- Ask a really old person to close their eyes and audibly mark off the duration of a minute. In most cases their minute will be longer than a young person's minute or a clock-minute. As we age, our days and years seem to speed up as we compare events to how we remember them in our youth. In Genesis 47:9, Jacob compared his life to that of his fathers. In Hebrew he stated that his days and years were shorter and worse than the days and years of his fathers. Job described geological events (such as the dried sea - Job 14) during the dinosaur age. The Mediterranean sea floor has thick layers of salt march products alternating with layers of deep sea plankton. To western ways of reckoning, these drying events took millions of years but Job uses them as lifetime markers. Job ended his poem in by claiming their faces changed before they died. If we lived for geological ages, our faces would grow Neanderthal brows but our grandchildren would not have the thick brows, as the fossils show. In contrast to the Old Testament eons, Paul wrote our "time is short" (1 Corinthians 7:29).
According to the Hebrew text of Genesis One, God continues (imperfect verb) to form the Sun, Moon and stars and continues to place them in the spreading place (raqiya). In Genesis Two, He continues to finish (again imperfect verbs) the plural heavens and earth. In Hebrews 4:3, the writer uses an aorist passive deponent participle to show that God's works are passively yet actively continuing, although He rested on the seventh day. Three to four thousand years ago, our ancestors recorded close planet passages and the shattering of a nearby planet. The Old Testament refers to the planet shattering four times. The optical parallax to the Sun has continued to decrease since the Greeks measured it more than 2,000 years ago. The Sun's parallax keeps getting smaller even after scientists used clocks and radar to define solar system distances.
What causes days and years to accelerate, as Jacob claimed? Tides sweep around the earth, varying their intensity and timing with the directions and distances to the Sun and Moon. Do they also affect our orbit and rotation? An experiment using the displacement of radio waves from a distant quasar passing near Jupiter suggest that gravity (whatever it is) propagates at the speed of light. The Earth moves ~15,000 kilometers along its orbit as the Sun's light travels towards us (~150,000,000 kilometers in ~500 seconds). A light ray pointing ~20" in front of Earth's instant position strikes us because the earth continues to move and the speed of light is finite. This is known as the aberration of sunlight. While the light was in transit, the Earth also spun on its axis about 2 degrees (diurnal aberration). If gravity propagates at the speed of light, the Sun must pull slightly more on the near side experiencing sunset than on the one experiencing sunrise. When I was a boy, I rolled a hoop along the street. By lightly tapping the trailing side with a stick, I accelerated and steered it with minimum effort. If the Sun pulls slightly more on the near, trailing hemisphere, Earth's orbit would gradually expand as days and years both shortened.
1. Why don't scientists talk about the gravitational acceleration of the Earth?
Answer. Several scientists (Le Sage, Poincare, Gerber) calculated the effects of gravity traveling at light speed. Arthur Eddington wrote that if Jupiter and the Sun are attracting each other towards their previous positions (gravity aberration), this would increase the angular momentum of both. Tom Van Flandern claims that if gravity travels at light speed, it would double our distance to the sun in 1200 years. Scientists reject this as a violation of conservation laws.
2. We measure precise clock-like orbits with clocks.
Answer. Scientists scale their units of distance, velocities, accelerations and gravity from their concept of linear time. Because of the finite speed of light, we observe the past in the distant heavens. Light clocks in distant galaxies clocked 1/9th the light frequencies we observe in modern matter. Even when we sent calibrated clocks out of the solar system on the Pioneers, their clock signals (transmitted from the past) changed with distance at the Hubble ratio. Light light clocks in billions of galaxies accelerate at the Hubble ratio.
3. Accelerating orbits is a violation of the laws of conservation.
Answer. The laws of conservation were contrived with the first law (arche ktiseous) that the Bible predicted for the last days, the notion that all things remain the same (2 Peter 3:3 - 6). Scientists built their definitions, their circular clock-based measuring system, mathematical methods and laws on their assumption that atoms are perpetual motion engines. At many ranges, we observe how galaxies grew from tiny, naked globs into huge growth spirals as the properties of all matter changed relationally. Scientists have filled the universe up with 99% invisible matter and vacuum forces to preserve their creed, that the properties of matter are fixed, not emerging.
4. We have records from Babylonian astronomers listing the synodic periods of the moon and planets, and they correspond to what we measure.
Answer. The propagation delay of gravity from the Sun would accelerate all objects in the solar system including the duration of days with which ancient observations were referenced. The most-distant planets would experience that greatest acceleration since the Sun's angular gravity aberration increases with distance. This is not a one way street. The planets, especially Jupiter, feedback their gravitational aberrations to each other. In other words, the whole solar system would grow even as our orbits and rotations also changed. How can we be sure this occurs? The distances between planets (and the major moons of the gaseous planets) have logarithmic spacing (the Titus Bode effect). Logarithmic patterns are common in things that incrementally change in complex ways. The planets around the star HD10180 have logarithmic spacings. Evidently they also experience gravitational aberration.
5. If we were so much closer to the Sun 4,000 years ago, we would have burned up.
Answer. Look at the universe with sight instead of the first law of science. We observe that ancient atoms emitted redder light, not harsh blue light. Our sky would have been tan, from a red sun, instead of blue, like the ancient Egyptians painted it. The Earth would have been a warm place where vegetation grew in a day and died in a night. The Mediterranean would dry and fill repeatedly from eon winters and summers.
In the next essay, I propose a simple theory of gravity that is based on visible evidence, rather than assumption dependent mathematics. The picture of the Sun and Moon is from NASA taken from Galileo in 1992. I added an out of scale arrow showing the aberration of gravity that accelerates both days and years.