The Meaning of dhamma 2.
- The Meaning of Dhamma 2.
The second meaning given of dhamma is pariyatti: the wording of the
teachings as contained in the Tipiìaka.
We read in the "Dhammapada Atthakataa 1.22:
Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami aadikalyaa.nan"ti (ma. ni. 3.420)
aya.m desanaadhammo naama.
I shall teach you, monks, Dhamma that is beautiful in the beginning (middle
and end), this is the dhamma of teaching.¹
We read in the Majjhima Nikaaya¹ about the classification of the Tipi.taka
as nine divisions:
"Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m
geyyan"ti aya.m pariyattidhammo naama. (ma. ni. 1.239)
"Here, monks, some young men of good family learn thoroughly the dhamma:
sutta, geyya, etc. This is the dhamma which is the wording of the
The word of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Vinaya as taught by him, consists
of nine divisions which are: Sutta, Geyya, Veyyaakara.na, Gaathaa, Udaana,
Itivuttaka, Jaataka, Abbhuta and Vedalla.
The ³Expositor², Atthasåliní, Introductory Discourse, 26, gives a further
explanation of the ninefold classification as stated in the 'Majjhima
Nikaaya.'. The teachings as compiled (not yet written) literature are thus
enumerated in the scriptures as nine divisions, for example in the ³Middle
Length Sayings² I, no. 22.
Sutta includes all Discourses, such as the ³Mangala sutta² (²Good Omen
Discourse ³, Minor Readings, V), and also the Vinaya Piìaka and the Niddesa.
In this classification the Vinaya is in the section of Sutta. The
³Atthasåliní² mentions in this section on Sutta the Sutta-Vibha.nga and
Parivaara, which belong to the Vinaya.
Geyya includes all suttas with verses (gåthå), such as the Sagåthå-vagga of
the Sa.myutta Nikåya or ³Kindred Sayings².
Veyyåkaraùa or ³Exposition² includes the Abhidhamma Pi.taka, the suttas
without verses, and the words of the Buddha which are not included in the
other eight divisions.
Gåthå or ³Verses², include the Dhammapada, Theragaathaa, Theriigaathaa
(Psalms of the Brothers and Sisters) and those parts of the Sutta-Nipaata
not called Sutta and entirely in verse.
Udaana or ³Verses of Uplift² include eightytwo suttas connected with verses
recited by the Buddha, inspired by knowledge and joy.
Itivuttaka or ³As it was said² includes hundred and ten suttas beginning
with ³Thus it was said by the Blessed One².
Jaataka or Birth Stories include fivehundred and fifty stories of the past
lives of the Buddha and his disciples, beginning with the ³Apa.n.naka
Abbhuta, ³Marvellous², includes suttas connected with wonderful and
marvellous things (dhammas with extraordinary qualities, which are amazing).
Vedalla includes suttas with questions and answers which have as result
understanding and delight, such as the ³Cullavedallasutta².
There are different ways of classifying the Tipi.taka. In the
³Baahiranidaana² (Introductory chapter of the Commentary to the Vinaya, by
Buddhaghosa), it is explained that the teachings as a whole have been laid
down as, ³This is the Dhamma and this is the Vinaya, these are the first,
intermediate and final sayings of the Buddha, these are the Vinaya, Sutta
and Abhidhamma Pi.takas, these are the Nikaayas from Diigha to Khuddaka,
these are the nine a.ngas commencing with Sutta and these are the
eighty-four thousand Units of the Dhamma,² was rehearsed together by the
assembly of self-controlled monks with Mahaakassapa as their leader verily
observing this distinction.²
Thus, whenever the Dhamma and the Vinaya are referred to, the Abhidhamma is
included in ³Dhamma².