Living things are designed to evolve.
- Charles P: My purpose for giving this example of technical stuff is to
assure the average readers on Origins Talk that living things are designed
to evolve. None of this evolution could have possibly occurred by random
processes. Molecular biologists and the average reader can easily
recognize the design in these processes.
Charles P: The information discovered in the DNA digital code is not
contained in the "hardware" chemical bonds of each phosphate-deoxyribose
backbone. The information is in the "software" hydrogen bonds. There must
exist a perfect "electromagnetic attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom
and an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, that
comes from another molecule or chemical group. It is not a true chemical
bond". Without the "software" hydrogen bonds the two phosphate-deoxyribose
backbones would not come together to form the double helix. The
translation of the information depends on the "software" hydrogen bonds.
Adenine always forms hydrogen bonds with thymine.
Guanine always forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine.
Charles P: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_chemical_structure.svg
All living things contain the same DNA digital code.
Charles P: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/OriginsTalk/message/29517
trade-offs in natural genetic engineering.
Charles P: The phrase "natural genetic engineering" suggests a finding of
final truth based upon repeatable scientific experiments. Engineering
always involves trade-offs in the final design. DNA digital code
information design also involves trade-offs in the final design in each
population that survives natural selection.
Trade-off: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade-off A trade-off
(or tradeoff) is a situation that involves losing one quality or aspect
of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect. It often
implies a decision to be made with full comprehension of both the upside
and downside of a particular choice; the term is also used in an
evolutionary context, in which case the selection process acts as the
Charles P: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dog_breeds Let us
study the evolution of the many dog breeds from their common ancestor,
probably from the male and female wolf populations.
Charles P: http://www.upei.ca/~cidd/intro.htm To "engineer" or to select
each dog breed for desirable traits, each breed has unintended genetic
defects that are passed on from one generation to the next. Here are a few
examples from a list of 142 breeds and their unintended trade-offs in the
descendant populations. Note: Please select "Dog breeds" to see the
complete list and the trade-offs that are the result of artificial
selection. Here are some examples of trade-offs in 4 dog breeds.
Australian Shepherd ==> deafness, hip dysplasia.
Basset Hound ==> thrombopathea, seborrhea.
Chihuahua ==> patellar luxation.
Doberman pinscher ==> cardiomyopathy, cervical vertebral instability
(Wobbler syndrome), intervertebral disk disease, von Willebrand's disease.
Charles P: The Internet link shows 142 examples of genetic disorders
that are trade-offs as a result of artificial selection in the evolution of
1 The information in the genome of a male great dane and a female great
dane will only provide the instructions to build a baby great dane.
2 The information in the genome of a male chihuahua and a female chihuahua
will only provide the instructions to build a baby chihuahua.
3 The great dane and the chihuahua have a common design.
4 Verify for yourself the trade-offs in canine natural genetic engineering
as a result of selection.
Charles P: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA These links should be helpful
to us on Origins Talk for future discussions about how living things are
designed to evolve based upon their common design.
1 History of DNA research.
2 History of molecular biology.
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- Tia Ghose:
'Cognitive Big Bang' Discovered in Tiny Sea Worm. Several "brainy"
that were duplicated in a tiny sea creature nearly 550 million years ago
may have led to the massive expansion in intelligence in vertebrate
species, two new studies have found.
James A Shapiro: References #40, #41: Life requires cognition at all
James A Shapiro: References #93 - #95: We can think of this two-level
proofreading process as equivalent to a quality-control system in human
manufacturing. Like human quality-control systems, it is based on
surveillance and correction (cognitive processes) rather than mechanical
precision. The multistep nature of proofreading is typical of many control
processes in cells,
where final precision is achieved by a sequence of two or more interactions
that are each themselves inherently less precise. In this regard, the most
applicable cybernetic models are fuzzy logic control systems. In such
systems, accurate regulation occurs by overlaying multiple imprecise
(“fuzzy”) feedback controls arranged so that each successive event results
in greater precision.
James A Shapiro: In other words, we have numerous precise molecular
descriptions of cell cognition, which range all the way from bacterial
nutrition to mammalian cell biology and development. The cognitive,
informatic view of how living cells operate and utilize their genomes is
radically different from the genetic determinism perspective articulated
most succinctly, in the
last century, by Francis Crick’s famous “Central Dogma of Molecular
Biology.” So it is appropriate to direct our attention to evaluating the
validity of Crick’s formulation in light of 21st Century knowledge.
James A Shapiro: A shift from thinking about gradual selection of
localized random changes to sudden genome restructuring by sensory
network-influenced cell systems is a major conceptual change. It replaces
the “invisible hands” of geological time and natural selection with
cognitive networks and cellular functions for self-modification. The
emphasis is systemic rather than atomistic and information-based rather
Stochastic: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/stochastic Involving chance
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