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9470Re: [Pali] Upekkhaa

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  • Ray Mondor
    Nov 30, 2005
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      Thanks again, Dmytro. I appreciate the explanation and it is an interesting connection. I'll have to try using the Brahmaviharas as concentration subjects as suggested in the Sankhitta Sutta. It seems like a good way to overcome the hindrances, combining the methods of overcoming by concentration and overcoming by opposites.
      Metta,
      Ray
      ----- Original Message -----
      From: Dmytro A. Ivakhnenko
      To: Ray Mondor
      Sent: Wednesday, November 30, 2005 4:34 AM
      Subject: Re: [Pali] Upekkhaa


      Ray,

      > "the sequence of four brahma viharas is consonant to the sequence of
      > four jhanas. It's not too surprising since in some suttas a certain
      > stage of practice is described interchangeably as either four jhanas or
      > four brahma viharas."
      >
      > This seems to say that
      > metta corresponds to vitakka/vicara, piti, sukha, and samadhi,
      > karuna corresponds to piti, sukha, and samadhi,
      > mudita corresponds to sukha and samadhi, and
      > upekkha corresponds to samadhi.

      No. Brahma viharas can serve as a basis for developing consecutive jhanas.

      See, for example, Sankhitta sutta
      http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/anguttara/an08-063.html

      According to Vimuttimagga and Vimittimagga, three frist of brahmaviharas
      can lead to three first jhanas, and upekkhaa can lead to fourth one.
      So upekkhaa corresponds to upekkhaa of fourth jhana.

      > I don't understand this. Can you explain the meaning and/or specify one
      > or more of the suttas that discuss this idea?

      What I mean is that in the description of Buddhist path Brahma-viharas
      occupy about the same place as four jhanas.

      See, for example, Udumbarika sutta (DN 20) where Brahma-viharas are
      placed exactly where jhanas usually belong, between overcoming
      hindrances and 'abhinna'.

      Both jhanas and brahma viharas are placed between overcoming hindrances
      and formless jhanas.

      "Brethren, who is the brother that has reached deva consciousness ?
      Herein a brother, aloof from sensual delights (and so forth), having
      attained to the First Rapture, or the Second or the Third or the Fourth
      Rapture abides therein.

      "Verily, brethren, this is the brother who has attained to deva
      consciousness.

      "Brethren, who is the brother that has attained to Brahmaconsciousness?
      Herein, a brother dwells diffusing one quarter with thoughts of loving
      kindness, compassion, sympathy and equanimity; likewise the second
      quarter, likewise the third quarter, likewise the fourth quarter. So
      above, below, around, everywhere, and in all respects thus diffusing the
      whole world, and with a heart full of loving-kindness (and so forth),
      developed, grown great, measureless, benevolent and kindly, so he dwells.

      "Verily, brethren, this is the brother that has reached Brahma
      consciousness.

      "Brethren, who is the brother that has reached the Imperturbable ?
      Brethren, herein a brother, having gone utterly beyond all perception of
      form and without thinking, about* the perception of opposition' and
      unmindful of the idea of diversity, attains to and abides in the sphere
      of unbounded space.* Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of
      unbounded space he attains to and abides in the sphere of infinity of
      consciousness. Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of infinity
      of consciousness, he attains to and abides in the sphere of nothingness.
      Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of nothingness he attains
      to and abides in the sphere of neither-pereeption-nor-non-perception.

      "Verily, brethren, this brother has attained to the Imperturbable.

      "Brethren, who is the brother that has attained to the Noble State ?*
      Brethren, herein a brother knows as they really are This is Ill this is
      Ill's cause ; this is Ill's cessation ; and this is the Path leading to
      Ill's cessation.

      Verily, brethren, this brother has attained to the Noble State."

      http://metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara2/4-catukkanipata/019-brahmanavaggo-e2.htm
      http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sagga/loka.html

      Metta,
      Dmytro



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