Fwd: [PBY] PBN-1 deployment in the Soviet
- I am pleased that Jean-Christophe thinks my Russian is good enough. In fact, it's pretty rusty, but I have used it for WWII stuff in the Baltic Sea area.Here is the one paragraph pertaining to the Baltic Sea area in the article and my attempt to convert it into plain English:
The air force of the Baltic fleet first "Catalina" appeared in August 1944. It was one of the cars that arrived on the North. By 31 October in the 29 th separate air squadron of anti-submarine warfare had been six PBN- 1. American flying boats revealed in all respects superior to the other aircraft aviation CBF , applied for TPS. However, the rapid change of the situation in the theater , the refusal of the German command using submarines in the northern part of the Baltic Sea is not possible to take full advantage of the new aircraft . However , the high flying qualities " Catalina " have been used to solve problems of search and rescue services . Having a large range , american cars operated over areas of Central Baltic to Riga airport . One documented case of rescue Soviet pilots from the downed aircraft. 22 April 1945 12 torpedo topmachtovikov "Boston" 1st Guards and 51 th torpedo air regiments flew to attack enemy transport in the Baltic Sea. Ship's anti-aircraft artillery fire, four of them were shot down . The crew of one of them was specifically picked up by rescue aircraft PBN- 1.
The Catalina first appeared in the Baltic Fleet area in August 1944. It was one of the planes (Russian, like German, uses a non-specific noun for 'aircraft,' like 'machine' - which can also be translated as 'cars') moved from the Northern Fleet area. By 31 October the 29th Separate ASW Squadron had six PBN-1s. The American planes were in all respects superior to the other aircraft in the “CBF” (Northern Baltic Fleet area). (“TPS” meaning unknown). The rapid changes in the theater (the German eastern Front was collapsing and the Baltic coast from Kronstadt to Riga was quickly lost to the Soviets) and the few Geran submarines patrolling the Northern Baltic meant that the Catalina’s ASW capability could not be used. One documented case of ASR occurred on 22 April 1945. Twelve Bostons (The Soviet Navy used the Douglas Boston as a torpedo bomber) of the 1st Guards and 51st Torpedo Air Regiments attacked enemy transports in the Baltic, four falling to AAA. One crew was picked up by a PBN-1. (22 April is very late in the campaign, and German position on the Baltic coast east of the Oder River were very small and tenuous, only in the Courland Bridgehead and the Hela Peninsula and Gulf of Danzig.)
This article on the Catalina is very characteristic of Soviet/Russian military and naval operational reporting and historical records. Sweeping statements of dubious value and very short on dates, places, times, and losses. From German records, on the other hand, Kriegsmarine cruisers and destroyers supported the troops on the beach in defending against the Ivan when ships artillery could reach: Riga, several times off Ösel (Saaremaa) and the Swörbe Peninsula, then again off Memel (Klaipeda), and in the Gulf of Danzig/Danziger Bucht/Zatokoa Gdańska. German Navy records often note that the Russian were flying Bostons, an American lend-lease aircraft, and that the Soviet pilots seemed very uneven in their ability to press home an attack. I have found in German Navy records no mention of Soviet ASR or use of Catalinas in the Baltic Sea area.
Well, there it is. Not much to work with. We know at least that one squadron of Soviet Naval Aviation, in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, used six PBN-1s from October 1944 onward, and there were surely a few others as well.Cheers, LouOn Oct 2, 2013, at 1237 , j-chris.polet wrote:I have found this link in Russian. May be Lou Dorny could give us his understanding of it...I miss Ragnar's comments for his knowledge of it also.As I do not speak Russian, I tried a Google translation in English and French as well but what the heck of a jumble !!
(I was reluctant to re-write it as I would not modify the mind. I did just a few corrections when evident)So I paste it as it is :Flying boat "Catalina" during the Second World War has become the main mover in naval aviation of the anti-Hitler coalition. "Catalina" were naval intelligence, applied bombing and torpedo attacks , ASW fighting , transporting people and goods . Navy of the USSR was no exception.
On June 21, 1941 in the Soviet Naval Aviation , there were more than 2,500 combat aircrafts , a quarter of them ( 859 machines) were seaplanes . However, the main part of the park was the mid- amphibious reconnaissance MBR-2 , which the amount was 672 units to be built.
In addition , despite the best efforts of the drawing bureau to design sea planes , deals with the creation and launch of the pre-war years, the massive series of long-range maritime reconnaissance situation was not the best way . Serial production of long-range maritime reconnaissance MDR-6 ( Che -2 ) was launched at aircraft factory number 31 at Taganrog in 1939 and the following year it was transferred to a new aircraft plant in Savelovo . In connection with the evacuation of the plant in 1941 , the series was a total of 37 machines. Built in accordance with an American license in 1938-1940 a copy of the civilian version of the American PBY- 1 seaplane - flying boat GST was made in Taganrog . In all there were 27 machines. Which had a high tactical and technical characteristics of the marine heavy bomber MTB- 2 was never put into production .
Since the beginning of the war the situation was further agravated because the Air Force and Navy suffered heavy losses in the early months of the war, sparing a small number of seaplanes GST and Che -2 , as they were used as dayly bombers and long range reconnaissance . In turn, the Soviet aircraft industry had virtually stopped the production of seaplanes. During the whole war from the industry was obtained only 39 machines (scout Be- 4 and Th- 2). From other departments Navy aircraft received another 141 seaplanes in bulk ; it was all the same MBR-2 . This amount does not even cover the current losses, which on June 1, 1944 totaled 588 cars. In fact, by the end of the war the Navy urgently needed to recreate its seaplane fleet with modern heavy seaplane capable of reconnaissance and search for submarines, search-and- rescue operations and transportation.
Since the domestic industry could not cope with this task , they had to call to the Allies , and the first and almost the only candidate for the delivery was flying boat "Catalina" by U.S. firm "Consolidated".
"Catalina" was well known of Soviet specialists . First, as already noted, before the war was produced in small series and was in service with its licensed version of the flying boat GST. Secondly , the English "Catalina" from 1942 appeared regularly on the ground of the Northern Fleet , solving a variety of problems , for the benefit of the Soviet command . For example, in September- October 1942, nine "Katalina" from 210 Squadron, Royal Air Force operated from our northern airfields during the operation by wiring the convoy PQ- 18.
Comparison of the "Catalina" with serial domestic seaplanes strongly urged to complete the superiority of American cars ( see table). In addition, American flying boats were equipped with much more sophisticated instrumentation and radio equipment , and most important had a radar station. The aircraft provides a comfortable environment for the crew in a long (up to 28 hours) flight.The first unsuccessful attempt to get the Americans advanced flying boats was undertaken in 1942. Then set out to seek 60 PBY-5A amphibian aircrafts for the Northern and Pacific fleets. A further 80 flying boats were requested by 28 May 1944 for use in the Pacific. USSR was originally supplied with seaplanes type PBN- 1 "Nomad" , from February 1943 produced in the NAF factory at Philadelphia. Later, the Navy also received a more advanced modification of machines - amphibious PBY- 6A . In total , our country was delivered 137 PBN- 1 (out of 156 released in the U.S.) and 48 PBY- 6A . American flying boats regardless of the modifications we have called it the same - "Catalina" . These seaplanes are significantly different from the prototype GST. More powerful engines , strengthened armament , sliding hatches on the sides replaced by the drop-shaped blisters , has been considerable improved equipment .
Soviet literature also suggests to supply the Soviet Union with some 20 PBY- 5A aircraft . Perhaps an indirect confirmation of this is the fact that the operating instructions aircraft of this modification in our country still got .
Delivery of American flying boats in the fleet began in the summer of 1944 . Their distillation was organized as follows :Planes were accepted in the United States at Elizabeth City ( NC ) Soviet naval aviators air group of special purpose. Air group consisted of 26 ferries - ten from Northern Fleet Air Force , 10 - from the Air Force Pacific and six - from the Air Force 's Black Sea Fleet . Colonel VN Vasiliev was appointed as Group Commander .
The first batch of "Katalina" in the amount of 47 cars distilled to the Northern Fleet. The route length is 8,325 km, the flight time of about 50 hours. Planes took to the troops on route 4 cars. In the course of the flight , they had to make step-overs at allies airbases. To ensure flight English Command on each plane were identified navigator and radio operator , who followed with our crews to Reykjavik . Then, the British returned to the U.S. for re-departure with other crews. The entire operation of seaplanes for the distillation of the Northern Fleet has been made in the period from 25 May to 26 July 1944 . On the last step of the way (Iceland - Murmansk) air group commander's plane was lost. In adverse weather conditions their plane crashed onto the rocks on the northern coast of Norway. Colonel MN Lapwings took the lead .
Seaplanes for the needs of the Pacific Fleet were distilled via eastern route through the Bering Strait in Vladivostok . From 25 August to 11 September 1944 on it flew 30 flying boats .For the Black Sea Fleet and the polar air NSRA was allocated 59 cars. Their distillation carried out the longest route by Brazil, Morocco , Iraq, in Baku, and from there to Sevastopol. The length of this route was 18,685 km . Distillation was carried out in the period from 28 September 1944 to 28 March 1945. One plane crashed on take-off at night at NAS Elizabeth City. Chikova pilot crew perished. The last batch ( 28 cars ) was distilled in Moscow from June 23 to August 21, 1945 .
At the time of admission, the number of seaplanes in Naval Air Force was greatly reduced. Therefore, in the western part of aviation fleets "Catalina" were not only the best in quality part, but also took the lead in number . (The presence of seaplanes in the air forces of three existing fleets shown in the table). It should be emphasized that at this period in their structure flew virtually no heavy seaplanes . In the North, in the period in question there was one Che -2 , on the Black Sea - one GST and two Che -2, and the Baltic Russian long-range seaplanes were not there.The first PBN- 1 for service was received by Northern Fleet aircraft . New flying boats were sent to the 118th Reconnaissance , 44th , 53rd and 54th mixed aviation regiments , as well as in the 20th Separate Air Squadron . Aircraft were included in combat work as they arrived in the Soviet Union. The main objective of American cars has become the distant exploration and search for submarines . It should be noted that for aerial reconnaissance of German communications along the Norwegian coast "Catalina" was rarely involved . First, other types of aircraft were successfully used . Second, actions of the enemy coast had sharply increase the likelyhood of losing an aircraft. So PBN- 1 were used mainly in areas where the probability of enemy opposition (especially its fighter aircrafts ) was minimal. Although a few times , " Catalina " came under anti-aircraft fire of German submarines , combat losses they have suffered . During non-combat missions four seaplanes were lost. One crashed during a training flight June 19, 1944 . During take-off from the lake Kholmovskaya mechanic mistakenly turn off the fuel pipe valve. Engines stopped and the car felt down on the forest. During a storm, September 6, 1944 three flying boats that were in the Bay Belushya were washed ashore . Two of them were broken , one badly damaged and written off.The first attack "Catalina" enemy submarine in the Barents Sea already marked July 3, 1944 . Arrival to the North of these machines has finally allowed to organize regular ASW in the Kara Sea. The almost complete lack of airfields and network hindered the use of long range wheeled aircraft . Seaplanes MBR-2 with limited range were not widely used in the Arctic. Therefore, on July 4 PBN- 1 started with White Sea Flotilla ( Lahti , Naryan - Mar) . August 6 four "Catalina" 44th Aviation Regiment flew over the airfield Dixon. In total, the Air Force BVF in 1944 there were nine American seaplanes. Their arrival coincided with the start of the deployment in the Kara Sea of the German U- boats. One of them , U- 711 was found on August 12 by commander of the 44th Regiment , Major SM Ruban . On board the "Catalina", unfortunately , there was no anti-submarine bombs , as the plane flew on an ice patrol . However , the crew did not reply the enemy machine-gun fire , but also provided guidance in the area for the attack by two flying boats that are fired and bombing . It is significant that on this machine Major Ruban was in the air for about 20 hours. After ten hours a point of reference for the detection of anti- profit research trawlers T -112 and T- 115. They also provided guidance to "Catalina" of 44th Regiment. Foreign sources have denied the German boat damage in the attack. However, we know that the U- 711 left the Kara Sea for 14 August. The official reason for this was "periscope damaged in a collision with ice" . However, it is possible that the Soviet attack aircraft was more effective than so far assumed.
Total in the Northern Fleet , "Catalina" made 340 sorties and 14 times attacked enemy submarines . The four attacks were observed visible signs of hitting the target . This is the aforementioned attack August 12, 1944 , and three attacks in 1945 : January 19 , 22 and 23 April 1945 . The most significant case of damage to the "U- boot " may be the case April 22, 1945 . On this day, "Catalina" manned crew captain Lyatina found within 12 miles of Cape Chick Navolok a surfaced submarine . As a result of the sudden attack was achieved a direct hit on the stern of enemy submarine .
As an anti-submarine aircraft , "Catalina" have proven themselves in the best possible way. It was the only aircraft in the fleet for solo searches of enemy submarines . For other types of minimal tactical was recognized couple units. Only in this way guarantee the reliability of a given viewing area. Warload American cars (eight depth charges PLAB -100) is twice greater than that seen in the MBR- 2 . It is highly significant and the number of sorties, committed to finding a submarine enemy. For the MBR-2 , the figure was 170 departures per detection . "Catalina" detects the target in each of forty (I understand 1/40) missions.
Of course , the high performance characteristics of the aircraft is not sufficient for a successful fight against the enemy submarine . The effectiveness of their use influenced difficult meteorological conditions typical of the Barents and Kara Seas. The detection range of a surfaced submarine in the North was twice lower than in the Black or Baltic Sea. Some cases revealed the insufficient crew training for the challenges of anti-submarine warfare .
An important advantage of "Catalina" was part of the equipment of flying boats, radar stations , which dramatically increased their ability to detect surface targets . With the help of radar surface ships under poor visibility conditions observed from a distance of 75-80 miles . Although detection of enemy convoys were not "Catalina" duty they repeatedly brought to the search Allied convoys or stragglers from the transports, and restore order to their escorts .Another important task for "Katalina" in addition to aerial reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare was the implementation of search and rescue operations. It should be noted that the search and rescue service was compulsory element of aviation operations as our allies and the German Air Force . In particular , all the operational merger of Luftwaffe had a special detachment of the search and rescue service to assist crews in distress. The Soviet naval aviation units had none. This task was performed by seaplanes allocated to combat units of naval aviation.
Having a large load capacity , spacious compartments and seaworthy ability "Catalina" almost immediately began to be used in search and rescue operations. The most famous case was the rescuing of the crew and passengers of the "Marina Raskova " transport sank by a German U- boat and the crews of minesweepers T -114 and T- 118. Between 16 and 23 August planes of 44th Aviation Regiment Air Force BVF and Polar aircraft picked up from rescue funds and the banks 73 passengers and crew transport and minesweepers . Of the total amount, 14 people were recued by GST of Polar Aviation , others rescued "Catalina" of the 44th Regiment. In two cases, aboard a flying boat were taken up 19 and 25 respectively. It should be noted that surface ships could not find a single person in this rescue operation .
The advent of the Air Force SF heavy flying boats significantly improved the organization of rescue crews shot downed by enemy aircraft. In organizing massive strikes on German naval bases and convoys at sea in combat formations began to stand out special search and rescue teams in the seaplane "Catalina" and fighter cover . The first case of the use of a flying boat PBN- 1 took place during the raid on Kirkenes June 17, 1944 . However, the original organization of such operations was far from ideal. With massive air strikes Northern Fleet August 17, 1944 at the port of Kirkenes and the city, bomber "Boston" was hit by antiaircraft fire and sat down on water . His crew has been spotted by "Catalina" of 118th Cavalry Regiment . Sea plane splashed down safely in the location of the Soviet pilots , but could not take them on board because of the lack of necessary life-saving equipment. Two of the "Boston" crew were later picked up by our torpedo boats . Another airman drowned , without waiting for assistance. It is fair to say that this was an isolated incident . Subsequently, "Catalina" twice managed to pick up water downed pilots over the sea . September 15, 1944 was found and lifted on board the flying boat, who died in the fall of the P-39 fighter Lt. Chepurny of 2 Guards IAP. October 12, 1944 eight attack aircraft and 12 fighters attacked a German convoy off Cape Ki135Lf Makkaur . In aerial combat were shot down two Yak -7 . The pilot of one of them , Lieutenant Gorobec , was picked up from the water , "by a Catalina". Admission to the arms of American cars has expanded the possible areas of search and rescue operations. If they were previously only possible in the Varanger Fjord and near its coast , now you may be searching for the whole range of the Northern Fleet aviation wherever strikes . Thus, during a series of raids on German convoy 21 October 1944 (in the area of the Varanger Fjord to Cape Nordkyn) for rescue crews have been allocated seaplane "Catalina " and three torpedo boats .The air force of the Baltic fleet first "Catalina" appeared in August 1944. It was one of the cars that arrived on the North. By 31 October in the 29 th separate air squadron of anti-submarine warfare had been six PBN- 1. American flying boats revealed in all respects superior to the other aircraft aviation CBF , applied for TPS. However, the rapid change of the situation in the theater , the refusal of the German command using submarines in the northern part of the Baltic Sea is not possible to take full advantage of the new aircraft . However , the high flying qualities " Catalina " have been used to solve problems of search and rescue services . Having a large range , american cars operated over areas of Central Baltic to Riga airport . One documented case of rescue Soviet pilots from the downed aircraft. 22 April 1945 12 torpedo topmachtovikov "Boston" 1st Guards and 51 th torpedo air regiments flew to attack enemy transport in the Baltic Sea. Ship's anti-aircraft artillery fire, four of them were shot down . The crew of one of them was specifically picked up by rescue aircraft PBN- 1.
In the Black Sea , "Catalina" came in 18th Separate Air Squadron which specialized in anti-submarine warfare tasks . In June 1944, there were 8 cars transferred . Prior to that, there were only a part of the armed ICBM -2 and Th- 2 . Aircraft arrived from the Northern Fleet Air Force . The first flight was made July 17, 1944 for the exploration of the central part of the Black Sea. The duration of the U.S. military machine was low. Soon after the Soviet Army forced the German submariners who lost their bases by the sink their ships . However, the Black Sea is the most successful pilots used the " Catalina" in the form of search and rescue aircraft. August 19 after a massive strike on port 47 attack aircrafts Sulina is one of the fighter cover LaGG -3 forcibly took the water B15 kilometrahot shore. Its pilot was rescued by "Catalina" under the command of Captain Koval . August 20, when the port of Constanta has undergone massive air strikes Black Sea Fleet , the aircraft of the 18th Squadron rescued the crews of three of the four aircraft , have sat down on the water as a result of battle damage .
The next day, August 21 aircraft BSF led search crews, who did not return from previous raids on Constanza , and Sulin . Finding attended four PBN- 1 of 18th Squadron , three MBR-2 from the 60th Squadron and one IL -2 , accompanied by 16 fighters. B60 milyahyugo - west of Cape Olinka four Soviet fighters attacked four German seaplanes, BV- 138, followed by the two fighters. In the ensuing dogfight , two German seaplanes were shot down . Their losses were two fighters . The pilot of one of them was picked up by "Catalina".
During the final phase of military operations in Romania and Bulgaria aircraft 18th Squadron provided a landing at the naval base of Germany's former allies to monitor the truce . August 29 two "Catalina" delivered to the port of Constanta group of Soviet sailors to receive commands from the Romanian Navy ships stationed there. September 8 and 9 similar to amphibious operations have been conducted in the Bulgarian bases Varna and Constanta .
Total for May 9, 1945 Western Force fleet consists of 107 PBN- 1 , which accounted for 73 % of their amphibious fleet . The Pacific Fleet was the beginning of the war with Japan 49 PBN- 1 and 21 PBY-6A. New technology has been completely re-16th Reconnaissance Regiment, and the 48th and 117th regiments re finished after the outbreak of hostilities . Flying boats in the Far East to solve the same problem as in the western theater . However, the short duration of the campaign and the absence of the enemy at sea led to the fact that in the engagements they had not participated . The only time the flying boats have found a real enemy (or group of ships of the Japanese Navy ) during amphibious operations in the Korean port of Wonsan . "Catalina" were followed until the return of enemy ships in their bases. Quite intensively used American flying boats for landing operations at ports under the control of the Japanese. August 21 at the airfield in Genzane were planted 32 gunners . August 24th Marines landed in the Far and Port Arthur. Small groups of paratroopers were used to capture objects in Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. In almost all cases, there was no resistance to the landing .The largest number of sorties during the Far East campaign made a "Catalina" 16th Regiment 74 departure for exploration , 10 - to escort ships and more than 100 - on the landing and transportation. This is the only battle the regiment suffered a loss of aircraft PBN- 1 transferred the Soviet Navy. A flying boat is not returned to the base with a patrol over the Sea of Japan . The cause of her death is still not known.
Thus, the set of U.S. seaplanes "Catalina" were used by the Soviet Navy in the fighting on all maritime theaters. Flying boat "Catalina" on its flight characteristics , and especially the on-board radio and instrumentation equipment is the most advanced seaplane in Soviet Naval Aviation . Delivery of flying boats from the United States has allowed a whole new level to solve the problem of finding enemy submarines . Search efficiency has increased by at least a factor of four . In this case, the opportunity to conduct these searches not only in the coastal zone , but at a considerable distance from their shores . American cars made it possible to carry out search and rescue operations in virtually any area where the Soviet air force could operate . Aircraft equipment PBN- 1 radars dramatically expanded their ability to conduct reconnaissance in low visibility conditions. In this case, set the car on American radars were significantly superior to the parameters Soviet counterparts. Their use was not associated with a number of restrictions that limit the effectiveness of anti-submarine search. Soviet engineers and technicians gained experience servicing sophisticated electronic equipment , which later was used in the design and operation of similar domestic developments .Jean-Christophe
- Here is what I understanding in the translation of the article about the Beriev production :GST - a "TRANSPORT seaplane"
By the mid- 30s, despite the best efforts of design offices, design the sea planes, business with the launch of a series of good and long-range maritime reconnaissance flying boat for Polar Aviation situation was not the best way. Therefore, the leadership of the country elected two ways to get out of this situation. First, to accelerate the development of modern domestic aircraft, and second, at the same time to purchase the best foreign models, and then purchase a license for the construction of one of them. The main partners were considered primarily the Americans with whom firm contacts were gained after the establishment in 1933 of diplomatic relations with the United States... "gaining more and more momentum."
So in the Arctic and the Far East appeared American flying boats Douglas DF, Martin -156 and the amphibious Sikorsky S-43 "Baby Clipper". On 11 April 1936 the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR decided to acquire a license in the U.S. and technical assistance on several types of aircrafts. Among them was a flying boat and the "Consolidated -28"
January 9, 1937 the AMTORG corporation actually allows Soviet trade missions in the United States, An agreement is signed with the firm Consolidated Aircraft granting the license for cargo- passenger flying boat. The basis for the export version called "Model 28-2" was the twin-engine Patrol seaplane PBY-1 (later called "Catalina"), but its use as a military airplane is not even mentioned. According to the agreement, the company sold one assembled aircraft, work drawings, strength and aerodynamic calculations, the results of wind tunnel test and protasok (?) in hydraulic lines, test reports, specifications, various regulations, valuations and a large number of technological documentation. Americans have pledged to introduce Soviet specialists to the plant at San Diego, where the flying boats were built, and if necessary, to send their engineers to the Soviet Union for assistance in the development of production and consultation.
Mastering the production of the "model 28-2" was commissioned to Taganrog plant number 31, and expert GM Beriev, in parallel with the work on the creation of its own reconnaissance seaplane MDS-5.We had to solve a difficult problem to process design documentation and working drawings under domestic standards. According to the contract with the firm in February 1937 a team of engineers led by AK Belenkov was sent to the United States. In America, YS Katuraev, DG Chizhenko, PF Zyablov, MB Shankman, PM Sidorov, ND Arkhipov, visited the San Diego plant, they studied the new equipment and technology, translated into Russian language technical documentation and pointed out the need for an inch to metric system conversion.
At the same time was purchased the necessary machining and forging equipment, molds, plazas, patterns, dies and other tooling. From the United States to the factory entered as a reserve for the new aircraft, the ribs, spars, ribs come already assembled on the control rivets. This allowed the right to start the production and development of technology. In autumn 1937, a group of Consolidated specialists came to Taganrog with the necessary documentation. The Americans were settled in an apartment building in the city center on Bank Square .A department of the foreign experts was established in the plant, led by YS Katuraevym. With Americans consuming work has been performed on translating drawings from inch to metric. In addition, U.S. experts have participate in the commissioning and testing of all equipment coming from the United States under the licensing agreement .
The first units of the American flying boat with American engines Wright R-1820 -G3 were received in May 1938. The factory flight tests began June 3 and continued until July 20. It flew test pilots N. Smolovik and EM Koshelev.
American seaplane had a number of original design solutions - wing lifted off the boat on a streamlined pylon in the center, embedded integral fuel tanks and underwing floats retracted in flight so they turned to the wing tip. Racks floats flush left to the lower surface of the plane. The aircraft had a full set of navigation instruments, advanced radio equipment and autopilot.
According to the tests the flying boat was given the most favorable aircraft aerobatic rating: "The plane is stable in planning for horizontal flight, and also on the climb. The plane is balanced in all modes. Take-off is simple, similar to the MBR-2 aircraft. Climb, level flight, turns, coil and planning are easy to perform. The aircraft in all flight modes has good resistance, so you can quickly master his ordinary pilot. "
In parallel with the tests went serial production of seaplanes, designated GST ("transport seaplane"). Engines were replaced with domestic licence-built Wright M- 62P. However, both engines were development of the Wright R-1820 -F3 and almost completely matched for size, weight and seats. All GST series present a large part of components and assemblies imported from the United States. In addition, the Americans have also bought some aluminum sheet and rolled, some electrical equipment.
In view of improving performances in the GST, M- 87 engines were tested. The first car with such engines was assembled at the beginning of 1940 ; tests showed increased speed and ceiling, but the reliability of engines left much to be desired. Therefore, M-87 would equip five machine, six with M- 88 (with a two-speed supercharger) and the rest of flying boats were equipped with engines M - 62P and M- 62IR (with a single-speed supercharger) .
In spite of its civil designation, GST primarily flew as a long-range maritime reconnaissance and bomber, and then as a transport aircraft. Defensive armament consisted on four machine guns ShKAS 7.62 mm. Bombs (the largest - FAB-500 ) can be placed on six underwing bomb racks. Torpedo could be carried, even chemical weapons - two spray tanks VAP- 500 .
According to the planning, in 1939, the plant number 31 was to produce 25 GST's but actually built 16. When he Military handed reception, they allocated flying boats to 80th Separate Reconnaissance Aviation Squadron (ORAE) VVS Black Sea Fleet, based in Sebastopol bay Matyushchenko .
In the pre-war 1940 Taganrog aircraft manufacturers had to produce and deliver to the customer an additional 15 flying boats. Since the summer of 1940 GST's began to arrive in the 118th Aviation Regiment of the independent Reconnaissance (ORAPA) Northern Fleet Air Force . July 1 the first flying boat landed on the shelf in the Bay of gidroaerodrome dirty (dirty bay of the NAB ?). July 24 the first flying boat took part in the air parade in honor of the Navy. Seen from the ground the GST seemed huge compared to the MBR- 2, so it was immediately christened "air aviamatkoy" (? Matkoy is uterus) by the audience. September 3, 1940 the 4th Far intelligence Squadron was formed with these machines. Starting this year, GST's are available to General Directorate of Polar Aviation in the Northern Sea Route and to the Department of Civil Aviation in Siberia and the Far East, where they were called MP- 7. Polar aviation hit one of the two American units flying boats "model 28-2" collected at TaganrogPlanes were appreciated by military pilots, and explorers. GST's flight characteristics, avionics and comfort do not go to any comparison with the MBR-2, and even more with the old Dornier "Val".
In turn, the construction of the aircraft had risen the plant itself to a new level of technology. For the first time in the country has been mastered lofting template method of building airplanes. This has significantly raise the quality of the production and to achieve interchangeability of parts and assemblies. Were integrated into the new technological processes, such works as pneumatic riveting, special marine glueing, the process of anodizing aluminum alloys.
On the other hand, the GTS was much more difficult to produce, which did not cause delight in management of the plant number 31. There were opponents to the American flying boat in the high command of the fleet as a whole is focused on enacting domestic aircraft .
So, in November 1938, reporting to the Government on the successful tests flying boat MDR-6 IV Chetverikova, People's Commissar of the Navy proposed in this regard “the development of foreign equipment factory number 31, and the American culture of production and technology to build a small series of troop planes PBY- 1, using for this purpose reserve, purchased in the United States. Aircrafts would be used in combat units as well as in transport. In order to preserve the secrecy, to withdraw U.S. military experts from factory number 31, placing engineers who visited the factories of the CAC company over the finishing work and the organization of production at the plant number 31. As a result, the American engineers were sent home from Taganrog, but construction continued. Finally, the American flying boats were taken off the market at the end of 1940, following the announcement by the US Government of an embargo on the Soviet Union after the war with Finland. Only this time it was built 27 GST's. The workshops of the factory number 31 changed to the domestic long sea scouts MDR-6 ( Che -2).
According to the commander of naval aviation General Lieutenant SF Zhavoronkova “GST is slow-moving aircraft. Practically it gives no more than 260-270 kmh. However, it offers a very large range : from 1,500 kg load it goes to 2,500 km and capable of standing without bombs to 17-19 hours in the air. Because of its low speed data for the current conditions, the production of this aircraft was discontinued in order to use the available aircraft while temporarily as scouts, and then transport aircraft."
By 22 June 1941 on the Black Sea in the 80th ORAE were 11 GST's in the North, in the 118-7 ORAPA Since the beginning of the war flying boats immediately joined in daily combat work. They were gathering intelligence, carried out day and night bombing, carried people and cargo, performed special tasks .
In the north 4th Squadron of the 118th ORAPA used the GST very intensively thanks to the large radius of action with a significant bomb load. North Sea flying boats in the summer of 1941 were mainly used as day bombers. They took part in the clashes with German destroyers of the 6th fleet in the summer of 1941 which have committed several attacks on our coastal communication. During one of these operations, July 24, a rather unusual dogfight hapened. Two of the 118th ORAPA GST who searched the German ships were, on the reports of pilots, attacked by fighter Me -110 (actually it was a reconnaissance Ju- 88 of 1.(F) / 124). In the ensuing battle slave GST (№ 5) of the control link 4 Squadron received serious injuries and sat in on an emergency. Big Deer. After opening holes numerous water gushed into the boat, so the crew took off machine guns and radio receiver, a rubber boat got to a fishing village on the shore, and later was taken to the GST lead. The very same flying boat was shot, coming up to the site of an emergency landing by German destroyers. Although the Junkers left no visible damage, run-in with the GST is not held for him in vain : for the return of German intelligence officer crashed at the Hebukten airport.In general, during the first months of war most of the GST's of the Northern Fleet were lost most and on 1 January 1942 118th ORAPA have only two flying boats left in the ranks. By December 1942 the North was listed as only one GST (and the one was non-operational) , and the next summer no longer existed any seaplane in the Air Force SF.
GST's for the Black Sea were part of the 80th Separate Squadron, the main task at the beginning of the war was the aerial reconnaissance of distant enemy lines of communication and its naval bases. The main areas of action were naval bases and ports of Constanta, Sulina, Varna, Burgas, the Bosphorus and the coast of Turkey from Samsun to the Bosphorus and the western part of the Black Sea.
Reconnaissance flights to the coast of Romania accompanied by tough opposition from the German and Romanian fighters and, as a consequence, the inevitable losses. With the release of the German forces to the main base of the Black Sea Fleet - Sebastopol 80th Squadron began the night bombing of enemy troops. The remaining aircrafts in service, and by November of 1941, there were only five, became part of the 3rd Air Group, Sebastopol, for the remainder of the city's defense. Gradually, the flying boats were used mainly for transportation to the besieged city of critical goods and evacuate the wounded. In late April, the three remaining GST's were transferred to Gelendzhik, where they continued to fly in Sebastopol until the last days of its defense. After the relocation of the Caucasus range maritime reconnaissance was carried out now only to the meridian of Yalta, allowing no further to range GST's.
Among success in action on ships at sea can be noted only episode 2 April 1942 , when the GST's together with the bombers of the 63rd Aviation Brigade attacked a detachment of Romanian ships in setting minefield south- west of Cape Olinka . As a result, sustained damage minelayer "Dacia" and destroyer "Sborul". Last Black Sea GTS ended the war in September 1944, together with the "Catalina" dropping troops at the Bulgarian port of Varna.FLYING BOAT MP-7 (Soviet Union - N275) POLAR AIR
GTS Polar aircraft also took part in the fighting. In August 1941, they were armed with the pattern of flying boats of naval aviation. Several cars became part of the 2nd Air Group, a private IP Mazuruk. In addition to its regular tasks - ice reconnaissance and supply of meteorological stations and wintering areas - Air Arm aircraft were seen patrolling the Barents and Kara Seas and actively participated in the wiring of the Arctic convoys. In August 1941, just over two GST were delivered to Alaska Group MM Gromov, sent to the United States for the acceptance as combat aircraft.
GTS Polar aircraft flew after the war. In 1946, there has been operated four of these aircraft, flying together with those obtained under the Lend-Lease "Catalina".Jean-Christophe
De : Louis Dorny <louis41@...>
À : PBY@yahoogroups.com
Envoyé le : Jeudi 3 octobre 2013 5h26
Objet : Fwd: [PBY] PBN-1 deployment in the Soviet
I am pleased that Jean-Christophe thinks my Russian is good enough. In fact, it's pretty rusty, but I have used it for WWII stuff in the Baltic Sea area.Here is the one paragraph pertaining to the Baltic Sea area in the article and my attempt to convert it into plain English:The air force of the Baltic fleet first "Catalina" appeared in August 1944. It was one of the cars that arrived on the North. By 31 October in the 29 th separate air squadron of anti-submarine warfare had been six PBN- 1. American flying boats revealed in all respects superior to the other aircraft aviation CBF , applied for TPS. However, the rapid change of the situation in the theater , the refusal of the German command using submarines in the northern part of the Baltic Sea is not possible to take full advantage of the new aircraft . However , the high flying qualities " Catalina " have been used to solve problems of search and rescue services . Having a large range , american cars operated over areas of Central Baltic to Riga airport . One documented case of rescue Soviet pilots from the downed aircraft. 22 April 1945 12 torpedo topmachtovikov "Boston" 1st Guards and 51 th torpedo air regiments flew to attack enemy transport in the Baltic Sea. Ship's anti-aircraft artillery fire, four of them were shot down . The crew of one of them was specifically picked up by rescue aircraft PBN- 1.The Catalina first appeared in the Baltic Fleet area in August 1944. It was one of the planes (Russian, like German, uses a non-specific noun for 'aircraft,' like 'machine' - which can also be translated as 'cars') moved from the Northern Fleet area. By 31 October the 29th Separate ASW Squadron had six PBN-1s. The American planes were in all respects superior to the other aircraft in the “CBF” (Northern Baltic Fleet area). (“TPS” meaning unknown). The rapid changes in the theater (the German eastern Front was collapsing and the Baltic coast from Kronstadt to Riga was quickly lost to the Soviets) and the few Geran submarines patrolling the Northern Baltic meant that the Catalina’s ASW capability could not be used. One documented case of ASR occurred on 22 April 1945. Twelve Bostons (The Soviet Navy used the Douglas Boston as a torpedo bomber) of the 1st Guards and 51st Torpedo Air Regiments attacked enemy transports in the Baltic, four falling to AAA. One crew was picked up by a PBN-1. (22 April is very late in the campaign, and German position on the Baltic coast east of the Oder River were very small and tenuous, only in the Courland Bridgehead and the Hela Peninsula and Gulf of Danzig.)This article on the Catalina is very characteristic of Soviet/Russian military and naval operational reporting and historical records. Sweeping statements of dubious value and very short on dates, places, times, and losses. From German records, on the other hand, Kriegsmarine cruisers and destroyers supported the troops on the beach in defending against the Ivan when ships artillery could reach: Riga, several times off Ösel (Saaremaa) and the Swörbe Peninsula, then again off Memel (Klaipeda), and in the Gulf of Danzig/Danziger Bucht/Zatokoa Gdańska. German Navy records often note that the Russian were flying Bostons, an American lend-lease aircraft, and that the Soviet pilots seemed very uneven in their ability to press home an attack. I have found in German Navy records no mention of Soviet ASR or use of Catalinas in the Baltic Sea area.Well, there it is. Not much to work with. We know at least that one squadron of Soviet Naval Aviation, in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, used six PBN-1s from October 1944 onward, and there were surely a few others as well.Cheers, Lou