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  • kerajaan pasai
    Powered by CULTURE & HISTORY A. History Ancient Malay Peninsular Colonisation till independence Malaya in Photographs Past Prime Ministers of Malaysia History
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 7, 2003
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      A. History

      B. Culture in Malaysia

      Ancient Malay Peninsular
      The Malays
      The Malays are the race of people who inhabit the Malay Peninsula (what is today Peninsular Malaysia) and portions of adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas. [more...]

      The Malay Annals
      The Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) is clearly the most famous, distinctive and best classical Malay prose to be ever produced, sharing in the great literary tradition other Malay works such as the Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai and the Hikayat Marong Mahawangsa (Kedah Annals). It chronicles the establishment of the Malaccan sultanate, charting a course of more than 600 years in a solid compact book filled with intricate details regarding royal protocol, royal lineages, weaving in various historical, mythical and legendary figures and episodes in a compendium that still captivates its audiences three centuries later. [more...]

      Early Malay Kingdoms
      Small Malay kingdoms appeared in the 2nd or 3rd century AD. The peninsula lacked broad, extensive, fertile plains and were unable to support the pattern of densely populated classical Southeast Asian civilizations that flourished in Cambodia and Java. Nevertheless, Chinese written sources do indicate that perhaps 30 small Indianised states rose and fell in the Malay Peninsula, mostly along the east and northwestern coasts. [more...]

      Buddhist Empires
      The greatest of Malay empires, Sri Vijaya, had its beginning at Palembang which lying at the south of Sumatra dominated the Straits of Sunda. With its capital at Bukit Seguntang, the Buddhist pilgrim I-Tsing in 671 A.D. described it as an important centre of Buddhist learning, with more than a thousand monks devoting their days to study and good works. Four inscriptions in old Malay throw light on this Buddhist Sri Vijaya. [more...]

      China’s Southern Sea
      In the 3rd century, A.D. when the Chinese empire was divided into three kingdoms, the Southern kingdom of Wu sent a mission to Southeast Asia to report on the political situation there. They wrote of more than a hundred kingdoms in what they referred to as the 'Southern Seas'. The mission had important consequences. It encouraged many more Southeast Asian states to open official relations with China. At first, those who sent missions to China most frequently were mainly from modern Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and the Malay Peninsula. But later, the kingdoms of Java and Sumatra noted the profits of the China trade and sent missions too. [more...]

      The Coming of Islam
      The period of Islamic influence in Southeast Asia was, in actual fact, a period of Arabic influence modified by Indian ideas. This was so because Islam came to Malaysia through India and the same type of people who introduced Hinduism to Malaysia at the beginning of the Christian era also introduced Islam to this part of the world. [more...]

      The Ship from Juddah
      The ruler of Malacca, either Parameswara the founder, or his own son, was converted to Islam through influence from Pasai. A Pasai princess was given to the Sultan in marriage, and this led to commercial expansion and increased Muslim influence. The first Muslim ruler of Malacca took the fashionable Persian title "Shah", and called himself Iskandar Shah. (Iskandar is the Malay equivalent for Alexander). But the fact that the ruler of Malacca became a Muslim did not mean that the entire royal house of Malacca had been finally won over to Islam, with its inhabitants. His immediate successor, Raja Tengah, took a Hindu title - Sri Maharaja - and the ruler after him, Raja Ibrahim, took the tile Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah. [more...]

      About 1400 A.D., the Hindu ruler Parameswara, of the then insignificant island of Singapore known in history as Temasek, ran away with a handful of followers after constant attacks on Singapore by raiders from Majapahit. From the Seletar river, Parameswara fled to Muar and later moved further north and founded the kingdom of Malacca in about the year 1402 AD. He became a Muslim when he married a Princesss of Pasai and took the fashionable Persian title "Shah", calling himself Iskandar Shah. Records of Admiral Cheng Ho's visit to Melaka in 1409 indicate that Parameswara was then still ruler of Malacca, and there are references to the ruler and the people of Malacca as being already Muslims. [more...]

      Palembang Prince or Singapore Renegade?
      Not many people realise this, but the famous Sejarah Melayu does not even mention the name Parameswara at all. It relates how Sri Tri Buana (a magical, mythical ruler supposed to be a desendant of Alexander the Great) leaves Palembang to found a new city and establishes it on the island of Temasek, calling it Singapura. His descendants rule for another five generations.  [more...]

      Sang Kanchil
      The birth of the great Malay Empire of Melaka was not some grand design by powerful princes or the magical work of the court shamans. It all began with a courageous little brown mousedeer, called a pelanduk or popularly refered to as Sang Kanchil. [more...]

      The Melaka Empire
      Melaka very quickly mounted a series of military campaigns that won her Manjong, Selangor and Batu Pahat. Kampar and Indragiri in Sumatra were soon to become loyal vassals as well. Melaka's expanding power rattled its much larger and more powerful Thai neighbours, who insisted Melaka belonged to its vassal Kedah. The Thais launched massive attacks against the Malay upsturbs - won overland from its vassal State Pahang in 1445 and another by Sea in 1456. Both attacks were beaten back. n 1459, Muzaffar's son, Raja Abdullah, succeeded his father and assumed the title of Sultan Mansur Shah. [more...]

      The Thai Nemesis
      The most powerful power on the Peninsula at the time of Melaka were the Thais. Though Majapahit did lay claim to lands in the southern half of the peninsula, it was the Thais who saw themselves as the successors to Sri Vijaya on the peninsula, having conquered the old Malay kingdoms of Langkasuka and Kedah, as well as their possessions. They certainly claimed suzerainity over Melaka and saw with a great deal of anxiety the rising military power of the city state as it conquered the states surrounding it, both on the Peninsula and across the Straits in Sumatra. It should also be remembered, according to Portuguese histories such as Pires', Parameswara himself fled Singapore because of a Thai attack there. [more...]

      The Tuah Legend
      Hang Tuah is the most illustrious Malay hero in Melaka, leader of a closely-knit band of Melaka's finest warriors - Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekiu, Hang Lekir and Hang Jebat - a veritable Five Musketeers of Malay history. But Hang Tuah is slandered by his enemies and the Sultan unthinkingly orders him to be put to death. [more...]

      Ancient Malaysia
      Historians often speak of Malaysia's ancient past as something "shrouded in mystery," a kind of black hole in Asian history. The truth is that there is not much archeological evidence or written records from ancient Malaysia; but it is likely that this situation will change. Many suspect that there are more prehistoric archeological sites along the coasts and in the jungles and hills, but given Malaysia's riotous vegetation it will take time to find them [more...]

      Hindu Kingdoms
      Early writings from India speak of a place called Savarnadvipa -- the Land of Gold. This mystical, fantastically wealthly kingdom was said to lie in a far away and unknown land, and legend holds that it was on an odyessy in search of Savarnadvipa that the first Indians were lured to the Malay Peninsula. Blown across the Bay of Bengal by the reliable winds of the southwest monsoon, they arrived in Kedah sometime around 100 BC. [more...]

      The Golden Age of Malacca
      According to the Malay Annals, Malacca was founded in 1400 by a fleeing Palembang prince named Parameswara. Its rise from a village of royal refugees to a wealthy kingdom was swift. Perfectly located for trade, within 50 years it was the most influential port in Southeast Asia. At any one time, ships from a dozen kingdoms great and small could be seen in the harbor. With these traders came Islam, and Malacca's rulers now referred to themselves as "sultans."

      Colonisation: The Portuguese, The Dutch and The English.
      Portuguese Conquerors
      On September 1, 1509, European contact with the Malay Peninsula was first established when a Portuguese squadron of five ships under Diego Lopez de Sequeira sailed into port. They were welcome oddities at first - the Malays called them Bengali Putih, or white Bengalis - but the Sultan was soon pressured by Melaka's Indian merchants to attack the new infidels. [more...]

      The Fall of Melaka
      On May 2nd, 1511, Alphonso d'Albuquerque sailed from Cochin, India, for Malacca with nineteen ships, 8oo Portuguese and 6oo Malabaris. After sinking Muslim shipping en route and raiding Pasai and Pedir, he reached the harbour of Melaka on the evening of July 1, to the sound of trumpets, cannons and bedeckked with flags. Sultan Mahmud sent a messenger to enquire whether it was to be peace or war. [more...]

      Spice and Christ (The  Age of  Discovery)
      Henry the Navigator, prince of Portugal, initiated the first great enterprise of the Age of Discovery - the search for a sea route east by south to Cathay. His motives were mixed. He was curious about the world; he was interested in new navigational aids and better ship design and was eager to test them; he was also a crusader and hoped that, by sailing south and then east along the coast of Africa, Muslim power in North Africa could be attacked from the rear. [more...]

      Colonial Malaysia
      Until the 15th century, the Hindu kingdoms of peninsular Malaysia were largely overshadowed by neighboring kingdoms in Cambodia and Indonesia. The strongest of these kingdoms was called Srivijaya, and the records of Chinese, Indian, and Arab traders laud it as the best trading port in the region. It was the first great maritime kingdom in the Malay archipelago, and other ports quickly emulated its success. [more...]

      The British in Singapore and Malaya
      European trading in the Far East began with the Portuguese in the 15th Century and they were the first to establish a base in Malaya, then compromising many warring fragmented states. They took Malacca by force in 1511, after a previous expedition in 1509 came to grief. There they settled until the Dutch, with the help of neighbouring Johor, took control in 1641. [more...]

      Independence and Onward
      With 1957's independence, a new series of difficult decisions lay ahead of Malaya, the first of which was to determine exactly what territories would be included in the new state. In 1961, the term "Malaysia" came into being after Tunku convinced Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak to join Malaya in a federal union (Singapore later opted out of the union, peacefully, in 1965). Afraid that the union would interfere with his expansionistic plans, Indonesia's president Sukharno launched attacks against Malaysia in Borneo and on the peninsula, all of which were unsuccessful.  [more...]

      Malaya in Photographs (19th Century - 1957)

      Past Prime Ministers of  Malaysia
      Since independence in 1957 to 1981, three statesmen became prime ministers of Malaysia. Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj was the first Prime Minister (1957 - 1970), Tun Abdul Razak bin Dato' Hussien was the second Prime Minister (1970 - 1976) and Tun Hussien bin Dato' Onn was the third Prime Minister (1976 - 1981).  [more...]

      Tunku Abdul Rahman
      Tunku became the UMNO President on 26 August 1951 succeeding Dato' Onn Jaafar. His efforts in overcoming the country's politics problems with co-operation of the various ethnic groups saw the birth of the Alliance party in 1955. The Alliance party, under his leadership, won the country's first general elections and Tunku was appointed Cheif Minister and Minister of Home Affairs. [more...]

      Tun Abdul Razak
      Tun Abdul Razak entered politics after serving the Pahang State Government. Tun Abdul Razak had been head of UMNO Youth and Deputy President of UMNO. Before becoming Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak was Minister of Education, Defence, Home Affairs, Rural Development and Deputy Prime Minister. [more...]

      Tun Hussien Onn
      Tun Hussein Onn became Prime Minister on 15 Jan 1976. he stressed on the issue of unity through policies aimed to rectify economic imbalances between the communities. On 20th April 1981 the National Unit Trust Scheme was launched. Tun Hussein Onn gave serious consideration to the concepts of Rukun Tetangga and to the fight againts the drug menace. For his efforts in activating goodwill among the various ethics communities, Tun Hussien Onn is remembered as the 'Father of Unity'. [more...]

      History of States (according to alphabetical order)
      Johor's modern history began with Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, the son of Temenggong Abdul Rahman, who was a descendant of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV of Johor. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the state was formally ceded to Dato` Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, who began to develop Johor. Land was opened to Chinese settlers from Singapore, and the cultivation of pepper was initiated, bringing Johor its initial economic base. The Temenggong was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who was formally crowned Sultan of Johor in 1866. Sultan Abu Bakar gave Johor its constitution, developed its modern administrative system, and constructed the Istana Besar--the official residence of the Sultan. He is known today as the Father of Modern Johor. [more...]

      Archaeological evidence suggests that Kedah is the site of Peninsular Malaysia's oldest civilization. Before the sea route around the peninsula was firmly established, trade between India and China was conducted across the peninsular isthmus. One of the primary trading centers for this overland trade was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that flourished from the fourth to the seventh century in the Bujang Valley, just south of the peak of Gunung Jerai (and thus easily located by early Indian mariners). Like Malacca a thousand years later, the Bujang Valley civilization attracted a cosmopolitan population of merchants and traders, including Indians, Chinese, Achenese (from Sumatra), Burmese, and Arabs. With the arrival of Arab traders, Islam arrived on the Peninsula for the first time, though the most substantial cultural influence came from Pallava India. [more...]

      For most visitors, the charms of Kelantan are found in the vitality of its culture and its remote, unsullied beauty. The traditional sports of giant kite-flying, top-spinning, silat, wayang kulit, bird-singing competitions and the making of exquisite handicrafts such as songket, batik, silverware and mengkuang products still remain fixtures here, offering a glimpse of tradtional Malay culture in truly spectacular setting.[more...]

      The history of Malacca is largely the story of the city for which it is named, and the story of the city of Malacca begins with the fascinating and partly legendary tale of the Hindu prince Parameswara.

      The Malay Annals relate that Parameswara was a fourteenth-century Palembang prince who, fleeing from a Japanese enemy, escaped to the island of Temasik (present-day Singapore) and quickly established himself as its king. Shortly afterward, however, Parameswara was driven out of Temasik by an invasion, and with a small band of followers set out along the west coast of the Malay peninsula in search of a new refuge.  [more...]

      Negeri Sembilan
      Negeri Sembilan translated literally means "Nine States," so named because it comprises a federation of nine states. It is located on the south-west corner of Peninsular Malaysia and encompasses an area of 6,645 sq km including a 48-km gentle coastline. Seremban, the capital of Negeri Sembilan, is 64 km south of Kuala Lumpur. Negeri Sembilan is noted for its Minangkabau-styled architecture, reflecting the influence of the State's first inhabitants from Sumatra. [more...]

      With the collapse of Srivijaya power around 1000, Pahang was claimed first by the Siamese and then, in the late fifteenth century, by Malacca. After Malacca fell to the Portuguese in 1511, Pahang became a key part of the territorial struggles between Acheh, Johor, the Portuguese, and the Dutch. Repeated raids, invasions, and occupations devastated the state, until the decline of both Achenese and Portuguese power in the early 17th century allowed Johor (the successor state to Malacca) to reestablish its influence. [more...]

      Penang was established by Francis Light in 1786 as the first British trading post in the Far East. Light had persuaded the Sultan of Kedah to cede Pulau Pinang ("Island of the Betel Nut") to the British in exchange for military assistance; though Light occupied the island, he withheld a commitment to aid Kedah until the Sultan had ceded additional territory on the adjoining mainland coast. [more...]

      Perak is heir to the Malaysian history that came to a close in 1511 with the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese. The leaders of the Malaccan empire retreated south to Johor, where they re-established their power. The eldest son of the Sultan, however, soon headed to the north, where he accepted an offer to become the first sultan of Perak. Today, only Perak among the Malaysian states possesses a royal house descended directly from the rulers of legendary Malacca. [more...]

      Although small in size, Perlis is not without its attractions, foremost among which is its serene unspoilt beauty, rustic rural scenes and vast padi fields. Even the state capital is bordered by an expanse of verdant padi fields, making the landscape appear like a huge color-field of brilliant green or gold, depending on the season. [more...]

      Located at the northeast corner of Borneo, Sabah was known in ancient times as the "Land Below The Wind" because it lies below the typhoon belt. Sabah's terrain is rugged, with Mt. Kinabalu, at 4,101 metres, dominating the surrounding landscape. It has a wide diversity of flora and fauna, as well as one of the world's largest rainforests. Sabah's people comprise 31 different indigenous groups, including the Kadazans, Muruts, Bajaus, Kedayans, Sulu, Bisaya, Rumanau, Minokok, and Rungus [more...]

      In 1839, when Sarawak was rebelling against the Brunei Sultanate, an English adventurer named James Brooke arrived and volunteered to quell the revolt. Brooke was successful, and as a reward the Pengiran Mahkota of Brunei made Brooke the Rajah of Sarawak in 1841. James was succeeded by his nephew Charles Brooke in 1868, who in turn was succeeded by his eldest son Charles Vyner in 1917. [more...]

      Selangor's history dates to the 16th century, when rich tin deposits were found in the region. The area's natural wealth, along with its relative freedom from the presence of the Dutch, attracted miners, immigrants and colonizers. One especially important group of settlers were the Bugis, a Malay people from Macassar (now Ujung Padang) in Celebes. Bugis emigration from this great port city followed the steady encroachment of the Dutch over territory previously dominated by Portuguese traders, with whom the Bugis had allied themselves. Renowned for their capabilities as sea traders and warriors, the Bugis soon rose to prominence in Selangor. By 1700 they dominated the state both politically and economically and had established the present Sultanate of Selangor. [more...]

      Terengganu is the land of the lilting Gamelan and the mesmerising "Ulek Mayang" dance--living testimony to the state's centuries-old guardianship of Malaysia's cultural heritage. It is a quiet state, with many small villages, quiet roads, and secluded islands and beaches. The clear waters and teeming marine life of Terengganu have made it an increasingly popular destination for divers.  [more...]


      Culture in General
      Malaysia: Cultures & People
      Malaysia's cultural mosaic is marked by many different cultures, but several in particular have had especially lasting influence on the country. Chief among these is the ancient Malay culture, and the cultures of Malaysia's two most prominent trading partners throughout history--the Chinese, and the Indians. These three groups are joined by a dizzying array of indigenous tribes, many of which live in the forests and coastal areas of Borneo. Although each of these cultures has vigorously maintained its traditions and community structures, they have also blended together to create contemporary Malaysia's uniquely diverse heritage. [more ...]

      Craft of Sarawak
      The earliest evidence of art in Sarawak is found in the Great Niah Caves. Paintings on  the walls and pottery excavated have been carbon-dated to approximately 3000 BC. Wooden boat-shaped coffins were discovered in the Niah caves. These spirit boats were built to take the dead to the next world. The people of Sarawak used the resources in the forest to create their art and habitat. Stone was rarely used. Sadly, little art remains from Sarawak because the humid environment is very destructive to wood (even belian ironwood). Termites and insects of the rainforest also contribute to deteriorate the wood. The great wooden structures of the Melanau tall houses have been wiped out by the tropical climate. Hardwood is used to manufacture items which must last for more than a lifetime. The klirieng (commemorative burial poles) of the Kenyah and Punan chieftains have stood for 200 to 300 years. [more ...]

      Hindu traders first brought batik to Malaysia eons ago, and the art of dying fabric has been an established tradition for centuries. Designs are first sketched out on cloth, then blocked off with wax outlines. They are then painted and later sealed with TK. [more ...]

      Customs & Costumes
      Traditional Games
      In a world where nature provided for many of humankind's needs, leisure was honed to an art form. Much of Malaysian leisure time is occupied by elaborate competitions. Kite-flying is a favorite among participants and spectators alike. Kites, called waus, are painstakingly designed and crafted in vibrant colors and patterns. Intricate floral cutouts are pasted on, building up the design until the kite is ready for the bright paper tassels that complete its decoration. Kite construction is an ancient art passed down from the nobles of the Melakan court. [more ...]

      Sirih Pinang
      Dalam beberapa dekad yang lalu, zaman kegemilangan Kesultanan dan Raja-Raja Melayu masih begitu akur dan taat kepada adat resam serta budaya yang tidak boleh dipisah. Sirih Pinang berperanan penting dalam upacara, adat resam dan budaya semasa, masyarakat Melayu ketika itu.

      Sirih Pinang merupakan perkakasan penting dan satu kemestian dalam perkembangan budaya yang telah diwarisi dari nenek moyang mereka. Dari aspek perkembangan budaya, sama ada Melayu ataupun India dimana sirih diperlugunakan memanglah sejak dahulu lagi ia menjadi satu simbol kebudayaan dan masih menjadi satu segmen di dalam adat istiadat budaya hingga kini. Kegunaan sirih pinang menjulad dari aspek budaya seperti memakan sirih, perkahwinan sehinggalah kepada penggunaan dalam perubatan. [more ...]

      Traditional House Merlimau
      Rumah Tradisional yang terletak di Merlimau adalah satu hasil senibina yang telah melampaui zaman dan warisan budaya Melayu silam. Rumah tradisional ini hendaklah dipelihara supaya terus menjadi kenangan bangsa dan kebanggaan negara. Rumah ini terletak di Merlimau iaitu kira-kira 23 km dari bandar Melaka menghala ke Muar. Ia dibina oleh Dato' Demang Haji Abdul Ghani bin Demang Haji Majid. Rumah ini dibina lebih kurang pada tahun 1895. Walaupun dikatakan telah dibaiki, tetapi sebahagian besar rumah lamanya telah dirobohkan dan digantikan dengan rumah yang ada sekarang. Rumah ini telah siap seperti yang ada dalam bentuk pada tahun 1918. Ianya memakan masa selama lebih kurang 3 tahun 7 bulan untuk disiapkan. Rumah Merlimau ini mempunyai ciri-ciri yang unik dan memiliki beberapa keistimewaan yang harus dikekalkan sebagai warisan budaya dan negara. [more ...]

      Traditional House Melaka
      Sejarah rumah Melayu Melaka sehingga ini sebahagian dari masa sudah yang sulit untuk dibongkar dan diterangi. Tiadanya    lukisan dengan perkataan atau garis-garis pena yang baik di dalam karya-karya lama Melayu ataupun pelayar asing telah menyebabkan mengapa kita kurang tahu akan asal usul rumah Melayu ini. Mubin Sheppard dan Aziz Tapa melihat banyak persamaan bentuk rumah Melaka dengan rumah-rumah di kampuchea, dan mugkin membina persamaan ini dengan kesedaran akan teori bahawa orang Melayu berasal dari daerah ini, dan hubungan yang kuat di antara kerajaan Melayu dengan kerajaan Campa. Tetapi agak benar juga bahawa rumah Melayu yang agak dasar bukan saja banyak persamaan dengan Kampuchea, tetapi juga dengan bentuk-bentuk lain di seluruh daerah-daerah Nusantara. Misalnya rumah Cebu di Filipina yang pada dasar agak sama dengan rumah pesawah Bagan Serai, mungkin oleh kerana perkelilingan dan sumber alam yang hampir-hampir sama dan juga tugas rumah dan bahagian-bahagiannya sendiri. [more ...]

      Origin Dagger
      Keris adalah senjata Melayu yang dipercayai telah wujud sejak 650 tahun lalu. Ia khususnya digunakan untuk mempertahankan diri daripada serangan musuh. Namun, kini fungsinya dikatakan berubah. Ia seringkali dijadikan cenderahati dan dilihat sebagai simbol ketuanan dan keagungan bangsa Melayu. [more ...]

      Muslim Community
      Hari Raya Puasa
      Hari Raya Puasa is also commonly known as Hari Raya Aidilfitri. In Malay the word Hari Raya means ‘A Great Day’ and Puasa derives from Sanskrit meaning ‘fasting or abstention’. So, Hari Raya Puasa literally means ‘great day of fasting’ or in actual terms ‘the festival marking the end of a period of fasting’.

      One of the tenets of Islam is to fast during the month of Ramadan, ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar. This is a compulsory fast where faithful Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, smoking and other sensual pleasures from dawn to dusk. The virtuous aspects of life are emphasised during the month of Ramadan, a holy month.

      Hari Raya Puasa is ascertained by the religious authorities by the sighting of the moon from several vantage points in Malaysia. The first day of Shawal, the tenth month of the Muslim lunar calendar is Hari Raya Puasa. Hari Raya Puasa is announced by the Keeper of the Royal Seal over all forms of media. [more ...]

      Hari Raya Haji
      Hari Raya Haji literally means the ‘festival of pilgrimage’. It is the festival marking the day of pilgrimage to Mecca, the fifth tenet of Islam. Hari Raya Haji is known to many as Hari Raya Aidil Adha. This festival is celebrated by Muslims to honour pilgrims who have completed their Haj to Mecca.

      Hari Raya Haji falls on the 10th day of the month of Dzulhijjah, the last month of the Muslim calendar. The 10th of Dzulhijjah marks one of the most important events in Islamic history. [more ...]

      Prophet Muhammad's Birthday
      Muslims throughout Malaysia commemorate the birth of the founder of Islam, Prophet Muhammad. The birthday falls on the twelfth day of the month of Rabiulawal, the third month of the Muslim calendar. This is purely a religious festival and is marked as a public holiday. Prophet Muhammad’s birthday is celebrated by Muslims throughout the nation, with special prayers that are recited at the mosque. [more ...]

      Christian Community
      Christmas Day
      Christmas is the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ in the town of Bethlehem, some two thousand years ago. Though the birth of Jesus Christ is celebrated on the 25th of December, it is however not the actual day that Christ was born. [more...]

      Easter Sunday
      A key doctrine in Christian theology is the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Easter Sunday is observed as the day Christ was resurrected. Prior to Easter, Christians observe what is known as ‘The Holy Week’.

      The Holy Week commences with the service of Palm Sunday. Palm Sunday literally means a Sunday Service where everybody is given a blessed palm leaf or a cross of palm leaves. The continuance of the Holy Week is observed on Thursday evening known as Maundy Thursday. Maundy Thursday is when Jesus ate his last supper with his disciples before he was betrayed. [more...]

      Chinese Community
      Chinese New Year
      To the Chinese community, the most important festival celebrated is the Spring Festival, more commonly known as Chinese New Year. Chinese New Year marks the beginning of a new lunar year and falls on the first day of the ‘first moon’ in the lunar calendar. It is also the most important event of the entire Chinese calendar. [more...]

      Moon Cakes Festival
      Although The Mooncake Festival or the so called Mid Autumn Festival was celebrated by all races of the Malaysian society. It was actually a festival for the Chinese and was originated from China but due to the years of mixing and blending, the Mid- Autumn Festival has already been accepted and celebrated by all races of the Malaysian society. [more...]

      Chap Goh Mei
      The Fifteenth Day after the Chinese New Year is known as Chap Goh Mei. It is the day marking the end of the Chinese New Year celebrations. The end of the New Year celebrations is the offering of prayers on a grand scale. A family dinner is also organized to conclude these celebrations. [more...]

      Nine Emperor Gods
      On the eve of the ninth moon, temples of the Deities hold a ceremony to invoke and welcome the ‘Jien Hwang Yeh’. Since the arrival of the Nine Emperor Gods is believed to be through the waterways, processions are held from temples to the sea-shore or river to symbolise this belief. Devotees dressed in traditional white, carrying joss-sticks and candles, await the arrival of their “Excellencies”. [more...]

      Vesak Day
      Vesak Day celebrations begin before dawn and devotees throng the temples early in the morning to meditate on the Eight Precepts. This is observed by both the young and the old. ‘Sutras’ are chanted by monks in saffron coloured robes. [more...]

      The Dragon Boat Festival
      The focal point of the festivities is the island state of Penang where colourful rowing boats decorated with a dragon's head at the bow take to the seas in their quest to be crowned winner of the annual dragon boat race. [more...]

      Hindu Community
      Deepavali is celebrated universally by Hindus and is observed as a public holiday in Malaysia. This festival falls between the month of October and November, the fourteenth day of the Tamil month of Aipasi. It is also known to many as the Festival of Lights.

      The word "Deepavali" derives from the combination of the words ‘Dipa’ and ‘Gavali’, the former meaning ‘light’ and the latter meaning ‘a row’. Thus symbolising the rows of lights that can be seen at the houses of Hindu celebrants. As light dispels darkness, this festival symbolises the victory of good over evil. [more...]

      In Malaysia, Thaiponggol is a harvest festival celebrated out of season because it is fixed in the Hindu calendar. Tamils celebrate this festival around the second week of January. While it is still dark, farmers rise and cook some of the newly harvested grain. Ponggol is the presentation of the cooked harvested grain to the sun at dawn. [more...]

      Thaipusam is the most important religious festival celebrated by Hindus. It is observed in the month of ‘Thai’, the tenth month which is a very important month in the Tamil calendar. On Thaipusam, the full moon is in transit through the brightest star, Pusam in the zodiacal sign of Cancer.

      For Hindus, Thaipusam is a day of atonement for sins. On this auspicious day, the image of Lord Subramaniam, youngest son of the mighty Shiva - the most awesome God of the Hindu pantheon, is placed on a silver chariot and taken around in a grand procession to the accompaniment of instrumental music. [more...]

      Sabah Community
      Kadazan Harvest
      In the month of May, Sabahans celebrate The Kadazan Harvest Festival. Eventhough it is named after the major indigenous tribe, who form the largest ethnic group in Sabah, the Kadazans, the solemnity is observed by every Sabah native. The Kadazan Harvest Festival is known locally as ‘Tadau Ka’amatan’. [more...]

      Sarawak Community
      Gawai Dayak
      Gawai Dayak is the important annual festival celebrated in the state of Sarawak, the Land of the Hornbills. This festival is celebrated by Sarawak’s indigenous people, particularly the Ibans and the Dayaks. Sarawak’s harvest festival is known as Gawai Dayak and has only been celebrated on a large scale by the tribes since 1964. [more...]

      Pesta Flora
      Lebih sepuluh penyertaan kereta berhias daripada kerajaan negeri, agensi kerajaan dan swasta menonjolkan kreativiti masing-masing, sesuai dengan tema "Gaya Hidup Sihat" bagi Pesta Flora tahun ini. [more...]

      Ayam Belinda Ros
      Ayam Golek
      Ayam Masak Ros
      Ayam Melati Ros
      Ayam Percik Terengganu
      Ayam Sirih Pinang
      Daging Masak Alma
      Daging Masak Asam
      Daging Masak Kicap
      Gulai Ayam Kampung
      Hati Rendang Lambok
      Kalio Hati Lembu
      Kuah Laksa (Putih)
      Kuzi Ayam
      Mee Kurma
      Nenas Masak Masam Manis
      Pengedel Daging
      Rojak Betik
      Sambal Goreng Pengantin
      Satay & Peanut Sauce
      Sayur Kok Lok
      Solok Lada
      Sup Daging

      Martial Arts
      Akademi Wajadiri Malaysia
      Pada hari ini terdapat pelbagai jenis aliran seni beladiri wujud di negara kita. Kini sudah tiba masanya diwujudkan suatu badan yang mampu memayungi dan menyelaraskan segala aktiviti-aktiviti seni beladiri yang dijalankan. [more...]

      Pencak Silat Warisan
      Persaudaraan Penchak Silat Warisan adalah amalan yang diamalkan oleh beberapa anak didik dan perguruan Silat Gerak Panah Lintar. Ia diturunkan dari Tuan Guru Panglima Haji Abdul Karim (Muar, Johor) kepada beberapa orang anak didiknya diantaranya Che Ari Baba dan Husin Baba yang asalnya dikenali sebagai Penchak Silat Panah Lintar. Kemudian Che Ari Baba dan Husin Baba telah menurunkan ilmu persilatan ini kepada anak-anak didiknya di sekitar Singapura, Melaka, Banting, Selayang dan Kuala Lumpur.  [more...]

      Persatuan Seni Silat Terlak Empat
      Seni Silat Terlak Empat di Malaysia adalah berasal dari sebuah kampung Minangkabau yang terletak di Sumatera Barat, Indonesia. Silat ini diberi nama Terlak Empat bersempena dengan nama kampung tersebut iaitu Terlak dan pergerakan asas silat ini yang berbentuk empat penjuru. [more...]

      Seni Silat Cekak
      Menurut sejarah, Seni Silat Cekak ini berasal dari Negeri Kedah. Ia pernah digunakan oleh panglima kanan kerajaan negeri Kedah untuk menghadapi pencerobohan dari luar negeri pada zaman pemerintahan Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin (1854 - 1879). Menurut sumber yang boleh dipercayai, salah seorang daripada panglima kanan kerajaan Negeri Kedah iaitu Panglima Ismail telah berjaya menewaskan seorang panglima Batak yang bernama Tuah (bukan Hang Tuah) [more...]

      Seni Silat Lincah
      Silat Lincah is the biggest Malaysian style where it is still regarded as a combat system. This makes it much more 'live' than many of the martial arts imported from the East. The style was originally called Tarah meaning 'to sever' but this was considered to be too aggressive a name. Accordingly the style was renamed Lincah; translating to fast/aggressive. [more...]

      Silat Sabil Seri Indera Sakti
      Silat Sabil Seri Indera Sakti sebenarnya bukanlah ajaran dari manusia, tetapi ia merupakan rahsia anugerah Allah s.w.t.. Pada awal tahun 1970, pengasas Silat Sabil, Tok Guru Nurul Zaman Bin A.Adam, telah mendapat petunjuk ajaran Silat Sabil melalui Sembahyang Hajat (bermohon doa kepada ALLAH). Dari saat itulah, Silat Sabil mula berkembang pesat ke saat ini di seluruh pelusuk tanah air dan di negara-negara jiran. [more...]

      Silat - Seni Warisan Bangsa
      This website was established to strengthen relations between Malaysian silat and silat practitioners in Malaysia. The condition prevailing is that Malaysian silat has not been given due recognition in contrast to Indonesian silat. It is our hope that by providing a central point for Malaysian silat to meet, our understanding of each others' arts will be fostered. [more...]

      Seni Silat
      Is the traditional Malays art of self defence. It has become an integral part of an official function as it is also performed by individuals, singly or as a team, as part of the festivities associated with the function. Silat takes on various forms, depending on the origin ,body thrusts and artistic representations. [more...]

      Seni Silat Gayung
      Gayong, or sometimes referred to as Silat Seni Gayong, is an art of self-defense; a fighting art, the art of stopping wars, not creating them. Gayong is not merely about self-defense, it is also for the development of the self (belajar mengenal diri); becoming a better person so that you may serve humanity. [more...]

      Music & Dances
      Awang Batil
      Awang Batil is akin to a 'story teller' who tells of the glory and richness of life of the people of olden times. In a sense, Awang Batil is not much different from the minstrels of old England. Awang Batil is an expert with wor

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