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Shapiro: Natural genetic engineering

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  • Charles Palm
    Charles Choi: http://news.yahoo.com/gut-bacteria-build-weapons-viruses-191215377.html Gut Bacteria Build Weapons from Viruses. Bacteria in the gut can
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 10, 2012
      Charles Choi:
      http://news.yahoo.com/gut-bacteria-build-weapons-viruses-191215377.html Gut
      Bacteria Build Weapons from Viruses. Bacteria in the gut can unexpectedly
      manufacture viruses to kill off rivals during intestinal shootouts of
      sorts, researchers have found.

      Howard Hughes Medical Institute:
      http://www.hhmi.org/news/lefkowitznobel20121010.html

      For a long time, it remained a mystery how cells could sense their
      environment. Scientists knew that hormones such as adrenalin had powerful
      effects: increasing blood pressure and making the heart beat faster. They
      suspected that cell surfaces contained some kind of recipient for hormones.
      But what these receptors actually consisted of and how they worked remained
      obscured for most of the 20th Century.

      Cells in our body are constantly exposed to a variety of chemical
      signals—hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, and sometimes even
      drugs—that they need to interpret and translate into a response. This task
      is handled by receptors that dot cell membranes. Lefkowitz essentially
      defined the field of receptor biology through his work with G
      protein–coupled receptors, the largest and most pervasive family of cell
      receptors. A thousand or more of these receptors are known to exist
      throughout the body, playing critical roles in sight, smell, and taste, and
      in regulating heart rate, blood pressure, pain tolerance, glucose
      metabolism, and virtually all known physiological processes.

      ********************************************************************************

      James A Shapiro:
      http://shapiro.bsd.uchicago.edu/2010.WorksOfTheMind.pdf Major
      Points:

      1. The focus in biology has changed from mechanics to informatics. Cells
      are sensitive and communicative information-processing entities.

      2. Cell-generated hereditary innovation is the source of new features in
      evolution.

      3. Genome change is a cell-regulated process, not a series of accidents.
      (Genome as RW, not ROM, memory system).

      4. The DNA record tells us that major steps in genome evolution have
      involved rapid genome-wide changes.

      5. We know of molecular processes that allow us to think scientifically
      about complex evolutionary events – particularly about the rapid evolution
      of genomic circuits and multi-component adaptations.

      ********************************************************************************

      James A Shapiro (p.144):
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/OriginsTalk/message/29246 The role of
      selection is to eliminate evolutionary novelties that prove to be
      non-functional and interfere with adaptive needs. Selection operates as a
      purifying but not creative force.

      Charles P: The first tenet of classical Darwinian evolution is now
      refuted. Beneficial mutations are not random, DNA digital code seems to be
      designed to change in order to adapt to environment pressure. Hereditary
      variation arises from the non-random action of built-in biochemical systems
      that mobilize DNA digital code and carry out natural genetic engineering.
      I counted 1,162 references and also many tables to illustrate and support
      the conclusions of Shapiro that are open to scrutiny.


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