D R Lindberg (To Jim in Missouri): You agreed that intermediate fossils
can be identified independently of of theory. That eliminates any
Charles P: The old idea of *transitional fossils* from the old Theory of
Evolution is not acceptable as empirical and verifiable evidence. Naming
them *intermediate* or some other name is a distinction without a
difference. Arguing *circularity* draws attention away from the central
issue. Look at this unscientific collection of intermediate fossils that
does not even meet the standards of Wikipedia. This page was last modified
on 14 January 2013 at 03:13.
List of transitional fossils:
1 This article needs additional citations for verification.
2 This documentation needs attention from an expert in Palaeontology.
Introduction to cladistics:
There are three basic
assumptions in cladistics: (1) Any group of
organisms are related by descent from a common ancestor. Please read (2)
and (3) for additional information.
Charles P: Everyone understands human genealogy and the concept of *common
ancestor* for humans. Everyone understands dog genealogy and the concept
of *common ancestor* for dogs. Why should anyone consider the concept of a
*common ancestor* between living things that are self-evident as being very
1 Although phylogenetic trees produced on the basis of sequenced genes or
genomic data in different species can provide evolutionary insight, they
have important limitations.
2 When extinct species are included in a tree, they are terminal nodes, as
it is unlikely that they are direct ancestors of any extant species.
3 Scepticism must apply when extinct species are included in trees that
are wholly or partly based on DNA sequence data, due to the fact that
little useful "ancient DNA" is preserved for longer than 100,000 years, and
except in the most unusual circumstances no DNA sequences long enough for
use in phylogenetic analyses have yet been recovered from material over 1
million years old.
Understanding homology and analogy:
There is no empirical and verifiable method for determining *common
ancestry* between non-related living things.
Charles P: Common ancestry is assumed in the science of cladistics.
Transitional fossils are assumed to be intermediate between other fossils.
Transitional fossils are extinct species. Transitional fossils are
terminal nodes. Transitional fossils are unlikely to be direct ancestors
of any extant species.
Charles P: The skeptic does not have to qualify as a *creationist*. The
skeptic does not have to qualify as an *Intelligent Design Theorist*. The
skeptic does not have to qualify as *anti-science*. All a skeptic needs is
to do their homework to verify for themselves what is scientific and what
is not scientific.
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]