The Meaning of dhamma, no 6.
- The Meaning of dhamma, no 6.
The Saddaniti states with regard to the meaning of dhamma as pa~n~naa:
<Yassete caturo dhammaa, saddhassa gharamesino;
For the householder with confidence there are these four dhammas:
sacca.m dhammo dhiti caago, sa ve pecca na socatii"ti
truth, dhamma, courage and generosity, and he truly does not grieve after
In such passages dhamma refers to wisdom. >
N: words: caturo: here : cattaro (PED): four.
saddhaa: faith, confidence.
sacca (n): truth.
dhiti (f): courage, energy.
caaga (m): liberality, generosity.
sa: instead of so (PED): he.
socati: to grieve.
pecca: after dying.
The Saddaniti explains dhamma as pu~n~na, merit, by the same passage as used
by the Atthasaalinii to explain dhamma as gu.na, merit:
<Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
dhamma and adhamma bear no equal fruit:
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
adhamma leads to hell, dhamma causes one to reach heaven. >
The Saddaniti explains the meaning of dhamma as concept:
In such passages as dhamma that is a designation, dhamma that is an
dhamma that is a term, dhamma means concept.>
pa~n~natti : designation, name, idea, notion.
adhivacana (n): term, attribute
nirutti (f): interpretation, expression.
The word pa~n~natti, concept, stands for name and for the idea expressed by
a name or term. Names can designate what is reality in the absolute sense
(paramattha dhammas, such as kusala, akusala, sound, etc.) and also what is
not real in the absolute sense, such as person, house.
The Saddaniti explains the meaning of dhamma as aapatti as follows:
<Paaraajikaa dhammaa, sa'nghaadisesaa dhammaa"ti-aadiisu aapattiya.m.
In passages such as disciplinary offenses involving defeat (paaraajika), and
those involving a formal meeting of the order (sa'nghaadisesa), dhamma
refers to disiplinary offense (aapatti).>
N: In the Vinaya, Suttavibha¹nga, four kinds of offenses involving defeat
are dealt with: sexual misbehaviour, stealing, killing and lying. When a
monk transgresses in these ways he is no longer a monk.
The offenses which are classified as sa'nghaadisesa are of a lesser degree
but still require a formal meeting of the Sangha so that the disciplinary
measures to be taken can be decided upon.