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History of Oppau/Edigheim-Pgs. 303-307

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  • meinhartstock
    CHAPTER TWENTY ONE How the Field Names Originated Each boundary plan was to be an opening chronicle. The field names were unwritten sources of the hometown
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 3, 2002
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      CHAPTER TWENTY ONE

      How the Field Names Originated

      Each boundary plan was to be an opening chronicle. The field names
      were unwritten sources of the hometown history. As living witnesses
      they were to relate long pass days of the whole field history and to
      report complementary quiet works and living, the suffering and joy of
      the Old Fronts, of its financial, juridical and cultural
      relationships. "When long time ago still somehow had been adhered to
      by the new, so was this (according to J. Grimm) in the naming of the
      village fields." The words were to say much to you, " sounded out on
      intimate/familiar terms." (P. Heyse.)

      The property descriptions of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries
      pointed out its gradual development. The holdings were described
      mostly still after neighbor's land, or paths and general
      characteristic features or only with nature's names. Again and again
      was seen always frequently in the middle of the Latin text handed
      down German, traditional field description, that itself proved as
      linguistic innovations the clearing of the German Farmers. Most
      naming came into being in the Fourteenth Century, as the great
      medieval clearing period came to an end. In some German written of a
      Count Palatine Purchase Act of 1324 was attested to for both of our
      boundaries already a whole number of old, partly to day still
      existing field names (such as "Geburenstücke [born piece], am Rusten
      [in the Elms], auf der Fahr [on the Ferry], Wolfskehle [wolf's
      throat], Katzenpfad [cats track], Grund [ground], in den Kurzen and
      Langen Strängen [on the short and long rope" and so on) and from 1422
      on was even in all documents known generally as cropping up
      holdings.

      Many of these names have been preserved until nowadays and
      familiarize us with the developing of the hometown in those earlier
      times. Many were to disappear or in its original form to have become
      a name puzzle. through refined, wrong writing style and distorted
      reinterpretation. Other were threatened with the increasing wasting
      away of the field markings through the progressing industrialization
      to vanish into oblivion. Most of the older and earlier field
      descriptions of both the shore villages characteristc of the Rhine
      surrounding landscape were, to point up to the formation of the
      fields, from the former chief element of the border, water, pasture,
      forest and the camp of the settler around the holding and
      preservation of their living space. The Rhine ruled like a tyrant
      arbitary and invincible around that whole area. That from it itself
      creating soil surfaces, by its "outlet" was again to have destroyed,
      deformed or transformed, was to be conquered by the land hungry
      farmers for cultivation or reconquered and were named in accordance
      with its history.

      Bottom 303


      In the domain of the former British Army of the Rhine, Old Rhine, Old
      Water or water spills arose so by degrees meadows and farm fields
      under the names Rheinwiesen [Rhine meadow], Altrheinwiesen [Old Rhine
      meadow], Gießenlache [water spill pond], Weg- [path], Graben-
      [trenches], Mittel- [middle], Wolf- [wolf], Wurfelsgießen [thrown
      water spills] (later on the Friesenheim's district boundary, which in
      once fishing was worked with thrown nets). Today is distinctly
      recognizable as a remainder of one British Army of the Rhine that
      South of the Errwasser path on the Edigheim's-Mörsch's boundary
      dragging on Errwasser, a swampy meadow tract of land, earlier passed
      through by numerous and partly irregular trenches, now regulated by
      a main trench. (Frankenthal Alt. Volume-Newspaper 1931.) That in
      each respect typical water landscape could not be disowned its
      character as a former bed of the fleeing through British Army of the
      Rhine, then also the soil condition was allowed, to form vegetation
      next to that still in existence trees. With the expression irr-
      [wild] or Err [erratic] water was perceived that earlier building of
      the
      wandering, aimless and unregulated flowing along waters. That Err
      was in accordance with (according to Dr Erbacher) the word Erde
      [earth/world/ground/soil] and that Errwasser [erratic water] was
      really a real Erdwassar [earth water]. That water came not far and
      not on the outside here in these flood tides, but arose in several
      sources accompanied with brown creeping sand, so at the beginning and
      in the middle of the now significantly deepening and spreading out
      trenches by the bend on the Brükendamm [bridges dike].

      Next to the water developed that numerous, from pasture underbrush
      framed ponds as a backward generated high tide the most conspicuous
      feature in the old landscape. Still they were attached loosely and
      were carried fluently together with the old or new river beds and
      through plaiting was lockable, with it was able to be captured that
      swimming around in there for the spawning fish. (Mannheim History-
      Newspaper 1900.) Ice breaks were only ponds in which the fish in the
      Winter were caught that way, that one was to meet under single
      leaving untouched ice plates. By increasing silting up the ponds
      were to transform themselves into holes, in "Fish-, toads- and snail
      holes" or into mud holes, at first strongly was to take place in the
      West and East of the boundary in the shore districts of the Old and
      New Rhine. Persistently had remained the names after the successful
      draining on the won fields, like Vorder- [front], Mittel- [middle],
      Hinter- [behind], Gießenlache [water puddle], Zwischen den Lachen
      [between the puddles], Groß and Kleine Lache [large and small
      puddle], Hof-, [farm], Rohr- [wicker reeds], Birken- [Birch], Botter-
      [bid], Roß- [horse], Zinkig- [pronged], Mühlau- (earlier Milau) [mill
      meadow], Peter's-, Schönau's - and (likely from this was distorted)
      Schönheitslache, Mönchslache, Großer Pfuhl [larger puddle], Kleiner
      Pfuhl [smaller puddle].
      The Low German term Kolk for Erdloch [hole in the ground/foxhole],
      that was rinsed out by the overflowing water, rinsed out or was to be
      torn out and was filled up with water, appeared in fact widespread in
      the official language but was not for ordinary people and remained in
      spite of the many Rhine ruptures here attached to not one spot. One
      named such places Wassar- [water], Deich- [dike], and earlier times
      Dammbruchlöcher [dike break holes]. Through dug out earth by dike
      building arose the Erdlöcher [hole in the ground]. Proper common
      names are referred to by the scarring of our landscape through
      stationary inshore waters of a lot of different sizes, without
      noticable in and out flow, but mostly pressurized water build ups,
      that rose near the high water level with the "filled up" Rhine and
      fell and caused through its spreading extraordinary damages. Small
      water holes, puddles and ponds stretched themselves from in the low
      regions then often seaworthy. Murky pools indicated a swampy water,
      that for lack of movement was to begin to rot. That Low German word
      Deich [dike] and the general-German form Teich [pond] one used both
      for in relationship with a dike as well as a dammed up water
      surface. Weiher [pond] always

      304

      stood for a waterpool, that was artificially put in for the fish
      farming by the spiritual and secular Lords of the Manor. In Oppau
      and Edigheim many citizens cultivated not far from their dwelling
      their own Weiher [pond] garden or fishing pond, namely on the lowest
      lying Renn- and Kissel Lanes. (Field names "Weiher [pond] and
      Weigärten [pond garden]".)

      The Oppau's complained still more like those living closer to the Old
      Rhine Edigheim's about that fighting with great difficulty to control
      their becoming swampy farmstead spaces. Yet swamp had not created
      any field names; then the farmer did not permit the transferring of
      common terms. Swamp was said to indicate that drainage after
      swimming together water, meadow and Alders, which stood not far from
      the upper surface of the underground water. Now in that which was,
      earth filled with water that predominately fluid mass, so had built a
      swamp, ruled the earth before, a morass. Bog was with rich earth
      running all the way through, watery, soil covered with moss plants.
      The neighbour village Mörsch had its name Old High German merlache
      (that is Moor), a word, that the first Frank settlers brought from
      their Low German hometown. Under the influence of the pressurized
      water the state of decay was killing off the plants of our moors and
      with it inhibited conversion into peat and carried only the decay.
      Other soil surfaces were described Break, Land piece, which the water
      broke through; mucky, swampy wilderness called also Loh or Horb. The
      low lying marsh were with reed and marsh grasses overgrowing water
      places and entirely uncultivated grass- or in pasture places into the
      Nineteenth Century. West of Edigheim the Brühl (New High German,
      bruel, Old High German, bruil), a swampy meadow with all sorts of
      bush work (in 1706 "that Brühl property on the new Fall gate") and
      above the Rhine the Oppau's Speck (that is to say woody swamp), one
      leased to the Sandhof's community fragile pasture place, in 1673
      devoured by the Rhine partly. In the Edigheim's assessment book of
      1719 we find a place name "the Schled" and a a"Schledgaß", in higher
      German's dialect (acccoring to Rem. Vollmann) Schlamm and Kot [mud
      and sludge] also known was that Schlott, Schlutt, Middle High German
      slôte, G(e)schlott, Géschlutt (hard to be separated form Schlatt--
      Schilf [reed]).

      The surfaces, that from such swampy area and stinking muddy places
      were cultivated and built on, were preserved the local historical
      names: Brühl-, Ried-, Loh-, Horbwiesen (above the Rhine), Mooräcker
      [moor farm] (in 1522), Rohrlappen, Zinkigteich, Teichstücker [dike
      pieces], Weißer Teich, Mühldeich (earlier Mulendeich, Milendeich
      [mill dike]), Kolbenäcker [cabbage farm], Weihergärten [pond garden]
      and Weigärten [pasture garden] (in 1580, probably an abbreviation;
      according to L. Steub Wei seemed an old element for the reference to
      one's brooks, here to be maybe one's withdrawal trenches), in the
      Weyrich (in 1580), Fischwasser [fishing water], Fisherloch [fishing
      hole], Rutenlöchel [rod hole], Loch im Welschdorf [hole in the Roman
      village], Glockenloch [clock hole], Binsenloch [rush hole], Burkhards-
      , Gerhards-, Loggersloch (in 1679), Lalöcher, Esterloch, Speckstein
      on the Insel, Großer and Kleiner Bruchweiher [larger and smaller bog
      pond], Eiskeller[ice cellar], Eiselweide [icy pasture], Entenpfuhl
      [duck puddle], Langer Pfuhl [longer puddle] (in 1726), Seltenreich
      [seldom rich].

      Many of these field names call to mind in their epithet to the
      displaced water plants of the in question places. The Kolbenäcker
      [spadix {a spike of flowers closely arranged round a fleshy axis,
      such as a torn-off palm bough } farm] (in 1667 still Kolbenhecken
      [spadix hedges]) was known in accordance with the Rohrkolben [cat's
      tail], that in the older language in our region said Liesch or
      Liesche.

      305

      The boys smoked the Kolben and used it as arrows for shooting or
      dried it, to set it on fire in the evenings for the repelling of
      gnats. That from the Rohrwuchs [reed growth] was interpreted back to
      Rohrappen [reed cloth] was also for a long time after the clearing of
      damp field plots, allocated in smaller, low-quality parts, were given
      a few contemptible lappen [Lapplander] names. The "Bottern" and
      other reed grasses of the former Botterlache [Botter puddle] were
      auctioned off yearly from the community, like in Oggersheim
      the "Botterich" (that is to say next to reed beds cropping up marsh
      plants) (Gd. Rechn. 1751, 54) or "made into shares" and divided up
      among the community members. The Field name Seltenreich [seldom
      rich] was completely disfigured from Middle High German salhe the
      same as Salweide [salt pasture]and Middle High German ris, riz the
      same as Gebüsch [thicket], also Weidengebüsch [pasture thicket]; in
      the Palatinate was found itself still for Oak thicket the name
      Eichrèis [Oak twig] (compare with Zink, page 121 and Raupp, page
      97). The Esterloch [Ester hole] in the Rhine foreshore in the
      vicinity of the Dike Master houses ("in the Ash tree's its opening")
      was supposed to have been found according to oral tradition a Jew
      name Ester of the suicide; probably pointed to that mutilated
      determinative element from behind an Ash population or a field fence
      from Ash wood of from a Eschlücke [Ash gap], a Fall gate in the
      Eschzaun [Ash fence]. From the old grass place Loggershoch (in 1679)
      in those days the grazing women and young men were supposed to have
      carried their grass loads in the so-called "Loggen" on the head to
      their house, yet appeared to point to that genetic=S from a personal
      name. The large and small Eiselweide [icy pasture] in Edigheim (in
      the vernacular current "Ächelswääd', but in the records none as
      Eichelweide or Eckerich appeared) in 1706 Eisigwasem [icy wash] and
      the Eiskeller [ice cellar] in Oppau must have been permitted to thank
      for its name an Eisenpfuhl [icy mudhole]. One larger and one smaller
      Eisenpfuhl stood once also in the old Friesenheim West of the
      Freisenheim's Street. W. Küstner conveyed in his "Native Foundations
      for the Environment" about the names from the solid gleam of the
      water images, which it was perceived on our poor draining away,
      stagnating water trenchs so many times and that was to lead back to
      that, that itself the iron content of the water plants by whose
      process told of decomposition.

      The farmers sought to drain the gained (agricultural) productive land
      through an amount of man-made withdrawal trenches (Dorf-, Brühl-,
      Scheid-, Franzosen- and Hasenpfuhlgraben [hare pool trenches], that
      often brought about through foreign "sea trenches"or had to be
      corrected answering the purpose. Field plots were known according to
      such trenches, so already in the region was to be found the given
      name "Rinnen" [gutters], that later was displaced through "Rennen"
      [courses], but today for the most part exists no more. By the
      inferior withdrawal conditions was built many trenches stink
      trenches, after high tides rich fishing water.

      That both communities had yearly important expenses, about the
      many, "bridges with floor boards and leaks" to be maintained. The
      old "Renngaß [Renn lane] (now Rhine Street) and the continuation of
      that, the old "Rennweg" (the now Rhine road) was transversed by the
      numerous bridged over "Rennen", was to stand like
      the "Rennwiesen"before Friesenheim in none whatever relation to
      medieval riding- or running festivity or race. In the
      Edigheim's "Krick" - trenches (compare with K. Christ, Mannheim
      village,

      306

      that Mannheim's "Krecken", from old Saxony crecca, english crenek
      the same as Bach, Graben [brook] haunted by that Edigheim's village
      ghost, a pig with wood blocks on the feet.

      For the plot of land of our local fieldnames belonged further nature
      names (mostly in combinations), that were to refer to the Inseln
      [island], Halbinseln [peninsula], Bodenwellen [bumps], and
      Bodensenkungen [depressions/hollows], that the Rhine created and
      formed, when it was untrue to its bed and was carried off above the
      plain. Into the Eighteenth Century our old front was to have brought
      instead of the serf word Insel already only the German terms Au and
      Werd or that is to say Wörth and Werder. The Middle High German form
      of Au was ouwe, that Old High German ouwa and meant river, waterland,
      island, peninsula, out of which was generated the meaning of
      wasserreiches [containing a lot of water] meadow land. In its
      initial importance as a water surrounded region or island had itself
      au[meadow]in our village name of Oppau and was contained in many
      other settlements and land plots. More than 2,000 such Au's
      [meadows] the Rhine counted formerly from Basel up to the sea on or
      between both shores. In our nearest Rhine region was numbered and
      strung in quick succession: Rheinau [Rhine meadow], Neckarau [Neckar
      meadow], Mühlau [mill meadow] (twice), Oppau, Weidenau [pasture
      meadow], Kaltenau [cold meadow], Hosterau (in 1303 Husternauwe),
      Kranichau [crane meadow], Hansenau [Hansen meadow], Auholz [meadow
      woods], Auschläge, Petersau, Scharrau, Bonnau, Mörscherau [Morsch's
      meadow] and so one. That most meadows were renowned first through
      their extensive meadow woods, where that nature was able itself to
      build at one's own discretion and boasted wondrous bird and fish
      paradises. Many meadow's lost their name again, when they through a
      following flood again met company on that mainland like the
      ranichhecken and the Hansenbusch. In both of our villages the
      memories are today still kept awake to the meadow formations apart
      from the village names: the Austraße [meadow street], that Aufeld
      [meadow field], the Mühlau [mill meadow], and the Kälberau [calves
      meadow].

      Towards the end of the Middle Ages until into the Eighteenth Century
      was especially smaller, by arising flooding disasters and often again
      complete or partly washed away river island almost always described
      as a Werd, Wörth or Werder (Old High German warid, Middle High German
      wert). In one record, relevant to the Bischofswõrth from the
      Petersau of 1706 (State Archives Speyer, High Diocese Worms Number
      80) was said for example: The hunter provided that Wörthchen
      according to coming apart names as the Walters Wörth, since a
      subject from Roxheim named Martin Walter had leased such for many
      years; notice the Krebswörth, so as well a subject of Roxheim's named
      Krebs had been in use; notice the Wippelswörth, thus a new enclosure
      (silting up), through which the old name died out and this was
      confusion (bewilderment); notice the Morswörth" and so on. Before
      the Sandhof's Ferry lay the Oppau's Fahrwörth in 1567, on the
      Friesenheim's path in 1488 the Bauernwerder (built through the Old
      Rhine); in the Edigheim's border was provided in 1633 a Rohrwörth,
      later known as "Roth Wörth" (that is to say cleared Wörth). Elector
      Karl Theodor rented out in 1770 to his Minister Zedewitz five Wörthe
      on the Rhine, the Altriper-, Karls-, Knappen-, Bann- and Kaiserwörth,
      of that the third part stood in simply water puddle". Only through
      fascines, massive bundles of twigs tied up in the large stones
      (Franz. H.-Bl. Lh. 1934) could the Friesenheim'screate a path from
      their Außenwörth. Surrounded by pastures and Alders, this Island
      was, like the records related,

      307
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