (thou cookest) pacatha (you cook)
      1st pacaami (I cook) pacaama (we cook)

      Middle/Attanopada
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd pacate (he cooks) pacante (they cook)
      2nd pacase pacavhe
      1st pace pacaamhe

      Passive Voice

      Attanopada (endings)
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd paccate (it is cooked) paccante (they are cooked)
      2nd paccase (thou art cooked) paccavhe (you are cooked)
      1st pacce (I am cooked) paccaamhe (we are cooked)

      Parassapada (endings)
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd paccati (it is cooked) paccanti
      2nd paccasi paccatha
      1st paccaami paccaama

      The conjugational sign of this group, as shown before, is a.

      The Passive base is formed by adding the suffix ya to the root.

      Active: paca + a + ti = pacati
      Passive: paca + ya + ti = pacyati = paccati

      A. The last vowel of the root is dropped here, as it is the case with
      most of the roots where the vowel is a later addition.

      B. Y is assimilated to the last consonant of the root. Its
      assimilation takes place in more than one way, which will be explained
      later on.

      The Imperative (Benedictive included)

      66. Pa~ncamii, the Fourth Mode

      The personal endings of this mode are:

      Parassapada Attanopada
      Person Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
      3rd tu ntu ta.m nta.m
      2nd hi tha ssu vho
      1st mi ma e aamase

      Active Voice

      Parassapada
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd gacchatu (let him go) gacchantu (let them go)
      2nd gaccha, gacchaahi (go thou) gacchatha (go you)
      1st gacchaami (let me go) gacchaama (let us go)

      Gaccha is the base formed from the root gamu (to go). The second
      personal ending hi is sometimes dropped.

      Attanopada
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd gacchata.m (let him go) gacchanta.m
      2nd gacchassu gacchavho
      1st gacche gacchaamase

      The Optative (Potential)

      67. Sattamii, the Fifth Mode

      The personal endings of this mode are:

      Parassapada Attanopada
      Person Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
      3rd eyya eyyu.m etha era.m
      2nd eyyaasi eyyaatha etho eyyavho
      1st eyyaami eyyaama eyya.m eyyaamhe

      Active Voice

      Parassapada
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd gaccheyya (he would go) gaccheyyu.m (they would go)
      2nd gaccheyyaasi (thou wouldst go) gaccheyyaatha (you would go)
      1st gaccheyyaami (I should go) gaccheyyaama (we should go)

      Attanopada
      Person Singular Plural
      3rd gacchetha gacchera.m
      2nd gacchetho gaccheyyavho
      1st gaccheyya.m gaccheyyaamhe

      Exercise 11

      Translate into English

      1. "Tadaa se.t.thino bhariyaa garugabbhaa hoti; tasmaa so siigha.m
      geha.m purisa.m pesesi: gaccha, bha.ne, jaanaahi ta.m vijaataa vaa no
      vaa ti." [Dh.A.i.174]

      * Note by Dr. O. H. de A. Wijesekera: In Vedic and Sanskrit the
      Aatmanepada endings are used for both Middle (or Reflexive) and
      Passive Voices. Pali Voices too are derived from these. So there
      should be really three Voices, viz., Active, Middle and Passive. What
      has happened in Pali (as in other Prakrits) is that the Middle as a
      Voice (i.e., in its syntactical usage as such) has disappeared, though
      its endings are found to a certain extent used just like other Active
      endings.

      (to be continued...)
    • Ong Yong Peng
      Dear Jim, I am glad you find the resource beneficial. The OpenLibrary only contains publications in the public domain, on the other hand, Google Books teamed
      Message 88 of 88 , Dec 27, 2008
        Dear Jim,

        I am glad you find the resource beneficial. The OpenLibrary only
        contains publications in the public domain, on the other hand, Google
        Books teamed up with many publishers to offer copyrighted materials
        for view online.

        Both are worthy and valuable projects for any student and book lovers.

        metta,
        Yong Peng.


        --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Jim Anderson wrote:

        Thank-you very much for the link (openlibrary.org). This is the first
        time I'd heard of it and it is certainly a great resource for us Pali
        students. They currently list 113 downloadable books having Pali in
        the titles. Many of the classics are included such as Senart's work on
        Kaccaayana and Childer's Pali dictionary. They also list 2101 other
        Pali books but not available for downloading or reading online. I knew
        about Clough's and D'Alwis's works but had no idea that so many other
        Pali books have come online as well. It's really quite overwhelming
        and I'll be spending a good part of my winter downloading these books
        to add to my collection.

        > Clough - http://openlibrary.org/b/OL6534987M
        > D'Alwis - http://openlibrary.org/b/OL14015171M
        > http://openlibrary.org/search?q=pali (click Available on the
        right-hand panel)
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