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Re: [PPLetterpress] Rialto Pressa ink traps

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  • Mark Attwood
    ... Dear listers, I am very interested in the ink traps and can see the ways in which the traps differ from regular digital type, and I don t like to knock the
    Message 1 of 17 , Jul 15, 2002
      Gerald wrote:

      > Members Giovanni, Waltraud, and Lui at dfTYPE have graciously sent a
      > PDF file on the ink trapping technique that was used in their
      > typeface Rialto Pressa (which I believe is the only digital typeface
      > ever designed for letterpress printing).

      Dear listers,

      I am very interested in the ink traps and can see the ways in which the
      traps differ from regular digital type, and I don't like to knock the hard
      work of dfTYPE, but does it really make a difference? Surely choosing a
      light font when you want a medium to print letterpress will give the same
      sort of legibility?


      Mark Attwood
      The Artists' Press
      South Africa
    • Peter Fraterdeus
      Indeed, the first digital type I designed, Prospera(tm) (see http://www.alphabets.com) has traps, not for letterpress, but for visual clarity. It turns out
      Message 2 of 17 , Jul 15, 2002
        Indeed, the first digital type I designed, Prospera(tm) (see http://www.alphabets.com) has traps, not for letterpress, but for visual clarity.

        It turns out that it works BEAUTIFULLY for letterpress as well ;-)

        In particular, with a light inking, a firm impression and dampened rag stock...
        Down to 4 points ;-)

        PF



        At 9:12 AM +0000 2002-07-15, Mark Attwood wrote:
        >Gerald wrote:
        >
        >> Members Giovanni, Waltraud, and Lui at dfTYPE have graciously sent a
        >> PDF file on the ink trapping technique that was used in their
        >> typeface Rialto Pressa (which I believe is the only digital typeface
        >> ever designed for letterpress printing).
        >
        >Dear listers,
        >
        >I am very interested in the ink traps and can see the ways in which the
        >traps differ from regular digital type, and I don't like to knock the hard
        >work of dfTYPE, but does it really make a difference? Surely choosing a
        >light font when you want a medium to print letterpress will give the same
        >sort of legibility?
        >
        >
        >Mark Attwood
        >The Artists' Press
        >South Africa

        --
        -
        AzByCx DwEvFu GtHsIr JqKpLo MnNmOl PkQjRi ShTgUf VeWdXc YbZa& @

        Peter Fraterdeus http://www.midsummernightstamps.com
        www.semiotx.com Magical Images from the Moon's Garden!

        Whatever happened to the War Against Injustice and Poverty!
        End Terrorism? End Poverty!

        "The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged
        by the way its animals are treated." -- Mohandas Gandhi

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        http://www.dpf.org
      • bielerpr
        ... Hi Mark I think there are two different things going on with this. Digital type does tend to thicken noticeably when printed letterpress but the answer is
        Message 3 of 17 , Jul 15, 2002
          > I am very interested in the ink traps and can see the ways in which the
          > traps differ from regular digital type, and I don't like to knock the hard
          > work of dfTYPE, but does it really make a difference? Surely choosing a
          > light font when you want a medium to print letterpress will give the same
          > sort of legibility?
          >
          > Mark Attwood


          Hi Mark

          I think there are two different things going on with this. Digital
          type does tend to thicken noticeably when printed letterpress but the
          answer is simply not to switch to a lighter version, though that is
          an answer.

          I will often make four or five instances of a typeface, using a font
          editing program to give me a range of selections. This has more to do
          with optimization than it does the thickening process though that is
          an obvious consideration.

          While this will give a better optical range it doesn't actually
          provide true optimization. This is more a technical consideration in
          the design of a typeface, metal or digital. And it should be said
          that we did not often get this with metal either. But there are a
          growing number of digital fonts that in way or another do approach
          some form of optimization.

          This is a good thing, no? Far too often the consumer fails to support
          the better quality offering, generally because it costs more. A
          fellow from Monotype once pointed out to me that during the photofilm
          composition years Monotype actually tried to offer the scaled down
          version of optical ranging that they had practiced in the metal
          composition years but no one was willing to buy four size fonts of
          the same face when they could just photoscale the one face that they
          did buy. That's how we got into this mess. Time we started thinking
          of a way out of it?

          I know there are a lot of folks who don't really care what their type
          looks like. And wonder what the big deal is. But this has always been
          the case, for some 550 years now. There have also been those who are
          concerned. Aren't their contributions the ones we tend to remember
          and honor in our recreation of the letterpress myth?.

          All best

          Gerald
        • Mark Attwood
          ... Well said Gerald. I think we do need to support the efforts of those designing better products, I wanted to get an idea of how much better the optimised
          Message 4 of 17 , Jul 16, 2002
            > Gerald wrote:

            > Far too often the consumer fails to support
            > the better quality offering, generally because it costs more. A
            > fellow from Monotype once pointed out to me that during the photofilm
            > composition years Monotype actually tried to offer the scaled down
            > version of optical ranging that they had practiced in the metal
            > composition years but no one was willing to buy four size fonts of
            > the same face when they could just photoscale the one face that they
            > did buy. That's how we got into this mess. Time we started thinking
            > of a way out of it?
            >
            > I know there are a lot of folks who don't really care what their type
            > looks like. And wonder what the big deal is. But this has always been
            > the case, for some 550 years now. There have also been those who are
            > concerned. Aren't their contributions the ones we tend to remember
            > and honor in our recreation of the letterpress myth?.
            >

            Well said Gerald. I think we do need to support the efforts of those
            designing better products, I wanted to get an idea of how much better the
            optimised font would be, than simply choosing a lighter font before making
            an investment.

            Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer said one should always acquire the
            best tools possible, as poor tools corrode the spirit, and I think the same
            applies to printing.

            Regards,
            Mark.

            Mark Attwood

            The Artists' Press
            Box 623
            Newtown
            2113
            South Africa

            Tel. +27 11 836 5474
            fax. +27 11 836 6858
            mark@...
          • bielerpr
            ... Interesting! On the selection of typefaces, Lewis Allen commented, inferior tools corrode the spirit (in Printing on the Hand Press). Do you suppose he
            Message 5 of 17 , Jul 16, 2002
              >
              > Well said Gerald. I think we do need to support the efforts of those
              > designing better products, I wanted to get an idea of how much better the
              > optimised font would be, than simply choosing a lighter font before making
              > an investment.
              >
              > Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer said one should always acquire the
              > best tools possible, as poor tools corrode the spirit, and I think the same
              > applies to printing.
              >
              > Regards,
              > Mark.
              >

              Interesting! On the selection of typefaces, Lewis Allen commented,
              "inferior tools corrode the spirit" (in Printing on the Hand Press).
              Do you suppose he appropriated that from Shackleton?

              Gerald
            • Gerald Lange
              ... Ken I ve always used Fontographer. There is a simple sequence on how to do this in my monograph Printing Digital Type. I did buy a copy of FontLab when it
              Message 6 of 17 , Jul 17, 2002
                ken botnick wrote:
                >
                > Gerald,
                > Which font editing program do you use to create the range of selections?
                >
                > Ken
                > --

                Ken

                I've always used Fontographer. There is a simple sequence on how to do this in
                my monograph Printing Digital Type.

                I did buy a copy of FontLab when it first came out but it didn't work on my
                system. There is a new version out. I think Justin Howes mentioned how to use
                it for this purpose in a very early post here.

                I have a listing of various URLs on font-editing software in the Bookmarks
                section here. Most interesting is Luc Devroye's entire page of links to free
                software and the like from his site Snots & Fonts

                http://jeff.cs.mcgill.ca/~luc/editors.html

                Luc is always most interesting. Well worth a night's entertainment.

                Gerald
              • Katie Harper
                Perhaps that is one of those truisms that is so true, many people have said it independently. I for one would like to take a moment to thank Gerald for setting
                Message 7 of 17 , Jul 17, 2002
                  Perhaps that is one of those truisms that is so true, many people have said
                  it independently.

                  I for one would like to take a moment to thank Gerald for setting up this
                  network, and for all those who contribute to it. For those of us who are
                  hawking our services to a public that is far too corroded by inferior stuff
                  to really appreciate letterpress or fine craft in general, it's good to have
                  colleagues who can help us believe in our own sanity for wanting to produce
                  the best work possible.

                  Thanks to you all!


                  Katie Harper
                  Ars Brevis Press
                  Cincinnati, OH
                  513-233-9588




                  > From: "bielerpr" <bieler@...>
                  > Reply-To: PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                  > Date: Wed, 17 Jul 2002 06:43:59 -0000
                  > To: PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                  > Subject: [PPLetterpress] Re: Rialto Pressa ink traps
                  >
                  >
                  >>
                  >> Well said Gerald. I think we do need to support the efforts of those
                  >> designing better products, I wanted to get an idea of how much better the
                  >> optimised font would be, than simply choosing a lighter font before making
                  >> an investment.
                  >>
                  >> Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer said one should always acquire the
                  >> best tools possible, as poor tools corrode the spirit, and I think the same
                  >> applies to printing.
                  >>
                  >> Regards,
                  >> Mark.
                  >>
                  >
                  > Interesting! On the selection of typefaces, Lewis Allen commented,
                  > "inferior tools corrode the spirit" (in Printing on the Hand Press).
                  > Do you suppose he appropriated that from Shackleton?
                  >
                  > Gerald
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > • To respond to a post or post a message to the membership:
                  > PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                  > • Encountering problems? contact:
                  > PPLetterpress-owner@yahoogroups.com
                  > • To unsubscribe:
                  > PPLetterpress-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                  >
                  > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                  >
                  >
                • ken botnick
                  Gerald, Which font editing program do you use to create the range of selections? Ken -- Ken Botnick Associate Professor, Visual Communications Washington
                  Message 8 of 17 , Jul 17, 2002
                    Gerald,
                    Which font editing program do you use to create the range of selections?


                    Ken
                    --
                    Ken Botnick
                    Associate Professor, Visual Communications
                    Washington University, Saint Louis
                    314.935.8402 x 1 office
                    314.968.5060 home
                    http://www.em-dash.org
                  • Mark Attwood
                    Mark Attwood The Artists Press Box 623 Newtown 2113 South Africa Tel. +27 11 836 5474 fax. +27 11 836 6858 mark@artistspress.co.za ... Or shackleton
                    Message 9 of 17 , Jul 17, 2002
                      Mark Attwood

                      The Artists' Press
                      Box 623
                      Newtown
                      2113
                      South Africa

                      Tel. +27 11 836 5474
                      fax. +27 11 836 6858
                      mark@...



                      > Interesting! On the selection of typefaces, Lewis Allen commented,
                      > "inferior tools corrode the spirit" (in Printing on the Hand Press).
                      > Do you suppose he appropriated that from Shackleton?

                      > Gerald
                      >


                      Or shackleton appropriated it from? I know that Shackleton took a stone
                      litho press and stones (i'm not sure about letterpress) along on his first
                      expedition, and his men wrote and printed a book during the winter when they
                      couldn't do much research.

                      Mark.

                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > • To respond to a post or post a message to the membership:
                      > PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                      > • Encountering problems? contact:
                      > PPLetterpress-owner@yahoogroups.com
                      > • To unsubscribe:
                      > PPLetterpress-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                      >
                      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                      >
                    • Gerald Lange
                      ... Allen published _Printing with the Handpress_ [corrected title] in 1969, in an edition that I suspect most folks then would have found a bit rarified in
                      Message 10 of 17 , Jul 17, 2002
                        >
                        > > Interesting! On the selection of typefaces, Lewis Allen commented,
                        > > "inferior tools corrode the spirit" (in Printing on the Hand Press).
                        > > Do you suppose he appropriated that from Shackleton?
                        >
                        > > Gerald
                        > >
                        >
                        > Or shackleton appropriated it from? I know that Shackleton took a stone
                        > litho press and stones (i'm not sure about letterpress) along on his first
                        > expedition, and his men wrote and printed a book during the winter when they
                        > couldn't do much research.
                        >
                        > Mark.
                        >

                        Allen published _Printing with the Handpress_ [corrected title] in 1969, in an
                        edition that I suspect most folks then would have found a bit rarified in
                        price. When did Shackleton write this? Can't imagine printing on stone in the
                        artic winter!

                        Gerald
                      • bielerpr
                        ... Hi Peter Isn t 4-pt the lower size limit with page-layout programs? First piece I ever printed with photopolymer was 4-pt. Kinda sold me on it. But, what
                        Message 11 of 17 , Jul 17, 2002
                          --- In PPLetterpress@y..., Peter Fraterdeus <peterf@d...> wrote:
                          > Indeed, the first digital type I designed, Prospera(tm) (see http://www.alphabets.com) has traps, not for letterpress, but for visual clarity.
                          >
                          > It turns out that it works BEAUTIFULLY for letterpress as well ;-)
                          >
                          > In particular, with a light inking, a firm impression and dampened rag stock...
                          > Down to 4 points ;-)
                          >
                          > PF

                          Hi Peter

                          Isn't 4-pt the lower size limit with page-layout programs? First
                          piece I ever printed with photopolymer was 4-pt. Kinda sold me on it.

                          But, what is the trapping on Prospera? Did you ever write about this?
                          Somewhere I have some of the early issues of Mice Type (?) where you
                          discuss Prospera. Anything on trapping in these?

                          Gerald
                        • Tim Honnor
                          Gerald: I seem to be up and running again now but am not sure how I read previous mail about mounting bases etc. Sorry to sound so prehistoric. Tim In message
                          Message 12 of 17 , Jul 18, 2002
                            Gerald:
                            I seem to be up and running again now but am not sure how I read
                            previous mail about mounting bases etc.
                            Sorry to sound so prehistoric.
                            Tim

                            In message <ah5ksv+37n9@...>, bielerpr <bieler@...>
                            writes
                            >--- In PPLetterpress@y..., Peter Fraterdeus <peterf@d...> wrote:
                            >> Indeed, the first digital type I designed, Prospera(tm) (see
                            >http://www.alphabets.com) has traps, not for letterpress, but for visual
                            >clarity.
                            >>
                            >> It turns out that it works BEAUTIFULLY for letterpress as well ;-)
                            >>
                            >> In particular, with a light inking, a firm impression and dampened rag
                            >stock...
                            >> Down to 4 points ;-)
                            >>
                            >> PF
                            >
                            >Hi Peter
                            >
                            >Isn't 4-pt the lower size limit with page-layout programs? First
                            >piece I ever printed with photopolymer was 4-pt. Kinda sold me on it.
                            >
                            >But, what is the trapping on Prospera? Did you ever write about this?
                            >Somewhere I have some of the early issues of Mice Type (?) where you
                            >discuss Prospera. Anything on trapping in these?
                            >
                            >Gerald
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >• To respond to a post or post a message to the membership:
                            >PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                            >• Encountering problems? contact:
                            >PPLetterpress-owner@yahoogroups.com
                            >• To unsubscribe:
                            >PPLetterpress-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                            >
                            >Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                            >
                            >



                            Tim Honnor - Piccolo Press - 90 Harbour Street - Nairn - IV12 4PG
                            tel: 01667 454508 fax 01667 454509
                            www.piccolopress.co.uk
                          • Mark Attwood
                            Yes, thank you Gerald, I really do appreciate the list, and all the like-minded associations. Regards, Mark. Mark Attwood The Artists Press
                            Message 13 of 17 , Jul 18, 2002
                              Yes, thank you Gerald, I really do appreciate the list, and all the
                              like-minded associations.

                              Regards,
                              Mark.


                              Mark Attwood
                              The Artists' Press


                              > Perhaps that is one of those truisms that is so true, many people have said
                              > it independently.
                              >
                              > I for one would like to take a moment to thank Gerald for setting up this
                              > network, and for all those who contribute to it. For those of us who are
                              > hawking our services to a public that is far too corroded by inferior stuff
                              > to really appreciate letterpress or fine craft in general, it's good to have
                              > colleagues who can help us believe in our own sanity for wanting to produce
                              > the best work possible.
                              >
                              > Thanks to you all!
                              >
                              >
                              > Katie Harper
                              > Ars Brevis Press
                              > Cincinnati, OH
                              > 513-233-9588
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >> From: "bielerpr" <bieler@...>
                              >> Reply-To: PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                              >> Date: Wed, 17 Jul 2002 06:43:59 -0000
                              >> To: PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                              >> Subject: [PPLetterpress] Re: Rialto Pressa ink traps
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>>
                              >>> Well said Gerald. I think we do need to support the efforts of those
                              >>> designing better products, I wanted to get an idea of how much better the
                              >>> optimised font would be, than simply choosing a lighter font before making
                              >>> an investment.
                              >>>
                              >>> Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer said one should always acquire the
                              >>> best tools possible, as poor tools corrode the spirit, and I think the same
                              >>> applies to printing.
                              >>>
                              >>> Regards,
                              >>> Mark.
                              >>>
                              >>
                              >> Interesting! On the selection of typefaces, Lewis Allen commented,
                              >> "inferior tools corrode the spirit" (in Printing on the Hand Press).
                              >> Do you suppose he appropriated that from Shackleton?
                              >>
                              >> Gerald
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> • To respond to a post or post a message to the membership:
                              >> PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                              >> • Encountering problems? contact:
                              >> PPLetterpress-owner@yahoogroups.com
                              >> • To unsubscribe:
                              >> PPLetterpress-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                              >>
                              >> Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                              >>
                              >>
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > • To respond to a post or post a message to the membership:
                              > PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                              > • Encountering problems? contact:
                              > PPLetterpress-owner@yahoogroups.com
                              > • To unsubscribe:
                              > PPLetterpress-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                              >
                              > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                              >
                            • Dr P.B. Watry
                              Gerry Thanks for the list of font editors. We have been doing some work with the old URW++ programs that Peter Karow and his programmers devised. (The kerning
                              Message 14 of 17 , Jul 18, 2002
                                Gerry

                                Thanks for the list of font editors. We have been doing some work with
                                the old URW++
                                programs that Peter Karow and his programmers devised. (The kerning
                                program, KERNUS, which is really nice, was used for Justin's Caslon.)
                                These are now redesigned and marketed as DTL FontMaster (URL on the
                                resource page you sent). It is being enhanced and will be released in a
                                couple of weeks. I have never used FontMaster or Fontographer, but I can
                                say that for manipulating fonts the URW++/DTL tools -- particularly
                                KernMaster -- might well prove to be useful for people on the list. The
                                URL is: http://www.fontmaster.nl I believe there are free demo versions
                                of the software for people to try out. We've been very pleased with the
                                results of the software. What I like about KERNUS is its facility for
                                generating different kerning pairs for different point sizes of type. (I
                                have no connection with the company or with URW++, so this isn't an
                                advertisement!)

                                The URL for URW++ is now: http://www.urwpp.de/deutsch/home.htm.
                                A couple of years ago we bought a
                                Linux version, also, which works well with batch processes.

                                By coincidence, I wrote to Frank Blokland of DTL two days ago to see
                                whether they would supply any tools for ink-traps, ala Rialto Pressa, but
                                unfortunately they haven't yet. According to him, there was software for
                                automatically generating inktraps at Scanographic around 1991. Has
                                anyone heard about this? I would think, if there is demand, that DTL
                                might be persuaded to do some development work.

                                MetaFont is also worth investigation. It can also be used to fine-tune
                                the bitmaps of outline fonts, ala Rialto Pressa.

                                Paul



                                On Wed, 17 Jul 2002, Gerald Lange wrote:

                                >ken botnick wrote:
                                >>
                                >> Gerald,
                                >> Which font editing program do you use to create the range of selections?
                                >>
                                >> Ken
                                >> --
                                >
                                >Ken
                                >
                                >I've always used Fontographer. There is a simple sequence on how to do this in
                                >my monograph Printing Digital Type.
                                >
                                >I did buy a copy of FontLab when it first came out but it didn't work on my
                                >system. There is a new version out. I think Justin Howes mentioned how to use
                                >it for this purpose in a very early post here.
                                >
                                >I have a listing of various URLs on font-editing software in the Bookmarks
                                >section here. Most interesting is Luc Devroye's entire page of links to free
                                >software and the like from his site Snots & Fonts
                                >
                                >http://jeff.cs.mcgill.ca/~luc/editors.html
                                >
                                >Luc is always most interesting. Well worth a night's entertainment.
                                >
                                >Gerald
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >• To respond to a post or post a message to the membership:
                                >PPLetterpress@yahoogroups.com
                                >• Encountering problems? contact:
                                >PPLetterpress-owner@yahoogroups.com
                                >• To unsubscribe:
                                >PPLetterpress-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                                >
                                >Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                                >
                                >
                                >
                              • Mark Attwood
                                Shackletons second expedition started in 1914, and the first one where he had the stone litho press was a few years before that, but I think Katie is correct
                                Message 15 of 17 , Jul 19, 2002
                                  Shackletons' second expedition started in 1914, and the first one where he
                                  had the stone litho press was a few years before that, but I think Katie is
                                  correct in saying it is a truism that applies to many things we do.

                                  Mark.

                                  >
                                  > Allen published _Printing with the Handpress_ [corrected title] in 1969, in an
                                  > edition that I suspect most folks then would have found a bit rarified in
                                  > price. When did Shackleton write this? Can't imagine printing on stone in the
                                  > artic winter!
                                  >
                                  > Gerald
                                  >


                                  >>
                                  >> Or shackleton appropriated it from? I know that Shackleton took a stone
                                  >> litho press and stones (i'm not sure about letterpress) along on his first
                                  >> expedition, and his men wrote and printed a book during the winter when they
                                  >> couldn't do much research.
                                  >>
                                  >> Mark.
                                  >>
                                  >
                                  >
                                • Hrant H Papazian
                                  {Finally back from vacation...} From: dfType ... First, thanks for providing that - very insightful. Second, I m happy to hear your opinion that the Trapping
                                  Message 16 of 17 , Jul 25, 2002
                                    {Finally back from vacation...}

                                    From: dfType
                                    > Inktraps RialtoDF.pdf

                                    First, thanks for providing that - very insightful.

                                    Second, I'm happy to hear your opinion that the Trapping
                                    Flower has potential. It's very encouraging, coming from
                                    designers of your accomplishment. I will provide as much
                                    detail as you'd like - please just let me know in private,
                                    since this list is probably not a good place to elaborate
                                    too deeply about type design.

                                    Third, let's get down to business!

                                    1. The red gain that you're showing, it seems that you got
                                    it by applying stroke thickness in an illustration program.
                                    For most outline segments that's fine, but it seems that it
                                    fails to reproduce the "filling in" of acute angles: inside
                                    angles remain sharp, which is not the case in real life.
                                    I myself have come to use a certain sequence of Photoshop
                                    effects to try to simulate gain accurately - see below.

                                    2. When I first took a close look at Rialto Pressa, I applied
                                    my Photoshop "Gain Simulator" and got the following result:
                                    http://www.themicrofoundry.com/other/gain.gif
                                    It shows two (arbitrary) gain amounts, and you can see how
                                    some traps fill in much sooner than others. I started to
                                    think the trapping was inconsistent; but after reading your
                                    messages (as well as those of Peter) I realized that there
                                    might actually be *two* things going on there: one is what
                                    might be called "conventional" ink trapping, while the other
                                    is more along the lines of optical compensation (in order
                                    to simulate greater definition through exageration), which
                                    reminds me of some of Dwiggins's wonderful ideas concerning
                                    the enhancement of low-fidelity output.

                                    3. From what I understand, you got #7 through manual mani-
                                    pulation? That's impressive! Not just because of the nice
                                    result, but because of the dedication needed to apply this
                                    to an entire font. :-) But one thing that confuses me is:
                                    why is there a difference between #6 and #9 (and by extension
                                    between #4 and #7) if they're both intended for small sizes
                                    and the only difference is supposed to be the amount of gain?

                                    4. You say that you did tests at your letterpress studio.
                                    Did you measure just gain in one dimension, or other things
                                    as well? Could we possibly be priviledged to "the numbers"?

                                    From: "Mark Attwood"
                                    > does it really make a difference?

                                    A very good question, and I think the bothersome answer
                                    is "usually no"... On the other hand, I believe it's in
                                    effect a matter of levels of quality, and who needs how
                                    much at what time. Take smallcaps: they're considered a
                                    sign of quality in a font family, even though virtually
                                    nobody at all uses them...

                                    In any case, I think it's useful to note the fact
                                    that we often do things because we feel the need
                                    to in our souls, with the least possible concern
                                    whether or not the unwashed masses will end up
                                    appreciating it, as un-utilitarian as that is.

                                    hhp
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