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History of Oppau/Edigheim-Ch. 44 (End)

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  • meinhartstock
    CHAPTER FORTY FOUR Those Sanitary Conditions Those countless swamps and old water, that before the Rhine adjustments scarred our flats, affected that physical
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 4, 2003
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      Those Sanitary Conditions

      Those countless swamps and old water, that before the Rhine
      adjustments scarred our flats, affected that physical relationship of
      the inhabitant in the highest unfavourable manner. Dysentery
      epidemics and Typhus sickness returned again nearly every Summer.
      Every flood increased as well that amount of the troublesome Rhine
      mosquitoes, like the dangerous fever carrying mosquitoes. When the
      river fell, came to light the morass, of which unbearable stench
      polluted that air in that said period of the year. The community
      welfare services permitted those swimming dead animals on the shore
      and rotting plants to be removed. Itself inside the village plains
      was spreading in weeds and water holes a pestilence kind of stench.
      Those unfavorable health fumes of the Old Rhine directly before the
      Castle of the Electoress Elisabeth in the nearby Oggersheim were an
      important motive for the building of the Frankenthal's canals.
      According to the Chronicles of the neighbouring towns of Mannheim and
      Worms came into our region in the Middle Ages into the towns and
      country that Plague epidemic time after time one with terrible
      regularity and decimated the population. From 1326 to 1400 one
      counted according to Boos in Worms thirty two Plague years. Bishop
      Sixtus of Friesing died on the return journey from the Worms Imperial
      Diet on November 14, 1495 from the Plague in the Frankenthal
      Monastery; even that employee was handed over to be treated by their
      first with medical knowledge Pastor Petrus Dethanus, in order to
      prevent that extinction of the community. In 1660 young lads of the
      Butcher were supposed to have brought that Plague into Mannheim. At
      that time four thousand were to become victims and in Frankenthal one
      thousand five hundred people of the sickness. In 1667 that community
      of Oppau allowed many times by delegates and supplications [act of
      supplicating; humble prayer, entreaty, or petition] "to be brought to
      a stop by the Lords Head Official people, that those banned
      neighbouring towns due to the Plague be allowed to be used again".
      In 1681 that Head Office in Neustadt sent a list of the villages,
      that were in reality burdened with the pestilence's epidemic and
      asked for from that community, to not let in any coming from there
      into local Head Office, but to turn back immediately to the border.
      That Pastors Official Death Register of Oppau from 1771 to 1773
      permitted to be known, that at times fever and infirmity led to as a
      result of the polluted air to frequent deaths. That Charlatanism
      [the practices of a Charlatan, one who pretends to more knowledge or
      skill than he possesses] in the Eighteen Century still had a golden
      floor. The Miracle Doctor enjoyed itself on the Electoral Estate in
      Mannheim more trust than the conscientious Doctor, that on the flat
      land and in small towns also very much rarely was to be found and was
      replaced much of the time by persons skilled in the art of healing
      like Shepherds, Blacksmiths, Priests or wise Women. The writings of
      well-informed hands collected instruction, how one tolerable and
      incredible sickness was able to reach one's heart; their remedy or
      little book of practices was to stand in high regard. Our hometown
      Museum preserved two little books of practices of the Blacksmiths
      Hafner from Flomersheim, there, like his colleagues from Neuhofen,
      frequently by the Oppau's inhabitants was gone to for
      advise. Only with difficulty were those people to be dissuaded from
      that Quackery, that made a trade with the stupidity of his fellowmen
      and sold oneself at all Fairs and Consecration of the Church as a
      healing Artist and Dentist. Resident Barbers practiced as an
      exam "by a Surgeon" a large part out of todays medical practice, for
      wounds, ulcers, dislocations, arm and leg breaks were responsible
      and on behest of one's physician also bled the patient. That Barber
      had to be included with all Surgeons and remained for their baths,
      for bleeding and beard shearing. Already in the Sixteenth Century
      stood in Edigheim "a bathroom in the Badgasse [Bath Lane]", that
      was managed in 1580 by Wendel Probst, there attended to haircuts,
      shaves and bleeding and pulled the wool over poor people's eyes.
      The first listed by name "Surgeon and Barber" in Oppau was Wilhelm
      Koch (1786 to 1822). As he on account of old age was taken to that
      general poor one's institute, applied for his successor with success,
      Joseph Andes, Barber from Heßheim. "After inquiries were made had a
      record of a moralistic conduct and was supposed to possess from time
      to time if need be some knowledge of surgery, which is why that
      citizen reception of him was approved under reduction of the
      prescribed collection fee." In 1832 was found in the community
      neither Doctor, Surgeon nor Barber and the Administration decided,
      since on the average yearly fifty cases of death happened, to employ
      the local resident Andreas Wode as a Post Mortem Doctor then as a
      brave, sprightly, hearty, understanding and of the writing
      experienced men was completely suitable for the service.
      In 1834 the Community Council of Oppau was unanimously of the
      opinion, that the local community urgently demand a "Surgeon", to set
      up there at the same time a Barber Chair and was chosen then by the
      government recommended Surgeon Hummel from Herxheimweiher. He
      required not any collection fee to be paid, but that treatment of the
      poor had to be undertaken free of charge and as well that post mortem
      [autopsy] free towards a yearly compensation of one hundred fifty six
      Guilders from the community account.
      Next to him worked since 1841 to 1848 in the community Surgeon
      Ferdinand Wingerter, shaved, cupped, gave enemas and bled the veins;
      was since 1847 also post mortem Doctor. In 1849 Barber Johann
      Truschel from Eppstein lived already for a few years on hometown
      credit here and strived for reduction of the citizen collection fee
      from two hundred to one hundred Guilders. The community council
      leaned away from one for now, since a newly joining citizen received
      from five fourths of an acre commonland, a considerable
      compensation. Since May 2, 1849 his death inspector was salaried
      with twenty Guilders; he died in service on January 27, 1873. His
      successor was Barber Nickolaus Volz.
      In the Nineteeth Century entered still many times that dangerous to
      the public sickness like Smallpox or Chickenpox, Oriental Ruhr
      illness or Cholera into our hometown. That Smallpox held sway
      fromerly periodically from five to nine years. By 1811 it was almost
      completely disappeared ("by that inoculation of vaccine") and was
      repressed by the protection against Smallpox. In 1827 and 1828 in
      Edigheim and Oppau like in the other villages the district had
      ordered strict precautionary measures against the Smallpox. For non-
      observance that same community was to have actions taken by the
      Police taken against them justifiable. Every families Father was
      obligated, to report to the Main Citizen Office at once, when one of
      his relatives became sick with the Smallpox, the District Doctor was
      able to be informed about that. No one allowed themselves to get
      close to such a sickness. That "recovering subject" was not allowed
      to earlier than after four weeks from the outbreak of the disease, if
      this one in typical Smallpox and three weeks, when this one was
      covered with " indescribable pox spots", to enter into free
      association with the other inhabitants, also was not to go outside
      the dwelling. All individuals up to 30 years of age, which
      previously neither had overcome by natural causes Smallpox, nor with
      complete success was vaccinated with Smallpox protection, had to
      undergo themselves immediately this inoculaton. Children of one year
      were supposed to be vaccinated as soon as possible. Many parents
      refused to allow their children to be vaccinated although were not to
      deny the success [of the inoculation] as experience showed. The
      Doctor doing the inoculation had to be supported threfore frequently
      by Policemen, that called for that inoculation by force from the
      stubborn families.
      On September 29, 1828 that Smallpox disease broke out in Oppau for
      many days and attacked aside from adults also many School children.
      The Village Mayor received a severe reproach from the Land
      Commissioners of Frankenthal, since he had not produced punctual
      information. On the 22nd of September, 1837 that Village Mayor
      office of Edigheim reprted, that Jakob Leipold now, Vessel repairer
      from there which had wanted to go to Munich for a few days with some
      Musicians was seized by Smallpox, had brought it here. Since that
      poorhouse in Frankenthal was filled up, one locally for the fallen
      ill had to be established, in which in addition to affected ones was
      able to be provided for other village inhabitants.
      On the 29th of April, 1850 an Express Messenger of the Land
      Commissioner and the Canton Doctor pointed to the natural outbreak of
      the Smallpox in Oppau and on the 27th of May, 1855 that demise of the
      Smallpox sick Konrad Fick in said place. In 1872 Carpenter Peter
      Brechte -- according to community accounts -- put in six village
      Smallpox washers and Cabinet Maker Jakob Schäfer finished a Smallpox
      table. Merchant Johannes Kraus in Frankenthal supplied eight pounds
      of Chlorine lime for the disinfection of the Smallpox corpse of the
      Bricklayer Georg Fischer, who had died on July 1, 1872.
      Around preventing the spreading of the Oriental Ruhr illness, that
      District Office in Frankenthal in 1831 had to call for an end on
      government command of the bad state of affairs of the insidious
      business of the disease to the Sandhofen's Rhine crossing, with
      seriousness and emphasis. Everything brought in by travelers, animal-
      and goods traffic (especially leather- and wool goods) was strongly
      forbidden and under not any pretext allowed anymore. All persons,
      that themselves were made suspicious by a kind of clothing that
      wanted to bring in goods in a covered up manner was measured the
      same, no entry for on this side. On the 16th of September, 1831 a
      crowd of illicit traders and other individuals attempted to cross by
      Ferry a large quantity to the Sandhof's shore in ships with stored
      black market goods. A number of tariff duty watchmen, supported by a
      Gendarme- command, prevented their intention. All of the loaded
      vessels were confiscated, that arrived in the vicinity of the Canal
      house on this side and was placed under secure guard. The Färcher?
      allowed one only an approximately twenty persons seizing boats for
      the management of the small border traffic. That Village Mayor's
      office of Oppau, that Gendarme journey station in Frankenthal and
      those traffic duty watchmen undertook that responsibility for that
      maintenance of the precautionary measures and were supposed to call
      for and receive if nessary military assistance. In the
      Summer of 1832 once more energetic defensive measures had to be
      ordered or were renewed against that invading of the Asiatic
      Cholera. At that time in the harbour of Mainz, goods, which arrived
      here even from infested or suspected of Cholera regions and further
      by here upwards from the river, not to be treated with in the before
      written caution, everything from the Hessian harbour commanded ships
      with on that situated persons, goods, effects and animals were to be
      treated until further notice as well, like when they came from
      infected or suspected areas. Therefore that Contumaz?-Commission at
      the Canal house by Frankenthal was supposed to issue namely a permit,
      when the health condition there of such ships' situated persons after
      most careful inspection was to be declared perfectly satisfactory, to
      the head of the ship. But that ship was to be labeled with a yellow
      signal [flag] as suspect and for the the complete prevention all
      communication with the shore inhabitants along the entire river up to
      the declared landing place, or when they wanted to land in a foreign
      land, was to be watched strictly up to that border. On the 4th of
      October, 1832 that Contumaz? -Commission obtained fifteen yellow
      flags, in order to use for the establishment at the Canal House of
      necessary cases.
      As from October 1, 1832 that head of the ship was, which went to
      Berg, already to have pulled out in Worms and had happened to land in
      that region on this side, was stopped, dismissed again into their
      ship and at one put under command of the Medical-Commission in the
      Canal House for proper inspection. During the night ime not any
      inspections in ships was able to be carried out. All directly before
      or by night arriving ships were to be stopped by the traffic duty
      watchmen to prevent if necessary by unhitching of the ships horses
      for further travel. They had to drop the anchor in the Rhine and
      wait until daytime. During the night time those traffic duty
      watchmen had prevented every communication of the ship with the land
      at the most careful. After Frankenthal certain ships were to be
      subjected already at the Canal House to the Disinfection area and
      Contumaz? On the 27th of December, 1832 that government in Speyer
      decided, that on the shore of the Rhine against that spreading of the
      Ruhr emetic was to be taken disciplines from January 1, 1833 until
      further notice put at one's disposal.
      In the course of the previous Century followed still six great
      epidemics from India through Europe. That community accounts of
      Oppau showed still back further Cholera years. In 1849 that widow of
      Peter Weisbrod II received for supplying of two large rugs for the
      erection of the Cholera Barracks for the period of billeting here of
      the Royal Bavarian Military a compensation of fourteen Guilders.
      That disease played awful havoc again in 1866/67 in the
      surroundings. Due to contagion risk in various indicted years was
      prohibited that continuing of dance music. Oppau had a complete
      expenditure of two hundred and four Guilders for Cholera cases, for
      disinfection and disinfection supplies (Chlorine lime, slake, tar,
      ferrous sulphate), for driving away of manure, transportation and
      burying of Cholera corpses. Those three Carpenters of the village
      (Befuß, Georgens and Schäfer) finished coffins on reserves, but of
      which was found only three regulation measures used (for Ferrymen
      Ludwig Mees, Mrs. Valentin Beringer and Mrs. Leonhard Grüßer) while
      in the nearby Friesenheim in this period sixty eight persons were
      gathered up there in the epidemic. In 1873 that Cholera claimed it
      latest victim from the community that citizen Peter Huber. (That
      discovery of the Cholera Bacillus by Robert Koch in the eightieth
      year brought a continual reduction
      and eventually complete elimination of the scourge in Europe.) Since
      this disastrous illness (was dropped a plan in 1905 to bring in from
      Brazil Leprosy cases into a Protestant Pastor's House in Oppau) was
      to come no more into the presence of our hometown. As a result of
      the introduction of the newest hygienic prevention measures, the
      better registration of all falling sick by that increased places of
      care was to be successful in the last decade of the stormy upswinging
      Industrial community, to develop the health protection. That
      progressive community administration banished the latest swamps and
      ponds from the village and fields, provided with sewers and
      modernized those neglected old Streets, erected water works and bath
      facilities and supported and sponsored the new building of perfect
      dwellings. In 1890 the first "real" Doctor Doctor Riede opened up
      his practice in his hometown community of Oppau. Up to that time one
      was still always in grave illness cases to rely on that professional
      Doctor in the neighbouring towns. Soon following him a number of
      other Doctors: in 1898 Dr. Scholz, in 1914 Dr. Hagen, in 1922 Dr.
      Boxheimer, in 1923 Dr. Zercher, in 1929 Dr. Kaiser, in 1930 Dr.
      Becker. At the Incorporation (in 1938) was also already three
      Dentists resident here (Dr. Koch, Dr. Mayer and Dentist V. Janus).
      One considerable contribution those Doctors found in the nurses in
      both denominations. Medical Associations and Medical Insurance
      supported those patients in financial relationships. In 1910 one of
      the community wished for Pharmacy was taken up in business by
      Pharmacist Karl Märker. The humbug of the former healers was known
      only still as hearsay from the Old ones.
      That intensive looking after of one's health had a gradual dropping
      off of the general mortality rate numbers as a result. Particularly
      that mortality rate from Tuberculosis, that still beyond that
      Nineteenth Century had brought so severe grief in many families, had
      never attained still low level status. That visitor of our lovely,
      modern bathing resorts in the former Old Rhine region before
      Oggersheim was hardly able to be imagined, that one once avoided
      carefully that area of the Rhine in the High Summer
      from fear about their health.
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