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The New Pali Course Part II [2-2/8]

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  • Ong Yong Peng
    [2-2/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta Translate into Pali 1. Flying through the air the birds go wherever they want. 2. The monk
    Message 1 of 24 , Sep 15, 2007
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      [2-2/8]

      The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

      Translate into Pali

      1. Flying through the air the birds go wherever they want.

      2. The monk dwells in a cave suffusing the whole world with his
      benevolent mind.

      3. The cattle, which help us in ploughing our fields and supply us
      with milk and ghee, should not be killed by us.

      4. Two caravan leaders of Ukkala, having seen the Exalted One sitting
      in a forest, offered Him some food and received some hair-relics from Him.

      5. They carried those relics to their own country, erected a shrine
      over them, and made daily offerings of lotuses and other flowers to
      the shrine.

      6. The swan is able to drink the milk separating it from the water.

      7. Many people in that country, having seen the shrine built by the
      merchants, came there to pay their homage.

      8. There are many iron bridges made over the streams in Ceylon and
      other countries.

      9. Millionaires keep their wealth in iron safes in order to protect it
      from the thieves.

      10. The traveller, fatigued by the heat of the sun, came to a lake,
      bathed there, and went on with some lotuses in his hand.

      11. Prince Siddhaartha became a monk at the age of 29, and became
      enlightened when he was 35 years old.

      12. The monk having taken a bowl made of iron walks through the path
      which is full of dust and is heated by the sun.

      13. Today many well-to-do persons fly through the air wherever they
      like, as some persons, possessed of supernatural power, did in olden days.

      14. The Hindus treat their cattle well and abstain from eating their
      flesh.

      15. People perform good or bad actions with body, mind and speech.

      New words.

      abstains = viramati, apagacchati (v).
      caravan leader = satthavaaha (m).
      daily = patidina.m (adv). devasika (adj).
      drinks = pivati (v).
      enlightened = buddha (pp).
      erected = kaaresi (v).
      fatigued = kilanta (pp).
      flesh = ma.msa (n).
      full of dust = rajoki.n.na (adj).
      hair-relic = kesadhaatu (f).
      heat of the sun = aatapa (m).
      heated = tatta (pp).
      helps = upatthambheti (v).
      in olden days = puraa (indec).
      iron safe = ayope.laa (f).
      offered = adaasi (v).
      performs = karoti, sampaadeti (v).
      ploughing = kasana (ger).
      received = labhi (v).
      separating = visu.m karonta (pr.p).
      should be killed = maaretabba (pot.p).
      supplies with = sampaadeti (v).
      stream = sota (m).
      swan = ha.msa (m).
      to protect = rakkhitu.m (inf).
      to pay homage = gaarava.m dassetu.m.
      traveller = pathika (m).
      through the air = nabhasaa.
      treats = sa`nga.nhaati, sakkaroti (v).
      wanted = icchita (pp).
      well-to-do = sukhita, dhanavantu (adj).
      wherever = yattha katthaci (indec).
      whole = sakala (adj).

      -------------------------

      Compound Nouns

      Samaasa

      40. When two or more nouns are combined together to form a grammatical
      unit it is called a Samaasa (compound).

      Some compounds have an indeclinable as their first member. A few
      compounds are made up entirely of indeclinables.

      There are six kinds of compounds:

      (1) Kammadhaaraya = Adjectival compound (where an adjective and a
      substantive is combined).
      (2) Digu = Numeral determinative (numeral + substantive).
      (3) Tappurisa = Dependent determinative (substantive + substantive).
      (4) Dvanda = Copulative or aggregative (two or more nouns).
      (5) Avyayiibhaava = Adverbial compound (where an indeclinable - adverb
      included - and a substantive is combined).
      (6) Bahubbiihi = Relative or attributive compound (which bears a
      signification different from that of the component words).

      41. The case-endings of the first member or members of a compound are
      generally dropped; only in a few instances they are preserved.

      (1) Kammadhaaraya (Adjectival Compound)

      42. The two members of an Adjectival Compound must, in their
      uncompounded state, be in the same case.

      Examples

      niila.m + uppala.m = niiluppala.m (blue water-lily)
      ratta.m + vattha.m = rattavattha.m (red cloth)
      seto + hatthii = setahatthii (white elephant)
      niico + puriso = niicapuriso (a dwarf, a vulgar man)
      pu.n.naa + nadii = pu.n.nanadii (overflowing river)
      diigho + maggo = diighamaggo (long path)

      43. The qualifying word here is generally placed first; but in some
      cases it comes last.

      Examples

      Buddhaghoso + aacariyo = Buddhaghosaacariyo (the commentator or
      teacher Buddhaghosa)
      Saariputto + thero = Saariputtatthero (the elder Saariputta)
      Sumedho + pa.n.dito = Sumedhapa.n.dito (wise Sumedha)
      Bimbisaaro + raajaa = Bimbisaararaajaa (King Bimbisaara)

      These four last examples may be called "Nouns in Apposition",
      according to English grammarians.

      44. If the descriptive word be in comparison, it comes last in this
      compound.

      Examples

      aadicco viya Buddho = Buddhaadicco (the sun-like Buddha)
      cando viya mukha.m = mukhacando (moonlike face)

      (to be continued...)
    • Ong Yong Peng
      [2-3/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta siiho viya muni = munisiiho (lionlike sage) naago viya Buddho = Buddhanaago (the
      Message 2 of 24 , Sep 22, 2007
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        [2-3/8]

        The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

        Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

        siiho viya muni = munisiiho (lionlike sage)
        naago viya Buddho = Buddhanaago (the elephant-like or noble Buddha)

        The words naaga, siiha, etc. are used to denote superiority or greatness.

        45. In Kammadhaaraya, the adjective "mahanta" becomes "mahaa". If it
        is followed by a double consonant it becomes "maha".

        Examples

        mahanto + muni = mahaamuni (great sage)
        mahantii + pa.thavii = mahaapa.thavii (great earth)
        mahanta.m + bhaya.m = mahabbhaya.m (great fear)

        46. When the two members of a Kammadhaaraya are feminine, the first
        one assumes the form of the masculine, if the word had been formed
        from a masculine stem.

        Examples

        khattiyaa + kumaarii = khattiyakumaarii (princess of the warrior caste)
        braahma.nii + ka~n~naa = braahma.naka~n~naa (a Brahmin girl)
        naagii + maa.navikaa = naagamaa.navikaa (maiden of the Naaga tribe)
        dutiyaa + panti = dutiyapanti (second line or class)

        Note - When the first feminine form is a proper noun, it does not take
        the masculine form, e.g.

        nandaapokkhara.nii (Nandaa pond)
        nandaadevii (Queen Nandaa)

        47. When the particle "na" (not) is combined to another word, it is
        replaced by "a" before a consonant, and by "an" before a vowel. (This
        is not included, anyhow, in the fifth class of compounds though it has
        an indeclinable as its members.)

        Examples

        na + manusso = amanusso (non-human being)
        na + sama.no = assama.no (not a monk)
        na + ariyo = anariyo (ignoble, low)
        na + i.t.tho = ani.t.tho (not agreeable)
        na + kusala.m = akusala.m (sin, bad action)

        (2) Digu Compounds

        48. When a numeral and a substantive is combined it is called digu.
        The numeral must be the first member.

        The numerals being a kind of adjectives this compound may be included
        in kammadhaaraya. But it is separated and given a different name for
        the convenience of students.

        There are two kinds of Digu:
        (I) Samaahaara = collective (which expresses a whole and takes the
        form of the neuter singular).
        (II) Asamaahaara = individual (which does not express a whole, but
        takes the plural form). Here the objects indicated by the last member
        are considered individually.

        (I) Samaahaara-Digu

        Examples

        dve + a`nguliyo = dva.ngula.m (two inches)
        tayo + lokaa = tiloka.m (three worlds)
        catasso + disaa = catuddisa.m (the four quarters)
        pa~nca + siilaani = pa~ncasiila.m (the five precepts)
        satta + ahaani = sattaaha.m (a week)
        sata.m + yojanaani = satayojana.m (hundred leagues)

        (II) Asamaahaara-Digu

        Examples

        tayo + bhavaa = tibhavaa (the three states of existence)
        pa~nce + indriyaani = pa~ncindriyaani (the five senses)

        Exercise 7

        Translate into English and define the compounds

        1. Buddhaadicce anudite canda-suriya-sataani pi mokkhamagga.m
        pakaasetu.m na sakkonti.

        2. Mahaapurise mahaabodhi.m upasa`nkamante mahaapa.thavii mahaarava.m
        raavamaanaa kampi.

        3. Dhammaasoka-mahaaraajaa aneka-sahasse assama.ne niiharitvaa
        Buddhasaasana.m nimmala.m akaasi.

        4. Buddhanaago Anaathapi.n.dika-mahaase.t.thinaa kaarite
        Jetavana-mahaavihaare ekuunaviisati-vassaani vasi.

        5. Saariputtatthero samaapattisukhena Pipphaliguhaaya.m sattaaha.m
        viitinaamesi.

        6. Buddhaghosaacariyo Jambudiipato Siiha.ladiipa.m aagantvaa
        Anuraadhapure Mahaavihaare vasanto tipi.takapaa.liyaa a.t.thakathaayo
        Maagadhabhaasaaya likhi.

        7. Va.t.tagaama.nii-Abhaya-mahaara~n~no kaale bahavo mahaatheraa
        Maatula-janapade Aaloka-guhaaya.m sannipatitvaa Buddhavacana.m
        taalapa.n.nesu likhi.msu.

        8. Titthiyaa rattacandanehi ma.n.dapa.m kaaraapetvaa ta.m niiluppalehi
        chaadetvaa mahaajanassa paa.tihaariya.m dassessaamaa ti tattha
        a.t.tha.msu.

        9. Mahaamoggallaanatthero attano iddhibalena Sakkassa devara~n~no
        Vejayantapaasaada.m kampesi.

        10. Devadattatthero Raajagahanagare Ajaatasattu-kumaara.m pasaadetvaa
        mahaalaabha.m uppaadesi.

        11. Siddhatthakumaaro Uruvelaajanapade Nera~njaraanadiitiire
        assattharukkhassa muule nisiditvaa Vesaakhapu.n.namiyaa pacchimayaame
        abhisambodhi.m paapu.ni.

        12. Kisaa-Gotamii-naamaa khattiyaka~n~naa nagara.m padakkhi.na.m
        karontassa mahaasattassa ruupasiri.m disvaa eka.m gaatha.m aaha.

        New words.

        a.t.thakathaa (f) commentary.
        anudita (pp) not risen.
        aneka (adj) many.
        abhisambodhi (f) perfect knowledge.
        aalokaguhaa (f) the cave of that name [Aluvihaara].
        iddhibala (n) supernatural power.
        upasa`nkamanta (pr.p) approaching.
        kampi (v) shook.
        chaadaapetvaa (abs) having caused to be covered or thatched.
        jambudiipa (m) India.
        taalapa.n.na (n) palmyra leaf, ola.
        tipi.takapaa.li (f) the text of the Buddhist Canon [of three portions].
        titthiya (m) heretical teacher.
        devaraaja (m) king of gods.
        nimmala (adj) stainless.
        niiharitvaa (abs) having ejected.
        pakaasetu.m (inf) to manifest.
        pacchimayaama (m) last watch.
        padakkhi.naa (f) going round [keeping to the right, as a mark of
        respect], circumambulation.
        parivattesi (v) translated.
        pasaadetvaa (abs) having converted [lit. having made calm or clear].
        paa.tihaariya (n) miracle.
        pipphaliguhaa (f) a cave near Raajagaha.
        buddhavacana (n) the Buddha's word.
        ma.n.dapa (m) pavilion.
        mahaajana (m) the public.

        (to be continued...)
      • Nina van Gorkom
        Dear Yong Peng, I am glad you present the part about the Kammadhaaraya compounds and the digu compounds. The first kind always causes me trouble to understand,
        Message 3 of 24 , Sep 22, 2007
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          Dear Yong Peng,
          I am glad you present the part about the Kammadhaaraya compounds and
          the digu compounds.
          The first kind always causes me trouble to understand, even if I look
          up Warder. The examples with the negation is clear. But could you say
          something in general what a Kammadhaaraya compound is and what it
          exactly contains?
          Perhaps more examples would help.
          Thank you,
          Nina.
          Op 22-sep-2007, om 16:45 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

          > In Kammadhaaraya, the adjective "mahanta" becomes "mahaa". If it
          > is followed by a double consonant it becomes "maha".



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Ong Yong Peng
          Dear Nina, thanks. This New Pali Course Part II is the work of the late Buddhadatta Thera, as indicated in the beginning of each post. [Just in case someone
          Message 4 of 24 , Sep 22, 2007
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            Dear Nina,

            thanks. This New Pali Course Part II is the work of the late
            Buddhadatta Thera, as indicated in the beginning of each post. [Just
            in case someone gets the wrong idea. :-)]

            I agree the explanation on 'mahanta' and 'na' (negation) is very clear
            and useful. In fact, I have been following these points (§45 and §47)
            in all our translation exercises.

            Quoting An Elementary Pali Course (Ven. Narada),

            A Kammadhaaraya (Adjectival Compound) is that which is formed by
            combining a substantive with an adjective, or a noun in apposition, or
            an indeclinable used in an adjectival sense, as its prior member.

            Then, in an earlier post,

            §43. The qualifying word is generally placed first; but in some
            cases it comes last.

            Examples can be found in the same post:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11643

            metta,
            Yong Peng.


            --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

            I am glad you present the part about the Kammadhaaraya compounds and
            the digu compounds. The first kind always causes me trouble to
            understand, even if I look up Warder. The examples with the negation
            is clear. But could you say something in general what a Kammadhaaraya
            compound is and what it exactly contains?

            Perhaps more examples would help.

            > In Kammadhaaraya, the adjective "mahanta" becomes "mahaa". If it
            > is followed by a double consonant it becomes "maha".
          • Noah Yuttadhammo
            Dear Friends, Just rejoined the Pali group this week... I ve started studying Pali grammar the Thai way, so your discussion is interesting to me :) According
            Message 5 of 24 , Sep 22, 2007
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              Dear Friends,

              Just rejoined the Pali group this week... I've started studying Pali
              grammar the Thai way, so your discussion is interesting to me :)

              According to the texts we study, a kammadhaaraya samaasa consists of two
              pada that originally had the same vibhatti (declension) and vacana
              (number), and are either a) one visesana (qualifier) and one padhaana
              (chief, ie noun), or b) two visesana taking an external pada as the
              padhaana.

              It is divided into six types:

              1. visesanapubbapada

              mahanto puriso = mahaapuriso - a great man

              2. visesanuttarapada

              satto viseso = sattaviseso - a special being

              3. visesanobhayapada

              khan~njo ca kujjo ca = kha~njakujjo - lame and humpbacked

              4. visesanopamaapada

              kaako viya suuro = kaakasuuro (upamaapubbapada) - a person who is bold
              like a crow
              naro siiho viya = narasiiho (upamaanuttarapada) - a man who is like a lion

              5. sambhaavanapubbapada

              sama.no (aha.m) iti pa.ti~n~naa = sama.napa.ti~n~naa - a declaration of
              being a samana

              6. avadhaara.napubbapada

              buddho eva ratana.m = buddharatana.m - a jewel that is the Lord Buddha

              > siiho viya muni = munisiiho (lionlike sage)
              > naago viya Buddho = Buddhanaago (the elephant-like or noble Buddha)
              Just a note, that since these are upamaanuttarapada, I think they should
              technically be analyzed thus:

              muni siiho viya = munisiiho
              Buddho naago viya = Buddhanaago

              Each of the six types has a different formation, as you can see. What
              they have in common is that they are originally the same vibhatti and
              vacana (unlike tappurisa and bahubbihi). Digu is considered a
              kammadhaaraya of sorts, I think.

              "na" pubbapada is not always considered kammadhaaraya - some say it is
              an "ubhaya tappurisa", whatever that means :)

              Best wishes,

              Yuttadhammo

              Ong Yong Peng wrote:
              > Dear Nina,
              >
              > thanks. This New Pali Course Part II is the work of the late
              > Buddhadatta Thera, as indicated in the beginning of each post. [Just
              > in case someone gets the wrong idea. :-)]
              >
              > I agree the explanation on 'mahanta' and 'na' (negation) is very clear
              > and useful. In fact, I have been following these points (§45 and §47)
              > in all our translation exercises.
              >
              > Quoting An Elementary Pali Course (Ven. Narada),
              >
              > A Kammadhaaraya (Adjectival Compound) is that which is formed by
              > combining a substantive with an adjective, or a noun in apposition, or
              > an indeclinable used in an adjectival sense, as its prior member.
              >
              > Then, in an earlier post,
              >
              > §43. The qualifying word is generally placed first; but in some
              > cases it comes last.
              >
              > Examples can be found in the same post:
              > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11643
              >
              > metta,
              > Yong Peng.
              >
              >
              > --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:
              >
              > I am glad you present the part about the Kammadhaaraya compounds and
              > the digu compounds. The first kind always causes me trouble to
              > understand, even if I look up Warder. The examples with the negation
              > is clear. But could you say something in general what a Kammadhaaraya
              > compound is and what it exactly contains?
              >
              > Perhaps more examples would help.
              >
              >
              >> In Kammadhaaraya, the adjective "mahanta" becomes "mahaa". If it
              >> is followed by a double consonant it becomes "maha".
              >>
              >>
            • Nina van Gorkom
              Dear Yong Peng, Thank you very much. Sorry, I missed these posts, my fault. Now it is clearer. Nina. ... [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              Message 6 of 24 , Sep 23, 2007
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                Dear Yong Peng,
                Thank you very much. Sorry, I missed these posts, my fault.
                Now it is clearer.
                Nina.
                Op 23-sep-2007, om 0:25 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

                > A Kammadhaaraya (Adjectival Compound) is that which is formed by
                > combining a substantive with an adjective, or a noun in apposition, or
                > an indeclinable used in an adjectival sense, as its prior member.
                >
                > Then, in an earlier post,
                >
                > §43. The qualifying word is generally placed first; but in some
                > cases it comes last.
                >
                > Examples can be found in the same post:
                > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/11643



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Nina van Gorkom
                Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo, thank you very much for the detailed classification of kammadhaaraya. I have to study it, it is not easy. With respect, Nina.
                Message 7 of 24 , Sep 23, 2007
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                  Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo,
                  thank you very much for the detailed classification of kammadhaaraya.
                  I have to study it, it is not easy.
                  With respect,
                  Nina.
                  Op 23-sep-2007, om 4:41 heeft Noah Yuttadhammo het volgende geschreven:

                  > According to the texts we study, a kammadhaaraya samaasa consists
                  > of two
                  > pada that originally had the same vibhatti (declension) and vacana
                  > (number), and are either a) one visesana (qualifier) and one padhaana
                  > (chief, ie noun), or b) two visesana taking an external pada as the
                  > padhaana.
                  >
                  > It is divided into six types:
                  >
                  > 1. visesanapubbapada
                  >
                  > mahanto puriso = mahaapuriso - a great man
                  >
                  > 2. visesanuttarapada
                  >
                  > satto viseso = sattaviseso - a special being
                  >
                  > 3. visesanobhayapada
                  >
                  > khan~njo ca kujjo ca = kha~njakujjo - lame and humpbacked
                  >
                  > 4. visesanopamaapada
                  >
                  > kaako viya suuro = kaakasuuro (upamaapubbapada) - a person who is bold
                  > like a crow
                  > naro siiho viya = narasiiho (upamaanuttarapada) - a man who is like
                  > a lion
                  >
                  > 5. sambhaavanapubbapada
                  >
                  > sama.no (aha.m) iti pa.ti~n~naa = sama.napa.ti~n~naa - a
                  > declaration of
                  > being a samana
                  >
                  > 6. avadhaara.napubbapada
                  >
                  > buddho eva ratana.m = buddharatana.m - a jewel that is the Lord Buddha
                  >
                  > > siiho viya muni = munisiiho (lionlike sage)
                  > > naago viya Buddho = Buddhanaago (the elephant-like or noble Buddha)
                  > Just a note, that since these are upamaanuttarapada, I think they
                  > should
                  > technically be analyzed thus:
                  >
                  > muni siiho viya = munisiiho
                  > Buddho naago viya = Buddhanaago
                  >
                  > Each of the six types has a different formation, as you can see. What
                  > they have in common is that they are originally the same vibhatti and
                  > vacana (unlike tappurisa and bahubbihi). Digu is considered a
                  > kammadhaaraya of sorts, I think.
                  >
                  > "na" pubbapada is not always considered kammadhaaraya - some say it is
                  > an "ubhaya tappurisa", whatever that means :)



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Noah Yuttadhammo
                  Dear Nina, Here s an explanation: 1. visesanapubbapada = visesana (adj.) first, padhaana (noun) second mahanto puriso = mahaapuriso - a great man 2.
                  Message 8 of 24 , Sep 23, 2007
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                    Dear Nina,

                    Here's an explanation:

                    1. visesanapubbapada = visesana (adj.) first, padhaana (noun) second

                    mahanto puriso = mahaapuriso - a great man

                    2. visesanuttarapada = padhaana first, visesana (adj.) second

                    satto viseso = sattaviseso - a special being

                    3. visesanobhayapada = both visesana, require another pada to be the
                    padhaana.

                    khan~njo ca kujjo ca = kha~njakujjo (puriso) - a lame and humpbacked
                    (man - the padhaana)

                    4. visesanopamapada = one or the other is a visesana, but visesana only
                    in the sense of a comparision, joined using "iva" or "viya"

                    kaako iva suuro = kaakasuuro (upamaapubbapada - upamaa is the first
                    pada) - one who is bold like a crow
                    naro siiho iva = narasiiho (upamaanuttarapada - upama is the second
                    pada) - a man who is like a lion

                    5. sambhaavanapubbapada = the first is a visesana, vis. the matter being
                    declared (pa.ti~n~naa), perceived (sa~n~naa), esteemed (maano), etc.,
                    joined using "iti"

                    sama.no (aha.m) iti pa.ti~n~naa = sama.napa.ti~n~naa - a declaration of
                    being a samana

                    6. avadhaara.napubbapada = the first is a visesana, used to specify the
                    identity of the second pada

                    buddho eva ratana.m = buddharatana.m - a jewel that is the Lord Buddha

                    The other important distinction with KD samaasa is that at least one
                    pada is a visesana (as opposed to dvandva where all are padhaana).

                    Please let me know if there are any particular difficulties with my
                    classification. (Maybe I could give you the Thai?)

                    Best wishes,

                    Yuttadhammo (Phra Noah)


                    Nina van Gorkom wrote:
                    > Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo,
                    > thank you very much for the detailed classification of kammadhaaraya.
                    > I have to study it, it is not easy.
                    > With respect,
                    > Nina.
                    > Op 23-sep-2007, om 4:41 heeft Noah Yuttadhammo het volgende geschreven:
                    >
                    >
                  • P G Dave
                    dear noah, I thought padhaana (sanskrit -- pradhaana ), is an adjective meaning main / chief. does it have a different meaning in pali?
                    Message 9 of 24 , Sep 23, 2007
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                      dear noah,

                      I thought "padhaana" (sanskrit -- "pradhaana"), is an adjective meaning main
                      / chief.
                      does it have a different meaning in pali?
                      ____________________________________________________________________


                      On 9/23/07, Noah Yuttadhammo <yuttadhammo@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Dear Nina,
                      >
                      > Here's an explanation:
                      >
                      > 1. visesanapubbapada = visesana (adj.) first, padhaana (noun) second
                      >
                      > mahanto puriso = mahaapuriso - a great man
                      >
                      > 2. visesanuttarapada = padhaana first, visesana (adj.) second
                      >
                      > satto viseso = sattaviseso - a special being
                      >
                      > 3. visesanobhayapada = both visesana, require another pada to be the
                      > padhaana.
                      >
                      > khan~njo ca kujjo ca = kha~njakujjo (puriso) - a lame and humpbacked
                      > (man - the padhaana)
                      >
                      > 4. visesanopamapada = one or the other is a visesana, but visesana only
                      > in the sense of a comparision, joined using "iva" or "viya"
                      >
                      > kaako iva suuro = kaakasuuro (upamaapubbapada - upamaa is the first
                      > pada) - one who is bold like a crow
                      > naro siiho iva = narasiiho (upamaanuttarapada - upama is the second
                      > pada) - a man who is like a lion
                      >
                      > 5. sambhaavanapubbapada = the first is a visesana, vis. the matter being
                      > declared (pa.ti~n~naa), perceived (sa~n~naa), esteemed (maano), etc.,
                      > joined using "iti"
                      >
                      > sama.no (aha.m) iti pa.ti~n~naa = sama.napa.ti~n~naa - a declaration of
                      > being a samana
                      >
                      > 6. avadhaara.napubbapada = the first is a visesana, used to specify the
                      > identity of the second pada
                      >
                      > buddho eva ratana.m = buddharatana.m - a jewel that is the Lord Buddha
                      >
                      > The other important distinction with KD samaasa is that at least one
                      > pada is a visesana (as opposed to dvandva where all are padhaana).
                      >
                      > Please let me know if there are any particular difficulties with my
                      > classification. (Maybe I could give you the Thai?)
                      >
                      > Best wishes,
                      >
                      > Yuttadhammo (Phra Noah)
                      >
                      > Nina van Gorkom wrote:
                      > > Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo,
                      > > thank you very much for the detailed classification of kammadhaaraya.
                      > > I have to study it, it is not easy.
                      > > With respect,
                      > > Nina.
                      > > Op 23-sep-2007, om 4:41 heeft Noah Yuttadhammo het volgende geschreven:
                      > >
                      > >
                      >
                      >


                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Nina van Gorkom
                      Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo, Thank you very much for all the classifications and examples. Comparing with Warder (p. 108) I see that it is not always so that
                      Message 10 of 24 , Sep 24, 2007
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                        Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo,
                        Thank you very much for all the classifications and examples.
                        Comparing with Warder (p. 108) I see that it is not always so that
                        the first member is an attribute to the second. There are many more
                        types and that is good to know. I keep it in my files. The Thai will
                        not be necessary.
                        With respect,
                        Nina.
                        Op 23-sep-2007, om 18:20 heeft Noah Yuttadhammo het volgende geschreven:

                        > 1. visesanapubbapada = visesana (adj.) first, padhaana (noun) second
                        >
                        > mahanto puriso = mahaapuriso - a great man
                        >
                        > 2. visesanuttarapada = padhaana first, visesana (adj.) second
                        >
                        > satto viseso = sattaviseso - a special being
                        >
                        > 3. visesanobhayapada = both visesana, require another pada to be the
                        > padhaana.
                        >
                        > khan~njo ca kujjo ca = kha~njakujjo (puriso) - a lame and humpbacked
                        > (man - the padhaana)
                        >
                        > 4. visesanopamapada = one or the other is a visesana, but visesana
                        > only
                        > in the sense of a comparision, joined using "iva" or "viya"
                        >
                        > kaako iva suuro = kaakasuuro (upamaapubbapada - upamaa is the first
                        > pada) - one who is bold like a crow
                        > naro siiho iva = narasiiho (upamaanuttarapada - upama is the second
                        > pada) - a man who is like a lion
                        >
                        > 5. sambhaavanapubbapada = the first is a visesana, vis. the matter
                        > being
                        > declared (pa.ti~n~naa), perceived (sa~n~naa), esteemed (maano), etc.,
                        > joined using "iti"
                        >
                        > sama.no (aha.m) iti pa.ti~n~naa = sama.napa.ti~n~naa - a
                        > declaration of
                        > being a samana
                        >
                        > 6. avadhaara.napubbapada = the first is a visesana, used to specify
                        > the
                        > identity of the second pada
                        >
                        > buddho eva ratana.m = buddharatana.m - a jewel that is the Lord Buddha
                        >
                        > The other important distinction with KD samaasa is that at least one
                        > pada is a visesana (as opposed to dvandva where all are padhaana).



                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Noah Yuttadhammo
                        Dear Nina, Glad if I can be of help. The actual analysis given in the ancient texts for the first two types of kammadhaaraya is: mahanto ca so puriso caati
                        Message 11 of 24 , Sep 24, 2007
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                          Dear Nina,

                          Glad if I can be of help.

                          The actual analysis given in the ancient texts for the first two types
                          of kammadhaaraya is:

                          mahanto ca so puriso caati mahaapuriso (he is great also, a man also,
                          therefore "a great man").

                          satto ca so viseso caati sattaviseso (it is a being also, special also,
                          therefore "a special being" - lit. "a being special").

                          Another thing to note is the Great Mahasamana Jao who wrote the Thai
                          grammar text goes on at great length about how none of the ancient texts
                          really can agree on samaasa; some say this, some say that, and their
                          classifications differ.

                          Yuttadhammo
                        • Nina van Gorkom
                          Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo, thank you for the additional explanations of the two first two types of kammadhaaraya. They are clear. I also noticed different
                          Message 12 of 24 , Sep 24, 2007
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                            Venerable Bhikkhu Yuttadhammo,
                            thank you for the additional explanations of the two first two types
                            of kammadhaaraya. They are clear.
                            I also noticed different opinions on samaasa.
                            With respect,
                            Nina.
                            Op 24-sep-2007, om 12:33 heeft Noah Yuttadhammo het volgende geschreven:

                            > The actual analysis given in the ancient texts for the first two types
                            > of kammadhaaraya is:
                            >
                            > mahanto ca so puriso caati mahaapuriso (he is great also, a man also,
                            > therefore "a great man").
                            >
                            > satto ca so viseso caati sattaviseso (it is a being also, special
                            > also,
                            > therefore "a special being" - lit. "a being special").
                            >
                            > Another thing to note is the Great Mahasamana Jao who wrote the Thai
                            > grammar text goes on at great length about how none of the ancient
                            > texts
                            > really can agree on samaasa; some say this, some say that, and their
                            > classifications differ.



                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • Noah Yuttadhammo
                            ... Dear Dave, I am retranslating from the Thai, so it may not actually be used that way in Pali grammar, but the meaning is clear. A padhaana pada is the
                            Message 13 of 24 , Sep 24, 2007
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                              > I thought "padhaana" (sanskrit -- "pradhaana")
                              >
                              > , is an adjective meaning main
                              > / chief.
                              > does it have a different meaning in pali?
                              >

                              Dear Dave,

                              I am retranslating from the Thai, so it may not actually be used that
                              way in Pali grammar, but the meaning is clear. A padhaana pada is the
                              chief pada in the phrase. Ex. The great golden man-made stupa,
                              Shwedagon. Here each pada will have the same vibhatti in pali, but the
                              word "stupa" will be the padhaana, as it is the chief (the noun) and the
                              rest are called visesana, as they are subordinate to the noun (adjectives).

                              Best wishes,

                              Yuttadhammo (Phra Noah)
                            • P G Dave
                              quite so, Yuttadhammo. I was just pointing out that padhaana does not mean noun but means chief . however, in the example u gave, the noun also happens to
                              Message 14 of 24 , Sep 26, 2007
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                                quite so, Yuttadhammo.

                                I was just pointing out that "padhaana" does not mean "noun" but means
                                "chief". however, in the example u gave, the noun also happens to be the
                                chief pada.

                                metta
                                ______________________________________


                                On 9/25/07, Noah Yuttadhammo <yuttadhammo@...> wrote:
                                >
                                > > I thought "padhaana" (sanskrit -- "pradhaana")
                                > >
                                > > , is an adjective meaning main
                                > > / chief.
                                > > does it have a different meaning in pali?
                                > >
                                >
                                > Dear Dave,
                                >
                                > I am retranslating from the Thai, so it may not actually be used that
                                > way in Pali grammar, but the meaning is clear. A padhaana pada is the
                                > chief pada in the phrase. Ex. The great golden man-made stupa,
                                > Shwedagon. Here each pada will have the same vibhatti in pali, but the
                                > word "stupa" will be the padhaana, as it is the chief (the noun) and the
                                > rest are called visesana, as they are subordinate to the noun
                                > (adjectives).
                                >
                                > Best wishes,
                                >
                                > Yuttadhammo (Phra Noah)
                                >
                                >
                                >


                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              • Noah Yuttadhammo
                                ... Dear Dave, Ah, your point was not so clear in your first post. I apologise if I made it seem that padhaana meant noun , though I am not sure it is
                                Message 15 of 24 , Sep 26, 2007
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                                  > quite so, Yuttadhammo.
                                  >
                                  > I was just pointing out that "padhaana" does not mean "noun" but means
                                  > "chief". however, in the example u gave, the noun also happens to be the
                                  > chief pada.
                                  >
                                  > metta

                                  Dear Dave,

                                  Ah, your point was not so clear in your first post. I apologise if I
                                  made it seem that "padhaana" meant "noun", though I am not sure it is
                                  possible in Pali to have a chief pada which is not a noun... For
                                  instance, in the phrase "mahaaduggato puriso", the first pada cannot be
                                  considered a padhaana, even though it might appear by itself; if it
                                  appears by itself, we assume the word puriso or what ever padhaana it
                                  refers to:

                                  Nagarasmi.m mahaaduggato puriso ahosi. Pa.n.ditapuriso mahaaduggata.m
                                  "samma tva.m kati bhikkhuu bhojessasiiti pucchi.

                                  But then two nouns could refer to the same object, and it would depend I
                                  think on the context which was considered the "padhaana". Eg.

                                  So satto asso hoti. Asso satto hoti. Asso ca so satto ca hoti.

                                  It looks, though, that the word padhaana is little used in the pali
                                  grammars (not that I would be the expert...). In the Thai grammar texts
                                  it is used in this way.

                                  Best wishes,

                                  Yuttadhammo (Phra Noah)
                                • Ong Yong Peng
                                  [2-4/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta mahaapurisa (m) the great being. mahaabodhi (m) the great Bo-tree at Buddha Gayaa. mahaaraha
                                  Message 16 of 24 , Sep 29, 2007
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                                    [2-4/8]

                                    The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

                                    Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                    mahaapurisa (m) the great being.
                                    mahaabodhi (m) the great Bo-tree at Buddha Gayaa.
                                    mahaaraha (adj) costly, precious or very valuable.
                                    mahaalaabha (m) great gain.
                                    maagadhabhaasaa (f) the language of Magadha.
                                    maatulajanapada (m) province of Maatale in Ceylon.
                                    mokkhamagga (m) path to deliverance.
                                    ratanamaalii (n) name of the great pagoda, at Anuraadhapura.
                                    rattacandana (n) red sandal-wood.
                                    rava (m) noise.
                                    ravamaana (pr.p) making a noise.
                                    ruupasiri (f) beauty.
                                    vesaakhapu.n.namii (f) the full moon day of the month Vesaakha (May).
                                    samaapattisukha (n) bliss of concentration.
                                    sattaaha (n) a week.

                                    Translate into Pali, making compounds where it is possible

                                    1. Wearing red clothes and with red water-lilies in their hands, many
                                    girls of the warrior caste and of the Brahmin caste went to Jetavana
                                    to show their respect to the Great Sage.

                                    2. Five hundred saints assembled in the pavilion, erected by King
                                    Ajaatasattu of Raajagaha, in front of the cave Sattapa.n.ni.

                                    3. Leaving his consort, Yasodharaa, his only infant, Raahula, and
                                    immense wealth, Prince Siddhaartha went away to become a monk.

                                    4. The Buddha's tooth relic was brought from Kalinga to Ceylon during
                                    the reign of King Meghava.n.naabhaya. The king kept it in a casket
                                    made of red sandal-wood and showed great respect to it.

                                    5. Ming-Dun-Ming, the king of Burma, sent envoys and much wealth to
                                    India in order to repair the old shrine at Buddhagayaa, where the
                                    Great Being attained enlightenment.

                                    6. The Great Teacher, Buddhaghosa, learnt the Sinhalese commentaries
                                    from the Great Elder Sa`nghapaala of the Great Monastery in
                                    Anuraadhapura and translated them into Paali.

                                    7. Having become the over-lord of La`nkaa, Paraakramabaahu I ejected
                                    the impostors from the Buddhist community (of monks) and united the
                                    three sections.

                                    8. Wearing white garments and taking white lotuses, white
                                    water-lilies, and other multi-coloured flowers, male and female
                                    devotees go to Anuraadhapura to show their respect to the great
                                    Bo-tree and the other shrines there.

                                    9. The Elder Mahaa-Kassapa, with five hundred monks, came to the
                                    Sal-grove near Kusinaaraa to bow down at the feet of his dead Master.

                                    10. Mallas of Kusinaaraa placed the Buddha's body in a golden coffin,
                                    filled it with scented oil, and kept it upon a pyre made of sandal-wood.

                                    11. They covered it with white, red and yellow cloths and decorated it
                                    with wreaths of various colours.

                                    12. The Great Sage of the Saakyas travelled in many countries
                                    preaching his doctrine to the poor and the rich alike. People of
                                    various castes became His disciples.

                                    New words.

                                    alike = avisesa.m (adj).
                                    attained = labhi (v).
                                    Buddhist community (of monks) = bhikkhusa`ngha (m).
                                    casket = kara.n.da (m).
                                    coffin = [mataka-] do.ni (f).
                                    enlightenment = buddhatta (n).
                                    envoy = raajaduuta (m).
                                    golden = suva.n.namaya (adj).
                                    immense = atimahanta (adj).
                                    impostor = patiruupaka (m).
                                    infant = thanapa (m).
                                    leaving = jahitvaa (abs).
                                    Mallas of Kusinaaraa = Kosinaarakaa Mallaa (m pl).
                                    master = satthu (m).
                                    multi-coloured = naanaava.n.na (adj).
                                    Sal-grove = saalavana (n).
                                    saint = arahanta (m).
                                    scented = sugandha (adj). vaasita (pp).
                                    Sinhalese = siiha.la (adj).
                                    three sections or sects = nikaayattaya (n).
                                    to repair = pa.tisa`nkharitu.m (inf).
                                    to show = dassetu.m (inf).
                                    tooth relic = dantadhaatu (f).
                                    translates = parivatteti, anuvaadeti (v).
                                    travels = sa~ncarati (v).
                                    unites = ekiibhaavam upaneti (v).
                                    various = vividha (adj).
                                    wearing = paridahanta (pr.p). paridahitvaa (abs).
                                    white lotus = pu.n.dariika (n).
                                    white water-lily = kumuda (n).
                                    wreath = [maalaa] daama (m).

                                    (3) Tappurisa-Samaasa

                                    Dependent Determinative Compounds

                                    49. If two nouns, related to each other by some oblique case, are
                                    joined together, it is called Tappurisa Compound.

                                    (a) The first member, which may be in any case other than the
                                    Nominative (and the Vocative), qualifies or determines the last member.

                                    (b) The gender and the number of the compound are determined by the
                                    last member.

                                    These compounds may be divided into six groups according to the cases
                                    belonging to the first members:

                                    (I) Dutiyaa-Tappurisa (with the Accusative Case)
                                    (II) Tatiyaa-Tappurisa (with the Instrumental)
                                    (III) Catutthii-Tappurisa (with the Dative)
                                    (IV) Pa~ncamii-Tappurisa (with the Ablative)
                                    (V) Cha.t.thii-Tappurisa (with the Possessive)
                                    (VI) Sattamii-Tappurisa (with the Locative)

                                    Examples

                                    (I) Dutiyaa-Tappurisa

                                    gaama.m + gato = gaamagato (gone to the village)
                                    sukha.m + patto = sukhappatto (having attained happiness)
                                    ratha.m + aaruu.lho = rathaaruu.lho (having got into the car)
                                    pamaa.na.m + atikkanto = pamaa.naatikkanto (gone over the measure)

                                    (II) Tatiyaa-Tappurisa

                                    buddhena + desito = buddhadesito (preached by the Buddha)
                                    sappena + da.t.tho = sappada.t.tho (bitten by a serpent)

                                    (to be continued...)
                                  • Ong Yong Peng
                                    [2-5/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta ra~n~naa + hato = raajahato (killed by the king) vi~n~nuuhi + garahito = vi~n~nuugarahito
                                    Message 17 of 24 , Oct 6, 2007
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                                      [2-5/8]

                                      The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

                                      Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                      ra~n~naa + hato = raajahato (killed by the king)
                                      vi~n~nuuhi + garahito = vi~n~nuugarahito (despised by the wise)

                                      (III) Catutthii-Tappurisa

                                      paasaadaaya + dabba.m = paasaadadabba.m (material for the mansion)
                                      ra~n~no + araha.m = raajaaraha.m (worthy of a king)
                                      buddhassa + deyya.m = buddhadeyya.m (that should be given to the Buddha)
                                      yaaguyaa + ta.n.dulaa = yaaguta.n.dulaa (rice for gruel)

                                      50. The compounds formed with an infinitive and kaama (desirous) or
                                      kaamataa (desire) are considered to be in the Dative-Tappurisa.

                                      gantu.m + kaamo = gantukaamo (desirous to go)
                                      sotu.m + kaamataa = sotukaamataa (desire to hear)
                                      vattu.m + kaamo = vattukamo (desirous to say)
                                      daatu.m + kaamataa = daatukaamataa (desire to give)

                                      (IV) Pa~ncamii-Tappurisa

                                      rukkhaa + patito = rukkhapatito (fallen from the tree)
                                      bandhanaa + mutto = bandhanamutto (released from the bond or confinement)
                                      raajamhaa + bhiito = raajabhiito (afraid of the king)
                                      duccaritato + virati = duccaritavirati (abstinence from vice or bad
                                      conduct)

                                      (V) Cha.t.thii-Tappurisa

                                      jinassa + vacana.m = jinavacana.m (word of the Buddha)
                                      ra~n~no + putto = raajaputto (king's son)
                                      dha~n~naana.m + raasi = dha~n~naraasi (a heap of corn)
                                      pupphaana.m + gandho = pupphagandho (smell of flowers)

                                      (VI) Sattamii-Tappurisa

                                      gaame + vaasii = gaamavaasii (villager)
                                      dhamme + rato = dhammarato (delighting in the doctrine)
                                      vane + pupphaani = vanapupphaani (flowers in the forest or wild-flowers)
                                      kuupe + ma.n.duuko = kuupama.n.duuko (frog in the well)

                                      51. It is stated in §41 that the case-endings of the first members of
                                      some compounds are not dropped. In that case the compound is called
                                      Aluttasamaasa. Examples for this are mostly found in Tappurisa.

                                      pabha.m + karo = pabha.nkaro (generator of the light; the sun)
                                      ante + vaasiko = antevaasiko (a resident pupil)
                                      pa`nke + ruha.m = pa`nkeruha.m (grown in (out of) the mud, i.e. a lotus)
                                      manasi + kaaro = manasikaaro (keeping in the mind; attention)
                                      parassapada.m (word for another = Reflective Voice)
                                      pubbenivaaso (former lives; life in a former existence)

                                      52. These is a variety of the Tappurisa in which the last member is a
                                      verbal derivative which cannot be used independently. It is named
                                      "Upapada-Tappurisa".

                                      kumbha.m karotii ti = kumbhakaaro (a potter)
                                      dhamma.m caratii ti = dhammacaarii (observer of the Dhamma)
                                      urena gacchatii ti = urago (a serpent)
                                      attamhaa jaato = attajo (son)
                                      pabbate ti.t.thatii ti = pabbata.t.tho (one who stands on a rock)

                                      Remark:
                                      -kaaro, -go, -jo and -.tho in these examples are not used
                                      independently. They stand in these forms only in compounds.

                                      (4) Dvanda-Samaasa

                                      Copulative or Aggregative Compounds

                                      53. Two or more nouns joined by 'ca' (=and) may be combined together
                                      eliminating the intermediate conjunctions. The compound thus formed is
                                      called Dvanda.

                                      The members of this compound must be co-ordinate in their uncompounded
                                      state.

                                      There are two kinds of Dvanda compounds:-

                                      (I) Asamaahaara and (II) Samaahaara.

                                      (I) The first one stands in the plural, and takes the gender and
                                      declension of its last member.

                                      (II) The second takes the form of a neuter singular and becomes a
                                      collective, whatever be the number of its members. This occurs with
                                      the names of birds, parts of the body, trees, herbs, arts, musical
                                      instruments, etc.

                                      (I) Asamaahaara-Dvanda

                                      sama.naa ca braahma.naa ca = sama.nabrahma.naa (monks and brahmins)
                                      cando ca suriyo ca = candasuriyaa (the moon and the sun)
                                      devaa ca manussaa ca = devamanussaa (gods and men)
                                      maataa ca pitaa ca = maataapitaro (parents)
                                      suraa ca asuraa ca naraa ca naagaa ca yakkhaa ca =
                                      suraasura-nara-naaga-yakkhaa (gods, Asuras, human beings, Naagas and
                                      Yakkhas)

                                      (II) Samaahaara-Dvanda

                                      All members of the Dvanda compounds being co-ordinative, there arises
                                      the question of the order of their position. The following rules are
                                      given as to the order:-

                                      (a) Shorter words are placed before longer ones.
                                      (b) Words in i or u are placed first.


                                      Examples

                                      giita~n ca vaadita~n ca = giitavaadita.m (singing and music)
                                      cakkhu ca sota~n ca = cakkhusota.m (eye and ear)
                                      jaraa ca mara.na~n ca = jaraamara.na.m (decay and death)
                                      hatthino ca assaa ca rathaa ca pattikaa ca =
                                      hatth'assa-ratha-pattika.m (elephants, horses, chariots and infantry)
                                      hatthii ca gaavo ca assaa ca va.lavaa ca = hatthi-gavaassa-va.lava.m
                                      (elephants, cattle, horses and mares)

                                      (to be continued...)
                                    • Nina van Gorkom
                                      Dear Yong Peng and Venerable Yuttadhammo, Thank you very much, Yong Peng, the subject of the compounds, Tappurisa and dvanda is very important. Venerable
                                      Message 18 of 24 , Oct 6, 2007
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                                        Dear Yong Peng and Venerable Yuttadhammo,
                                        Thank you very much, Yong Peng, the subject of the compounds,
                                        Tappurisa and dvanda is very important.
                                        Venerable Yuttadhammo, if you have time, it would be useful if you
                                        could add some from the Thai grammar. The more info the better. Then
                                        it can sink in more!
                                        I will not react much, since I am leaving on Wednesday for India.
                                        Nina.
                                        Op 6-okt-2007, om 13:22 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

                                        > Catutthii-Tappurisa
                                        >
                                        > paasaadaaya + dabba.m = paasaadadabba.m (material for the mansion)
                                        > ra~n~no + araha.m = raajaaraha.m (worthy of a king)
                                        > buddhassa + deyya.m = buddhadeyya.m (that should be given to the
                                        > Buddha)
                                        > yaaguyaa + ta.n.dulaa = yaaguta.n.dulaa (rice for gruel)



                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                      • Ong Yong Peng
                                        Dear Nina, I wish you a safe and pleasant journey. metta, Yong Peng. ... I will not react much, since I am leaving on Wednesday for India.
                                        Message 19 of 24 , Oct 9, 2007
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                                          Dear Nina,

                                          I wish you a safe and pleasant journey.

                                          metta,
                                          Yong Peng.


                                          --- In Pali@yahoogroups.com, Nina van Gorkom wrote:

                                          I will not react much, since I am leaving on Wednesday for India.
                                        • Nina van Gorkom
                                          Dear Yong Peng, thank you very much. Nina. ... [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          Message 20 of 24 , Oct 9, 2007
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                                            Dear Yong Peng,
                                            thank you very much.
                                            Nina.
                                            Op 9-okt-2007, om 16:35 heeft Ong Yong Peng het volgende geschreven:

                                            > I wish you a safe and pleasant journey.



                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          • Ong Yong Peng
                                            [2-6/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta Exercise 8 Translate into English and define the compounds 1. Mahaasatto pana aagacchanto
                                            Message 21 of 24 , Oct 13, 2007
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                                              [2-6/8]

                                              The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

                                              Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                              Exercise 8

                                              Translate into English and define the compounds

                                              1. "Mahaasatto pana aagacchanto kahaapa.nasahassena saddhi.m eka.m
                                              saa.taka.m tambuulapasibbake .thapetvaa aagato." [J. Mahosadha]

                                              2. "Uttama`ngaruhaa mayha.m
                                              Ime jaataa vayoharaa;
                                              Paatubhuutaa devaduutaa;
                                              Pabbajjaasamayo mama." [J. Makhaadeva]

                                              3. Pa.n.dito uppaadita-dhana~n ca aaha.ta-dhana~n ca sabba.m tassaa
                                              maataapitunna.m datvaa te samassaasetvaa tam aadaya nagaram eva agamaasi.

                                              4. "Jarasakko amhe matte katvaa mahaasamuddapi.t.the khipitvaa
                                              amhaaka.m devanagara.m ga.nhi; maya.m tena saddhi.m yujjhitvaa
                                              amhaaka.m devanagaram eva ga.nhissaama." [J. Kulaavaka]

                                              5. "Tassa gamanamagge simbaliivana.m taalavana.m viya chijjitvaa
                                              samuddapi.t.the pati; supa.n.na-potakaa samuddapi.t.the parivattantaa
                                              mahaarava.m ravi.msu." [Ibid.]

                                              6. "Mahaamaayaa-devii... gandhodakena nahaayitvaa cattaari
                                              satasahassaani vissajjetvaa mahaadaana.m datvaa...
                                              ala`nkata-pa.tiyatta.m sirigabbha.m pavisitvaa sirisayane nipannaa...
                                              ima.m supinam addasa." [J. Nidaana]

                                              7. "Dvinnam pana nagaraana.m antare ubhaya-nagaravaasiinam pi
                                              Lumbiniivana.m naama ma`ngala-saalavana.m atthi." [Ibid]

                                              8. "Sakala.m Lumbiniivana.m Cittalataavana-sadisa.m mahaanubhaavassa
                                              ra~n~no susajjita-aapaanama.n.dala.m viya ahosi." [Ibid]

                                              9. "Bodhisatto pana dhammaasanato otaranto dhammakathiko viya... dve
                                              hatthe dve paade ca pasaaretvaa... Kaasika-vatthe
                                              nikkhitta-ma.niratana.m viya jotanto maatukucchito nikkhami." [Ibid]

                                              10. "Ath'ekadivasa.m bodhisatto uyyaanabhuumi.m gantukaamo saarathi.m
                                              aamantetvaa 'ratha.m yojehii'ti aaha." [Ibid]

                                              New words.

                                              aagacchanta (pr.p) coming.
                                              aapaanama.n.dala (n) drinking or banqueting hall.
                                              aamantetvaa (abs) having called.
                                              uttama`ngaruha (m) hair [on the head].
                                              uppaadita (pp) raised, produced.
                                              uyyaanabhuumi (f) park, garden.
                                              otaranta (pr.p) getting down.
                                              kahaapa.na (m/n) a coin [value of which was about 2s].
                                              kaasikavattha (n) cloth made in Kaasi-territory.
                                              khipitvaa (abs) having thrown.
                                              gandhodaka (n) scented water.
                                              gamanamagga (n) the path that is to be gone.
                                              cittalataavana (n) name of a pleasance in Indra's city.
                                              jara-sakka (m) old Sakka, the king of devas.
                                              jaata (pp) born, come into existence.
                                              jotanta (pr.p) glowing.
                                              tambuula (n) betel [leaf].
                                              taalavana (n) palmyra grove.
                                              devaduuta (m) heavenly messenger.
                                              dhammaasana (n) pulpit.
                                              dhammakathika (m) preacher.
                                              nagaravaasii (m) citizen.
                                              nikkhitta (pp) kept, placed.
                                              nipanna (pp) lying down.
                                              pa.tiyatta (pp) prepared.
                                              pa.tivedeti (v) informs.
                                              pabbajjaasamaya (m) time to become a monk.
                                              payojayati (v) performs.
                                              parivattanta (pr.p) rolling, turning around.
                                              pasaaretvaa (abs) having stretched.
                                              pasibbaka (m) purse.
                                              paatubhuuta (pp) manifested.
                                              potaka (m) young one.
                                              ma`ngala (adj) royal, lit. auspicious.
                                              ma.niratana (n) a precious gem.
                                              matta (pp) intoxicated.
                                              maatukucchi (m/f) mother's womb.
                                              yujjhitvaa (abs) having fought.
                                              ravi (v) screamed.
                                              vayohara (adj) snatching the life.
                                              sadisa (adj) similar.
                                              samassaasetvaa (abs) having consoled.
                                              samudda-pi.t.tha (n) surface of the sea.
                                              simbalii (m) silk cotton tree.
                                              supa.n.na (m) a kind of fairy bird.
                                              saataka (m/n) cloth.
                                              sirigabbha (m) royal chamber.
                                              sirisayana (n) state couch.
                                              supina (n) dream.
                                              susajjita (pp) well prepared.

                                              Translate into Pali, forming compounds where it is suited

                                              1. The man who went to the village brought a heap of corn to the city
                                              and sold them to the citizens.

                                              2. Lions, tigers, leopards, bears and deer will not live in a burnt
                                              forest.

                                              3. There are coconut trees, palmyras, jak trees, mango and bread-fruit
                                              trees in the villages and towns in Ceylon.

                                              4. The sun, moon and stars move in the sky giving light and delight to
                                              the people living in the world.

                                              5. All, young and old, rich and poor, suffer great pain when they are
                                              bitten by serpents.

                                              6. The monkey, fallen from the branch of that tree, was bitten by the
                                              village dogs.

                                              7. The horses, cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep released from their
                                              confinements, wandered in forests and fields eating grass and drinking
                                              water.

                                              8. The frog dwelling in a well takes it as the greatest deposit of
                                              water in the world; in the same way, a foolish man thinks this
                                              knowledge is very extensive.

                                              9. Then the Enlightened One, at the end of those seven days, rose from
                                              the seat at the foot of the Bodhi-tree and went to the Ajapaala
                                              banyan-tree.

                                              10. Tapussa and Bhalluka, the merchants, bowed down in reverence at
                                              the feet of the Blessed One and said: "We take our refuge, lord, in
                                              the Blessed One and in the Dhamma."

                                              11. Now the young prince bade his charioteer to make ready the state
                                              chariot, saying: "Let us go to the pleasance."

                                              12. At that time the Buddha, Diipa`nkara, accompanied by a hundred
                                              thousand saints, reached the city of Ramma, and took up His residence
                                              in the great monastery of Sudassana.

                                              New words.

                                              accompanied by = parivuta (pp).
                                              bade = aa.naapesi (v).
                                              buffalo = mahisa (m).
                                              banyan-tree = nigrodha (m).
                                              bear = accha (m).
                                              bread-fruit = labuja (m).

                                              (to be continued...)
                                            • Ong Yong Peng
                                              [2-7/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta delight = piiti (f). deposit = aasaya, aakara (m). extensive = pattha.ta (pp). frog =
                                              Message 22 of 24 , Oct 19, 2007
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                                                [2-7/8]

                                                The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

                                                Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                                delight = piiti (f).
                                                deposit = aasaya, aakara (m).
                                                extensive = pattha.ta (pp).
                                                frog = ma.n.duuka (m).
                                                greatest = mahattama (adj).
                                                in reverence = gaaravena, sagaarava.m (adv).
                                                knowledge = ~naa.na (n).
                                                lord = bhante (voc).
                                                makes ready = yojeti, pa.tiyaadeti (v).
                                                mango = amba (m).
                                                moves = sa~ncarati (v).
                                                pain = vedanaa (f).
                                                pleasance = uyyaana (n).
                                                poor = dukkhita, da.lidda (adj).
                                                reached = upaagami (v).
                                                saying = vadanta (pr.p).
                                                sheep = me.n.da (m).
                                                star = taarakaa (f).
                                                suffers = vindati (v).
                                                takes refuge = sara.na.m gacchati (v).
                                                tiger = vyaggha (m).
                                                took up his residence = vihari (v).
                                                town = nagara (n).
                                                washing = dhovana (ger).
                                                well = kuupa (m).
                                                went forth to meet = paccuggamana.m kari (v).

                                                Combine the following words

                                                1. rukkha.m + aaruu.lho
                                                2. buddhena + bhaasito
                                                3. ratta.m + vattha.m
                                                4. seto + go.no
                                                5. raajato + bhaya.m
                                                6. tisso + rattiyo
                                                7. cattaari + saccaani
                                                8. nacca~nca giita~nca vaadita~nca

                                                Define the following compounds

                                                1. gehagato
                                                2. mukha-naasika.m
                                                3. pattaciivara.m
                                                4. khattiya-braahma.naa
                                                5. mahaamoho
                                                6. majjhimapuriso
                                                7. cha.laayatana.m
                                                8. alaabho
                                                9. anasso
                                                10. puraa.navihaaro
                                                11. guttilaacariyo
                                                12. mahosadha-pa.n.dito
                                                13. dasasiila.m

                                                5. Avyayiibhaava-samaasa

                                                Adverbial Compounds

                                                54. When the first member of a compound is an indeclinable and the
                                                second a substantive, it is called an Avyayiibhaava Compound.

                                                The whole compound becomes an adverb, taking the ending of the
                                                (neuter) accusative singular. Some case (usually oblique) is implied
                                                in the substantial member according to the meaning of the indeclinable.

                                                Examples

                                                nagarassa + upa = upanagara.m (near the town)
                                                rathassa + anu = anuratha.m (behind the chariot)
                                                ghara.m + anu = anughara.m (house after house)
                                                anu + addhamaasa.m = anvaddhamaasa.m (once in a fortnight)
                                                ma~ncassa + he.t.thaa = he.t.thaama~nca.m (under the bed)
                                                paasaadassa + upari = uparipaasaada.m (upon the mansion, i.e. on the
                                                terrace, upstairs)
                                                paakaarassa + tiro = tiropaakaara.m (across or through the rampart)
                                                gaamassa + anto = antogaama.m (inside the village)
                                                sota.m + pa.ti = pa.tisota.m (against the current)
                                                kamo + yathaa = yathaakkama.m (according to the order)
                                                vuddhaana.m (pa.tipaa.ti) + yathaa = yathaavuddha.m (following seniority)
                                                bhattassa + pacchaa = pacchaabhatta.m (after the meal, i.e. afternoon)
                                                ga`ngaaya + adho = adhoga`nga.m (down the river)
                                                jiivo + yaava = yaavajiiva.m (as long as life lasts)
                                                bala.m + yathaa = yathaabala.m (according to one's strength, i.e. to
                                                the best of one's ability)
                                                nagarato + bahi = bahinagara.m (outside the town)
                                                attho + yaava = yaavadattha.m (as much as desired, to the full)
                                                aa (yaava) + samudda.m = aasamudda.m (as far as the sea-coast)
                                                vaatassa + anu = anuvaata.m (following or with the wind)

                                                6. Bahubbiihi (Relative) Compounds

                                                55. When two or more substantives are combined together and the
                                                resultant denotes something other than what is meant by the two
                                                members severally, the compound is called Bahubbiihi = Relative or
                                                Attributive.

                                                This compound requires the addition of such relative pronouns as: "he,
                                                who, that, which", etc. to express its full meaning; therefore this is
                                                used as an adjective and takes any gender according to that of the
                                                noun which it qualifies.

                                                Examples

                                                chinnaa + hatthaa (yassa, so) = chinnahattho, (a man) whose hand have
                                                been cut off
                                                lohitena + makkhita.m + siisa.m (yassa, so) = lohitamakkhitasiiso, (a
                                                man) whose head is besmeared with blood
                                                aaruu.lhaa + vaa.nijaa (ya.m, saa) = aaruu.lhavaa.nijaa, (a ship) on
                                                which the merchants have embarked
                                                jitaani + indriyaani (yena, so) = jitindriyo, (a monk) who has subdued
                                                his senses
                                                dinno + su`nko (yassa, so) = dinnasu`nko, (an official) to whom the
                                                tax is given
                                                niggataa + janaa (yasmaa, so) = niggatajano, (a village) from where
                                                the people have departed
                                                khii.naa + aasavaa (yassa, so) = khii.naasavo, (a saint) whose
                                                passions are destroyed
                                                sampannaani + sassaani (yasmi.m, so) = sampannasasso, (a province) in
                                                which the crops are abundant

                                                56. Feminine nouns ending in ii, uu, and the stems ending in -tu,
                                                generally take the suffix ka, when they are the last member of a
                                                Bahubbiihi.

                                                Examples

                                                bahavo + nadiyo (yasmi.m, so) = bahunadiko, (a country) where there
                                                are many rivers
                                                apagato + satthaa (yasmaa, so) = apagatasatthuka.m, (the doctrine)
                                                whose founder is dead
                                                bahuu + vadhuyo (yassa, so) = bahuvadhuko, (a person) who has many wives

                                                57. When a feminine noun is the last member of a Bahubbiihi, it takes
                                                the masculine, or neuter form, if it is determining a masculine or
                                                neuter noun; also the first member, if it is feminine, drops its
                                                feminine sign.

                                                Examples

                                                mahantii + pa~n~naa (yassa, so) = mahaapa~n~no, (a person) who has
                                                great wisdom
                                                pahuutaa + jivhaa (yassa, so) = pahuutajivho, (a man) whose tongue is
                                                broader (than that of others)

                                                (to be continued...)
                                              • Ong Yong Peng
                                                [2-8/8] The New Pali Course Part II (1938) Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta acalaa + saddhaa (yassa, so) = acalasaddho, (a man) with an unshakable faith diighaa +
                                                Message 23 of 24 , Oct 26, 2007
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                                                  [2-8/8]

                                                  The New Pali Course Part II (1938)

                                                  Ven. A. P. Buddhadatta

                                                  acalaa + saddhaa (yassa, so) = acalasaddho, (a man) with an unshakable
                                                  faith
                                                  diighaa + ja`nghaa (yassa, so) = diighaja`ngho, (a man) whose shanks
                                                  are long

                                                  Exercise 9

                                                  Translate into English and define the compounds

                                                  1. Sura-nara-mahito Satthaa bhikkhusahassa-parivuto
                                                  aaki.n.na-manussa.m Raajagahanagara.m paavisi.

                                                  2. Aaruu.lha-vaa.nijaa mahaanaavaa nirupaddavena mahaasamudda.m
                                                  taritvaa sattaahena Jambudiipa.m sampaapu.ni.

                                                  3. Saparivaaro raajaa anvaddhamaasam antopuraa nikkhamitvaa
                                                  naanaa-tarusa.n.da-ma.n.dita.m dijaga.na-kuujita.m uyyaana.m gacchati.

                                                  4. "Siilagandha-samo gandho
                                                  Kuto naama bhavissati,
                                                  Yo sama.m anuvaate ca
                                                  Pa.tivaate ca vaayati?" [Vism. i, 10]

                                                  5. Bahavo Braahma.naa bahinagarato antonagaram pavisitvaa yaavadattham
                                                  bhu~njitvaa saka-saka-gehaani agami.msu.

                                                  6. Dussiilaa yaavajiivam akusalaani katvaa param mara.naa niraye
                                                  uppajjitvaa atika.tuka-dukkha.m vindanti.

                                                  7. Sambuddha-parinibbaanato vassa-sataccayena Vesaalivaasino
                                                  Vajjiputtakaa bhikkhuu saasane abbuda.m uppaadesu.m.

                                                  8. "Tasmi.m samaye Satthaa anupubben'aagantvaa Anaathapi.n.dikena
                                                  mahaase.t.thinaa kaarite Jetavana-mahaa vihaare viharati, mahaajana.m
                                                  saggamagge ca mokkha-magge ca pati.t.thaapayamaano." [Dh.A.i, 4]

                                                  9. Cha.labhi~n~naappattaa pa~ncasatta-khii.naasavaa antovassa.m
                                                  Raajagahasamiipe vasantaa dhamma-vinaya-sa`ngiitim aka.msu.

                                                  10. "Tadaa Saavatthiya.m satta-manussa-ko.tiyo vasanti; tesu
                                                  ariyasaavakaana.m dve yeva kiccaani ahesu.m: pure-bhatta.m daana.m
                                                  denti, pacchaabhatta.m gandha-maalaadihatthaa
                                                  vattha-bhesajja-paanakaadi.m gaahaapetvaa dhammasava.natthaaya
                                                  gacchanti." [Dh.A.i, 5]

                                                  New Words.

                                                  atika.tuka (adj) very severe.
                                                  anupubbena (adv) in regular order, in due course.
                                                  antovassam (adv) within the rainy season.
                                                  abbuda (m) contention, dissension. [lit] tumour.
                                                  ariyasaavaka (m) a disciple who has attained the path.
                                                  aaki.n.na (pp) full of, scattered with.
                                                  kicca (n) work, business.
                                                  gaahaapetvaa (abs) having caused to be taken.
                                                  cha.labhi~n~naappatta (adj) one who has attained the six supernatural
                                                  powers.
                                                  tarusa.n.da (m) grove of trees.
                                                  dijaga.na-kuujita (adj) resounding with [the singing of] birds.
                                                  dussiila (adj) of bad character.
                                                  dhammasangiiti (f) rehearsal of the Dhamma.
                                                  nirupaddava (adj) free from danger.
                                                  pati.t.thaapayamaana (pr.p) establishing.
                                                  para.m (adv) after.
                                                  parinibbaana (n) final passing away.
                                                  parivuta (pp) surrounded by.
                                                  paanakaadi (n) syrups and such other things.
                                                  ma`n.dita (adj) adorned, beautiful.
                                                  mahita (pp) honoured.
                                                  vajjiputtaka (m) sons of Vajjis.
                                                  vaayati (v) blows.
                                                  vindati (v) suffers, gets.
                                                  satta-manussa-kotiyo (f, pl) 70 millions of people.
                                                  sama (adj) equal, even.
                                                  samiipa (n) proximity. (adj) near, adjacent.
                                                  samaya (m) time, religion.
                                                  saparivaara (adv) together with the following or retinue.
                                                  siilagandha (m) fragrance of virtue.

                                                  Translate into Pali, forming compounds where it is possible

                                                  1. Bimbisaara, the king of Magadha, came with his retinue to his
                                                  garden named Veluvana to listen to the doctrine preached by the Buddha.

                                                  2. Having heard the Dhamma, he, together with one hundred and twenty
                                                  thousands of men, became a disciple of the Blessed One.

                                                  3. The man whose sons are dead went to a monastery (situated) outside
                                                  the town and made an offering of alms and robes to the monks dwelling
                                                  there.

                                                  4. On the next day, having prepared alms for the bhikkhus and having
                                                  decked the town, they repaired the road by which the Buddha was to come.

                                                  5. He said to the men, "If you are clearing this road for the Buddha,
                                                  assign to me a piece of ground. I will clear it in company with you."

                                                  6. But, before the ground could be cleared by him, the Buddha
                                                  Diipa`nkara with a train of a hundred thousand saints, endowed with
                                                  the six supernatural powers, came down into the road all decked and
                                                  made ready for Him.

                                                  7. Having received at the foot of a banyan tree a meal of rice-milk,
                                                  and partaken of it by the banks of the Nera~njaraa, he will attain, at
                                                  the foot of a fig tree, the Supreme Knowledge.

                                                  8. The saints, four hundred thousand in number, having made offerings
                                                  of perfume and garlands to the Great Being, saluted him and departed.

                                                  9. While the earth was trembling, the people of the city of Ramma,
                                                  unable to endure it, fell here and there, while waterpots and other
                                                  vessels were dashed into pieces.

                                                  10. At that moment the throne on which Sakka was seated became warm.

                                                  New words.

                                                  assigns = niyameti (v).
                                                  Blessed One = bhagavantu (m).
                                                  as before = pubbe, viya.
                                                  clearing = sodhenta (pr.p).
                                                  dashed into pieces = kha.n.daakha.n.dikajaata (pp).
                                                  fig tree = assattha (m).
                                                  having partaken (of it) = paribhu~njitvaa (abs).
                                                  in company with = saha (indec).
                                                  made ready = pa.tiyatta (pp).
                                                  meal of rice-milk = khiirapaayaasa (m).
                                                  on one side = ekamanta.m (adv).
                                                  piece = kha.n.da, bhaaga (m).
                                                  represented = upaniita (pp).
                                                  supreme knowledge = sabba~n~nuta~naa.na (n).
                                                  to endure = sahitu.m (inf).
                                                  vessel = bhaajana (n).

                                                  (to be continued...)
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