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Abolition Letter Faxed to Duma, Congress, Obama, Putin, at numbers below

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  • John Hallam
    The letter urging the US Congress and the Russian Duma to prioritise nuclear abolition as a Human Survival Priority has been faxed to the numbers below. Text
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 6, 2013
    The letter urging the US Congress and the Russian Duma to prioritise nuclear abolition as a 'Human Survival Priority' has been faxed to the numbers below.

    Text of the letter itself is below the fax numbers, and atattched.

    POTUS(Obama) - 202-456-2461
    Secy of State Kerry 202-647-0122 202-647-6434, 6047
    Hagel (Sec Def.) 703-697-6602
    US-UN Mission 212-415-4443

    House Strategic Forces Subcommittee
    Mike Rogers Chair, 202-225-5820
    Trent Franks Ariz, 202-225-6328
    Doug Lambourn Calif, 202-226-2638,
    Mike Coffman Colo, 202-226-4623
    Mo Brooks Ala, 202-225-4392
    Joe Wilson S. Carolina, 202-225-2455
    Michael Turner Ohio, 202-225-6754,
    Rich Nugent Fla, 202-226-6559,
    Jim Bridenstine,Okla, 202-225-9187,
    Jim Cooper Tenn. (Ranking Member) 202-226-1035,
    Loretta Sanchez Calif, 202-225-5633,
    James Langevin RI, 202-225-5976
    Rick Larsen Wash, 202-225-4420
    Marc Veasey, Tx, 202-225-9702
    Andre Carson Indiana, 202-225-5633

    Senate Strategic Forces Subcommittee
    Senator Marc Udall Chair, 202-224-6471
    Senator Sessions, Ranking, 202-224-3149
    Senator Reed 202-224-4680
    Senator Mc Caskill 202-228-6326
    Senator Donelly, 202-224-5011,
    Senator King 202-224-1946,
    Senator Vitter, 202-228-5061
    Senator Lee 202-228-1168.
    Unable to reach Senator Fischers fax machine.


    Geneva Mission 41-22-733-1031 UN mission 1-121-628-0252 Australian Emb 6295-1847


    UNODA 1-121-693-4066

    Aust FM 61-2-6273-4112 6261-2151


    Chairs of the US Senate and House Committees on Foreign Affairs and Defence

    Chairs of the Russian Duma Committees on Foreign Affairs and Defence
    President Barack Obama
    President Vladimir Putin
    US Secretary of State
    US Secretary of Defence
    Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs
    Russian Minister of Defence

    Dear Sirs and Madams:
    The undersigned write to you to urge you to prioritise nuclear weapons abolition as a human survival imperative and a critical global security priority.
    Your attention is also drawn to a letter on the same subject by Lawrence W. Krauss, physicist and vice-chair of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists board of sponsors, and other highly distinguished physicists.(appended)
    The New Year, and a new US Congress, is a good time to start to think anew about nuclear weapons. New thinking that puts abolition clearly on the US agenda as a security priority, is very much needed, which is why we write.
    The US and Russia together possess over 90% of all the nuclear warheads in the world. They possess the unique capability to render the planet essentially uninhabitable in less than an hour. The leadership and legislatures of Russia and the US thus have a primary responsibility to act resolutely and promptly to phase out nuclear weapons from security doctrines and build the framework for a secure and verifiably nuclear-weapons-free world.
    The Congress and Duma need to debate and factor into security doctrines the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of large-scale nuclear weapons use, now the subject of a number of multilateral statements at the United Nations and of an international meeting in Oslo in March. These matters, of existential importance to the rest of the world, have never to our knowledge been discussed in the Duma or Congress.
    The retention and 'improvement' of nuclear arsenals by both the US and Russia makes neither country more secure, but rather degrades the security of both countries and the rest of the world. Elimination of nuclear weapons would mean an improvement, not a degradation, in security, and the removal of a vast budgetary burden.
    We urge you to take note of the Abolition2000 founding statement, and the organising statement for the US Campaign for a Nuclear Weapons- Free world. (appended below)
    Both statements call for immediate work on nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament steps such as ratification of the CTBT, negotiations for a Fissile Material Treaty, taking all nuclear forces off high–alert status, decreasing the role of nuclear weapons in security doctrines, reductions in nuclear stockpiles, curtailing of research and development of new nuclear weapons, and establishment of nuclear-weapons-free zones. The Abolition2000 Statement also calls for the immediate commencement of negotiations for the global prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons under strict and effective international control through a Nuclear Weapons Convention.
    We encourage especially those who sit on, chair, or advise Duma or Congressional committees that deal with strategic weapons and security to have a copy of these statements on their desk.
    Nuclear abolition is THE most urgent national, multilateral, and global security priority, and remains one in spite of reductions in nuclear arsenals.
    The International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, chaired by Gareth Evans and Yoriko Kawaguchi, declared in 2009, that:
    Nuclear weapons are the most inhumane weapons ever conceived, inherently indiscriminate in those they kill and maim and with an impact deadly for decades. They are the only weapons ever invented that have the capacity to wholly destroy life on this planet, and the arsenals we now possess are able to do so many times over. The problem of nuclear weapons is at least equal to that of climate–change in terms of gravity, and much more immediate in its potential impact.”[ICNND, xvii]
    The link made with climate change is very much to the point. Recent (from 2006) work by Professors Brian Toon and Alan Robock, both highly distinguished climate specialists, using the most up to date NASA climate models, has shown both that a 'limited', nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan, using not more than 100 Hiroshima-sized warheads, aimed at cities, would still produce catastrophic global climatic effects. A US-Russia nuclear exchange, (most likely the result of miscalculation, malfunction, and/or panic, not deliberate policy or design), would return Earth's temperatures to levels not seen since the last Ice Age for decades, imperilling the survival of most complex land based living things including humans.
    No other technology has the capability to do this in less than an hour. The maintenance of current nuclear capabilities is irresponsible and hazardous in the extreme. Congress and Duma must therefore regard nuclear abolition as the topmost security priority.
    Policy prescriptions that argue for retention of nuclear capabilities, or, worse, for their expansion, are simply not grounded in the realities of what nuclear weapons do and the existential risks they pose. Those who argue for them pose as 'responsible' and 'realistic' guardians of national security yet these prescriptions create extreme global and national insecurity. They are the very opposite of 'responsible' or 'realistic'.
    Arnold Schwarzenegger, when governor of California, said that:
    A nuclear disaster will not hit at the speed of a glacier melting. It will hit with a blast. It will not hit with the speed of the atmosphere warming, but of a city burning. Clearly, the attention focussed on nuclear weapons should be as prominent as that of global climate change.”
    We call on Congress and Duma to give nuclear disarmament the priority it deserves as the worlds number one security and human survival issue.
    Abolition2000 founding statement and US Campaign for a Nuclear Weapons-free world are after the signatures.
    (Institutional affiliations for Identification Purposes only)

    Letter Editors:

    John Hallam, People for Nuclear Disarmament/Human Survival Project

    Prof. Peter King, Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies/Human Survival Project
    Bob Rigg, Former chair, NZ National Consultative Committee on Disarmament (NCCD)
    Alyn Ware, Co-Chair of the World Future Council Disarmament Committee

    Other Signatories:

    Rene Wadlow, President, Association of World Citizens,
    Aaron Tovish, International Director, 2020 Vision Campaign, Mayors for Peace, Klosterneuburg, Austria,
    Jayantha Dhanapala, Fmr UN Undersecy-General for Disarmament,
    Tony Robinson, World Without Wars and Violence,
    Alfred L. Marder, International Association of Peace Messenger Cities,
    Martin Hinrichs, Ban All Nukes Generation (BANG), Geneva, Switzerland,

    John Burroughs, Executive Director, Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy, New York City, NY USA,

    Carol Wolman MD, Fukushima Response Bay Area, Oakland, CA, USA.
    Marylia Kelley, Tri-Valley CAREs (Communities against a Radioactive Environment)
    Lise Merriman, Episcopal Peace Fellowship, Shaker Heights, Ohio, USA,
    Mark Gubrud, Princeton, USA,
    David Krieger, President, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Santa-Barbara, Calif, USA,
    David Hartsough, Peaceworkers, San Francisco, Calif,
    Henry Lowendorf, Chair, Greater New Haven Peace Council, New Haven Ct, USA,
    Reverend John Dear, USA,
    Dennis F. Nester, (Roy Nuclear Waste Disposal Process) Phoenix Ariz

    Kathy Wan Povi Sanchez, Enviromental Health and Justice Program, Tewa Women United, USA

    Prof. Irene Gendzier, Political Science, Boston Univ, Boston, MA, USA.

    Mike Helbick, Program Director, Peace Action Wisconsin, Wisc, USA,
    Anthony DiFilippo, Professor of Sociology, Lincoln Univ, Pennsylvania, USA,
    Sabina Sawhney, Hofstra University, NY, USA,
    Steven V. Kobasa, Trident Resistance Network, New Haven, CT, USA,
    Markus Atkinson, Footprints for Peace, Cincinnati, USA,
    Diane Perlman PhD, Psychologists for Social Responsibility, Transcend, George Mason Univ, USA,
    Ellen Thomas, Proposition – 1 Committee, United States,
    Prof . John D. Steinbrunner, Public Policy, Director CISSM, Univ. Maryland, USA,
    Gordon Edwards, President/Founder, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility, Canada,
    Professor Pierre Jasmin, Vice-Pres, Artists for Peace, Pugwash Canada, Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
    Donald Grayston PhD, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada,
    Setsuko Thurlow, Hiroshima Day Coalition, Toronto, Ontario,
    Setsuko Thurlow, Canadian Pugwash, Canada,
    Larry Kazdan,Councillor, World Federalist Movement-Canada, Vancouver, Canada
    Adele Buckley, Past Chair, Canadian Pugwash,
    Ray Morris, Salmon Arms Kairos Committee, BC, Canada,
    Dr H. Peter Langille, Director, Global Common Security, London, Ontario, Canada,
    Catherine Delahunty Green List MP, Ont,
    LGen the Honourable Roméo A. Dallaire (Ret’d) , Senator, Senate of Canada,
    Ottawa, Canada,
    Satoko Norimatsu, Director, Peace Philosophy Centre, Vancouver, Canada
    Steven Staples, President, Rideau Institute, Canada,
    John Bart Gerald, Gerald and Maas, Ottawa, Canada,
    Jennifer Allen Simons, Simons Foundation, Vancouver, BC, Canada,
    Bev Delong, Chair, Canadian Network to Abolish Nuclear Weapons,
    Barney Richards, Peace Council of Aotearoa, New Zealand,
    Commander Robert D. Green RN(ret), Co-Director, Disarmament and Security Centre, Christchurch, NZ,
    Dr Kate Dewes, Disarmament and Security Centre, Christchurch, NZ,
    Dr R E White PhD, D.Sc., former Director, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Auckland, Auckland New Zealand, co-founder of Scientists Against Nuclear Arms New Zealand.
    Joanna Santa-Barbara, IPPNW New Zealand,
    Peter Low, Quaker Peace and Service, Aotearoa/New Zealand,
    Richard Northey Patron Aotearoa / New Zealand Foundation for Peace Studies,
    Gerald O'Brien, President of Honour, Peace Council Aotearoa New Zealand.
    Don Borrie, Chair, NZ DPRK Society,
    Dame Laurie Salas, DBE,  QSO, B.A.,  New Zealand
    Patricia Waugh, Administrator, Alternatives to Violence Project Maori Focus, Enderley, Hamilton, N.Z
    David Clendon MP, Green Party Member of Parliament, New Zealand
    Marynan Street MP, Labour, Nelson, NZ, Chair, New Zealand Parliamentarians for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, (NZPNND),
    Irene Gale AM, Adelaide, SA, Member, Australian Peace Committee (APC)
    Bronwyn Marks, Fmr Chair, Sydney Hiroshima Day Cttee, Manly-Waringah Teachers for Nuclear Disarmament, NSW Teachers Federation Peace and Disarmament Cttee.
    Michel de Mol, Secy, Jawaid Hussain, World Citizens Association Australia,
    Dave Sweeney, Nuclear-Free Campaigner, Australian Conservation Foundation, (ACF), Carlton, Vic, Aust,
    Denis Doherty, Australian Anti-Bases Campaign Coalition, Surry Hills, NSW, Australia,
    Andrew Grieg, Non-Lethal Weapons for Peace Campaign, Sydney, NSW, Aust,
    Lyn Allison, Former Senator and leader of the Australian Democrats, Vic, Aust,
    Richard Broinowski, fmr Aust. diplomat, author, adjunct Professor in media and communications, University of Sydney,
    Elizabeth A Evatt AC, Commissioner, International Commission of Jurists, Australia

    Dr Jenny Grounds, President, Medical Association for Prevention of War, Australia

    Jane Bremmer, Chair, Alliance for a Clean Environment, W.A.,

    Jo Vallentine, Anti Nuclear Alliance of Western Australia,

    Judy Blyth, People for Nuclear Disarmament Western Australia,

    Mary Madigan, Friends of Westernport, Langwarrin, Vic,

    Donna Mulhearn, Coordinator, Australian Campaign to Ban Uranium Weapons

    Nick Deane, Marrickville Peace Group,

    Dr Mariann Lloyd-Smith PhD (Law) Senior Advisor, National Toxics Network Inc.
    Bangalow NSW

    Father Claude Mostowick, msc, Director, Missionaries of the Sacred Heart Justice and Peace Centre, President, Pax Christi Australia,

    Helen Caldicott, Founder, PSR,

    Dr Arthur Chesterfield-Evans, Fmr Director, Sydney Peace Foundation, Fmr MLC,

    David Purnell, Quaker Peace and Legislation Committee, Religious Society of Friends, (Quakers) Australia,
    Maria Arvaniti Sotiropolou, President, IPPNW Greece,
    Efi Xanthou, Cyprus Green Party, Cyprus,
    Joseph M. Cachia, Secretary, Malta Peace Council,
    Derman Boztok, MD, IPPNW-Turkey General Secretary, Ankara, Turkey,
    Issa Samandar, Coordinator, Land Defence Committees, East Jerusalem, Palestine,
    Sharon Dolev, Israeli Disarmament Movement, Israel,
    Gideon Spiro, Israel,

    George Farebrother, INLAP/World Court Project, Sussex, UK,
    Dave Webb, Chair, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) UK,
    Tony Simpson, Journal Editor, Bertrand Russel Peace Foundation,
    Jenny Maxwell, Hereford Peace Council, Hereford, UK,
    Philip Gilligan, Chair, Pat Sanchez Secy, Greater Manchester and District Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament,(CND) Rochdale, UK,
    Dominic Linley, Yorkshire CND, Yorks, UK,
    Samir Chatterjee, Fmr National Vice-Chair, World Development Movement (UK),
    Fazlun Khalid, Founder, Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Science, Birmingham UK,
    Angie Zelter, founder, Trident Ploughshares and Action Atomic Weapons Eradication (Action AWE), UK,
    Monsignor Bruce Kent, Vice-President, Movement for the Abolition of War, Fmr Chair CND, UK,
    Michael Connarty MP, Lithgow and East Falkirk, Parliamentary CND, UK,
    Bill Kidd MSP, Co-President Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, Scotland,

    Dominique Lalanne, Chair, Abolition2000 Europe,
    Jean-Marie Matagne, President, Action des Citoyens pour le Desarmement Nucleaire, (ACDN), Saintes, France,
    Prof. Andreas Nidecker, Past President PSR/IPPNW Switzerland, Basel, Switz,
    Herman Spanjaard, Chair, IPPNW Netherlands,
    Karel Koster, Research Department Socialist Party Netherlands,
    Harry Van Bommel, MP, Belg, Socialist Party, Foreign Affairs Spokesperson,
    Hans Lammerant, Vredesactie, Belgium,
    Dirk Van Der Maelen MP, Flemish Social Democratic Party, Belgium,
    Ludo de Brabander, Vrede Vzw, Belgium,

    Josep Xercavins, World Democratic Governance Project Association, (WDGpa) Catalonia, Spain,
    Jordi Armadans, director FundiPau (Fundacio per la Pau), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Xavier Masllorens, president FundiPau (Fundacio per la Pau), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain,
    Pep Puig, PhD, Grup de Científics i Tècnics per un Futur No Nuclear – GCTPFNN, Barcelona,

    Birgitta Jonsdottir, Icelandic Parliament,
    Guðríður Sigurbjörnsdóttir, verkefnastjóri, MFÍK (Women for Peace and Culture in Iceland)

    Hallgeir H. Langeland, MP Norway,
    Prof Kirsten Osen, IPPNW Norway,
    Bent Natvig, Chair, Norwegian Pugwash Committee,
    Frederick S. Heffermehl, Lawyer, Author, 'What Nobel Really Wanted', Oslo, Norway,
    Bjorn Hildt, IPPNW Norway,
    Björn Röe, Head of NEI til atomvåpen in Trondheim, Norway,
    Sigmund Knutsen, NTA Trondhiem, Norway,
    Hans Ebbing, Bergen, Norway,
    Prof Birgit Cold, Norwegian Univ of Science and Technology,
    Agneta Norberg, Vice-chair, Swedish Peace Council,
    Bodil Ceballos, Riksdagsledamot/Member of Parliament,
    Unto Vesa, Research Fellow, University of Tampere, Finland,
    Satu Hassi MEP, Greens, Finland,

    Prof. Sergey Kolesnikov,member Russian Acad.Med.Sci., IPPNW EC member,Co-President of Russian public movement "For people safeguarding", Moscow,Russia,
    Natalia Mironova, Ph.D. President of the Movement for Nuclear Safety, Chelyabinsk, Russia

    Jana Jedlickova, World without Wars and Violence, Prague, Czech Republic,
    Andreas Pecha, Chair, Austrian Peace Council, Vienna Austria,

    Ingrid and Klaus Schittich, Association of World Citizens, Uberlingen, Germany,
    Chris Neumann, Sprecher Arbeitskreis, Hamburg, Germany,
    Pastor Wolfgang Weber, Senden, Germany,
    Harald Fuchs, DFG-VK Gruppe Köln
    Hans-Peter Mortier, Information Bureau for Peace Work, Meckenhiem, Germany,
    Esther Weinz, Deutsche Gesselschaft fur Sonnenenergie eV,
    Karl Albert Magnus Friedrich, Die Linke, Humanistischer Verband Deutschland,
    Harald Fuchs, DFG-VK Gruppe Köln, Germany,
    Uta Zapf MP, Bundestag,
    Rene Rospel MP, Bundestag,
    Erich Schmidt-Eenboom, Peace Research Institute, Weilhiem, Germany,
    Xanthe Hall, IPPNW Germany,
    Prof. Manfred Frank, Philosophical Seminar, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany,

    Dr. Ranjith S. Jayashekera, Sri-Lankan Doctors for Peace and Development, Sri Lanka.

    Chauyen Lai, Secy-General, Institute of International Relations, Nepal, Executive Cttee Nepali Congress,

    Wilfred D'costa, Alliances Linkages Convenor, Indian Social Action Forum - INSAF, Delhi/Mumbai, India
    Sushovan Dhar, VAK, Malad West, Mumbai, India,
    Md. Mujibul Haque Munir (Mr.), Assistant Director-Food Security and Education Advocacy COAST Trust, Member, Coordination Committee of WFF
    Brigadier Vijai K. Nair, Noida, India,
    J. Narayana Rao, All-India Peace and Solidarity Organisation, Nagpur, India,
    Pallab Sengupta, All-India Peace and Solidarity Organisation, (AIPSO) New Delhi,
    Hiren Gandhi and Swaroop Dhruv, INSAF Gujarat, Ahmedabad, India,
    Balakrishna Kurvey, Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament, and Environmental Protection, Nagpur, India,
    Gopal Krishna, Convener, ToxicsWatch Alliance (TWA), New Delhi,

    Professor Rasul Baksh Rais, Political Science, LUMS, Lahore, Pakistan,
    Abdul H Nayyar, Pakistan Peace Coalition,
    Prof (Ret) Syed Sikander Mehdi, International Relations, Univ. Karachi, Pakistan,
    Senator Dr Syed Husin Ali, Malaysian Parliament, Political Bureau Member Malaysian National Justice Party,
    Anwar Fazal, Director, Right Livelihood College, Malaysia,
    Junko Abe, "See Hiroshima Project" coordinator, Ehime, Japan
    Yayoi Tsuchida, Japan Council against A and H Bombs, Tokyo, Japan,
    Yasunari Fujimoto, Secretary-General, Japan Congress Against A-and-H-Bombs,(Gensuikin) Tokyo, Japan,
    Belhaim Sakuma, Palau Nuclear-Free Movement, Palau,
    Luis Gutierrez-Esparza,President, Latin American Circle of International Studies (LACIS)

    Thomas de Toledo, Cebrapaz (Centro Brasiliero de Solidariedade aos Povos e lute pela Paz) Sao Paulo, Brasil,

    Corazon Valdez Fabros, Co-Convener, Stop the War Coalition Philippines, Philippines

    Belhaim Sakuma, Chairman, Belau Cares, Inc, Palau Nuclear-Free Movement, Koror, Republic of Palau 96940

    Mamadou Falilou Sarr, Director, African Centre for Peace and International Development, Dakar, Senegal,
    Paul Saoke, IPPNW – Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya,

    The Abolition 2000 Founding Statement
    On April 1995, during the first weeks of the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review and Extension Conference, activists from around the world recognised that the issue of nuclear abolition was not on the agenda. Activists met together to write the following statement that has become the founding document of the Abolition 2000 Network.
    2,000+ organizations in over 90 countries have now signed the Abolition 2000 Statement and are actively participating in ten working groups to accomplish the eleven points listed below.

    Abolition 2000 Statement
    A secure and liveable world for our children and grandchildren and all future generations requires that we achieve a world free of nuclear weapons and redress the environmental degradation and human suffering that is the legacy of fifty years of nuclear weapons testing and production.
    Further, the inextricable link between the “peaceful” and warlike uses of nuclear technologies and the threat to future generations inherent in creation and use of long-lived radioactive materials must be recognised. We must move toward reliance on clean, safe, renewable forms of energy production that do not provide the materials for weapons of mass destruction and do not poison the environment for thousands of centuries. The true “inalienable” right is not to nuclear energy, but to life, liberty and security of person in a world free of nuclear weapons.
    We recognise that a nuclear weapons free world must be achieved carefully and in a step by step manner. We are convinced of its technological feasibility. Lack of political will, especially on the part of the nuclear weapons states, is the only true barrier. As chemical and biological weapons are prohibited, so must nuclear weapons be prohibited.
    We call upon all states particularly the nuclear weapons states, declared and de facto to take the following steps to achieve nuclear weapons abolition. We further urge the states parties to the NPT to demand binding commitments by the declared nuclear weapons states to implement these measures:
    1. Initiate immediately and conclude* negotiations on a nuclear weapons abolition convention that requires the phased elimination of all nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework, with provisions for effective verification and enforcement.**
    2. Immediately make an unconditional pledge not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons.
    3. Rapidly complete a truly comprehensive test ban treaty with a zero threshold and with the stated purpose of precluding nuclear weapons development by all states.
    4. Cease to produce and deploy new and additional nuclear weapons systems, and commence to withdraw and disable deployed nuclear weapons systems.
    5. Prohibit the military and commercial production and reprocessing of all weapons-usable radioactive materials.
    6. Subject all weapons-usable radioactive materials and nuclear facilities in all states to international accounting, monitoring, and safeguards, and establish a public international registry of all weapons-usable radioactive materials.
    7. Prohibit nuclear weapons research, design, development, and testing through laboratory experiments including but not limited to non-nuclear hydrodynamic explosions and computer simulations, subject all nuclear weapons laboratories to international monitoring, and close all nuclear test sites.
    8. Create additional nuclear weapons free zones such as those established by the treaties of Tlatelolco and Raratonga.
    9. Recognise and declare the illegality of threat or use of nuclear weapons, publicly and before the World Court.
    10. Establish an international energy agency to promote and support the development of sustainable and environmentally safe energy sources.
    11. Create mechanisms to ensure the participation of citizens and NGOs in planning and monitoring the process of nuclear weapons abolition.

    A world free of nuclear weapons is a shared aspiration of humanity. This goal cannot be achieved in a non-proliferation regime that authorises the possession of nuclear weapons by a small group of states. Our common security requires the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. Our objective is definite and unconditional abolition of nuclear weapons.

    US Campaign for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World Organising Statement

    For approval by officers of the organisation with authority for endorsements
    For more than six decades, the world has struggled to avoid nuclear war and the spread of the bomb.  Prompted by public concern and pressure to reduce the nuclear danger, government leaders established a series of international arms control and risk reduction agreements that have successfully reduced the risks and dangers posed by the world’s most deadly weapons.  The foundation of these efforts, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), commits non-nuclear weapon states to permanently foreswear nuclear weapons and requires the original nuclear weapon states—Britain, China, France, Russia, and the United States—to pursue and achieve nuclear disarmament.

    Forty years later, the nuclear threat still remains and the NPT system is under stress.  U.S. leadership is required to build international consensus for reversing strategic or military reliance on nuclear weapons globally, preventing their acquisition by terrorists or additional states, and ultimately establishing a nuclear weapons free world.

    Despite the end of the Cold War, the United States and Russia retain thousands of nuclear weapons, many of which are on high alert.  The United States has not yet ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is actively upgrading its current arsenal, and is proposing to build new warheads and a new production complex.  In response, Russia and China are taking steps to invigorate their weapons production programs to remain “competitive.”

    The continuing military and strategic reliance on large nuclear arsenals by the nuclear weapons states (declared and undeclared) is the single most compelling force behind the spread of nuclear weapons.

    Existing global stockpiles of highly enriched uranium and plutonium, the fissile materials that are the fuel of nuclear bombs, are growing and are not adequately secured against theft or sale to terrorists.  The United States must more effectively engage with the international community—including all declared and non-declared nuclear-weapon states—to curb the programs and technologies that can be used to produce material for nuclear weapons.

    We believe it is imperative that the United States take immediate and bold action to reaffirm its commitment to the elimination of nuclear weapons, further reduce the number and alert status of nuclear weapons arsenals, de-legitimise development, possession and use of such weapons, and strengthen the global nuclear non-proliferation system.  The U.S. must demonstrate to the world its resolve to meet its NPT obligations.

    Our organisations are joining together in to promote a more informed public debate on nuclear weapons and international peace and security in the 21st Century.   Our goal is to catalyse meaningful action on steps necessary to reduce the dangers posed by nuclear weapons and bring us closer to a world free of nuclear weapons.  We will seek support and leadership from lawmakers from both parties, meaningful commitments from candidates, and a more robust and high-level effort from the executive branch.  Priority steps include:
    • Undertaking a fundamental reassessment of the purpose of nuclear weapons, significantly and irreversibly reducing the number and role of all types of nuclear weapons, and more thorough and energetic diplomacy to engage other countries in reducing theirs.
    • Encouraging lawmakers to establish U.S. obligations to the NPT as a baseline criteria for all decisions, programmatic and fiscal, regarding U.S. nuclear weapons policies and programs (including Stockpile Life Extension Program, Complex Transformation, and the Reliable Replacement Warhead)
    • Halting new nuclear weapons research and production activities, which are contrary to the goal of reducing the legitimacy of nuclear weapons and risk the resumption of nuclear testing.
    • Increasing funding to accelerate the pace and scope of cooperative projects to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism by helping to improve accounting and security at nuclear facilities worldwide.
    • Establishing tighter controls on the spread of technologies that can be used to produce fissile material and more aggressively pursue a global verifiable ban on fissile material production.
    • Convincing the United States Senate to reconsider and provide its advice and consent for ratification of the CTBT at the earliest possible date.

    Letter by Lawrence W. Krauss of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and distinguished others, to President Obama

    An open letter to President Obama: The time on the Doomsday Clock is five minutes to midnight
    By Robert Socolow, Thomas Rosenbaum, Lawrence J. Korb, Lynn Eden, Rod Ewing, Alexander Glaser, James E. Hansen, Sivan Kartha, Edward "Rocky" Kolb , Lawrence M. Krauss, Leon Lederman, Ramamurti Rajaraman, M. V. Ramana, Robert Rosner, Jennifer Sims, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Elizabeth J. Wilson | 14 January 2013

    Article Highlights

    The Bulletin's Science and Security Board announces its 2013 decision to keep in place the minute hand of the Doomsday Clock: It will remain at five minutes to midnight. In this open letter to US President Barack Obama, the Board presents its views on the key issues that affected its decision and provides the president with recommendations to consider in 2013 and throughout his second term.
    Editor's note: Founded in 1945 by University of Chicago scientists who had helped develop the first atomic weapons in the Manhattan Project, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists subsequently created the Doomsday Clock in 1947 using the imagery of apocalypse (midnight) and the contemporary idiom of nuclear explosion (countdown to zero), to convey threats to humanity and the planet. The decision to move the minute hand of the Doomsday Clock is made every year by the Bulletin's Science and Security Board in consultation with its Board of Sponsors, which includes 18 Nobel Laureates. The Clock has become a universally recognized indicator of the world's vulnerability to catastrophe from nuclear weapons, climate change, and new technologies emerging in other domains.
    January 14, 2013
    Dear President Obama,
    2012 was a year in which the problems of the world pressed forward, but too many of its citizens stood back. In the US elections the focus was "the economy, stupid," with barely a word about the severe long-term trends that threaten the population's well-being to a far greater extent: climate change, the continuing menace of nuclear oblivion, and the vulnerabilities of the world's energy sources. 2012 was the hottest year on record in the contiguous United States, marked by devastating drought and brutal storms. These extreme events are exactly what climate models predict for an atmosphere overburdened with greenhouse gases. 2012 was a year of unrealized opportunity to reduce nuclear stockpiles, to lower the immediacy of destruction from missiles on alert, and to control the spread of fissile materials and keep nuclear terrorism at bay. 2012 was a year in which -- one year after the partial meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station -- the Japanese nation continued to be at the earliest stages of what will be a costly and long recovery.
    The stasis of 2012 convinces us, the Science and Security Board, to keep the hands of the Doomsday Clock in place.

    Mr. President, we see 2013 as a year for vision and engagement. We know that decisive action can make the world safer. Humanity awaits the US leadership that can secure a future free of nuclear weapons. US action can induce the world's nations to negotiate international agreements to avert the worst calamities of climate change. We turn to you, Mr. President, to lead us toward a safer world and to help us turn back the hands of the Doomsday Clock.
    It remains five minutes to midnight.
    Nuclear weapons. Mr. President, we applaud the steps your administration has already taken: ratifying the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), holding to firm account potential violators of the keystone Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), strengthening the global nuclear security regime, and reducing the opportunities and chances of success for terrorists to get hold of fissile material. We are glad that your commitment to the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty -- for which we are confident you will seek Senate approval -- has not wavered.
    In 2009 you stood in Hradcany Square and boldly stated: "America's commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons," and you specified that the United States will "reduce the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy, and urge others to do the same." Four years after the visionary speech, we see progress, but we also see how much remains to be done.
    When the United States and Russia ratified New START, both countries agreed to limit the number of deployed warheads to 1,550. But 20 years after the end of the Cold War, this is not enough, and the United States must commit to cutting well below 1,000 warheads. The stockpile of non-deployed strategic nuclear warheads should be significantly reduced and tactical nuclear warheads must be eliminated. Mr. President, such actions will signal a decreasing role for nuclear weapons in US national security strategy -- and they will demonstrate America's commitment to Article VI of the NPT to significantly reduce nuclear weapons and to strive for nuclear disarmament.
    Mr. President, the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review PDF considered eliminating a leg of the nuclear triad as part of the planned reductions under New START. We believe that, by cutting well below 1,000 warheads, the arguments for keeping all three legs of the triad are less convincing than they may have been in the past. The triad is an expensive legacy of a bygone era that makes it increasingly difficult to implement deeper cuts in the global nuclear arsenal. Now is the time to examine the options to fundamentally restructure US nuclear forces.
    In addition, much more can be done to signal your commitment to reducing the role of nuclear weapons in national security strategy: You could increase the dismantlement rate of retired nuclear warheads, and consider seriously reducing both the 1,152 nuclear warheads on the submarine-launched ballistic missiles, as well as the 300 nuclear warheads assigned to bombers.
    These measures would send a strong message of America's commitment to work toward a world without nuclear weapons.
    As was the case in your first term, we hope that your second term will also begin with an updated statement articulating your future plans to reduce the role of nuclear weapons in US national security strategy.
    Fissile materials. Within months of taking office in 2009, you announced the goal of securing all vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years. This was a key public acknowledgment that all fissile material -- whether separated for weapons purposes or civilian use -- carries substantial proliferation risks. 2013 is the time to rejuvenate and expand the fissile-material agenda.
    In 2010, you convened the first Nuclear Security Summit. However, these biennial meetings of heads of state have dealt primarily with securing and consolidating civilian stocks of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in non-nuclear weapon states, which account for less than 2 percent of the global stockpile of fissile material. Moreover, civilian HEU is not the only problem. To quote the speech you delivered last year at Hankuk University in South Korea: "We simply can't go on accumulating huge amounts of the very material, like separated plutonium, that we're trying to keep away from terrorists."
    Mr. President, we call on you to launch, immediately, a comprehensive approach to fissile materials that deals with civilian and military stockpiles -- plutonium, as well as highly enriched uranium. Independent estimates of the global stockpile suggest that there are 1,440 tons of HEU and 500 tons of separated plutonium. PDF In principle, this is enough for several hundred thousand nuclear weapons.
    Since the 1970s, the United States has refrained from reprocessing of civilian spent nuclear fuel and the separation of fissile materials. In 2013, the United States should discourage Japan from commissioning its Rokkasho plant and encourage South Korea to reconsider its reprocessing plans.
    This year, the United States should declare excess all fissile material not in nuclear warheads -- deployed or in reserve -- and offer this material for international monitoring. 2013 is the year in which the United States should seek further reductions in its own fissile material stocks, as well as those held by Russia and other nuclear weapon states.
    Mr. President, in 2013, the United States -- in coordination with the other NPT nuclear weapon states, as well as India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea -- should announce a moratorium on producing more fissile material for weapons, pending a formal treaty.
    Climate change. Human activities are now the dominant cause of global climate change. Emissions of heat-trapping gases continued to climb in 2012, with atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide -- the most important greenhouse gas affected by human activities -- reaching levels higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. 2012 was the hottest year on record for the contiguous United States. Arctic sea ice continued to rapidly diminish in extent, reaching a record low this past year that fell under the previous low by an area the size of Texas. Glaciers are retreating, and the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are losing mass. Extreme weather events, such as last year's Superstorm Sandy and Typhoon Bopha, now strike in an environment altered by climate change, with higher sea surface temperatures and more water vapor in the atmosphere to fuel and sustain their destructive power.
    But 2012 also provided further evidence of the viability of renewable sources of energy and more efficient ways of powering the global economy, pointing toward an alternative to the high-carbon development model. Wind and solar power, for example, expanded at rates greatly exceeding what energy agencies forecasted earlier this decade. Owing to supportive policies, power generation from these sources expanded nearly fourfold over the past five years in the United States, and even more so in other countries, including Germany and China, where there they enjoyed stronger support. The new US automobile fuel economy standard was another welcome development, promising nearly a doubling of vehicle efficiency by 2025.
    This trend, while encouraging, is by no means evidence that the climate challenge has been met. In fact, the growth in low-carbon energy sources is dwarfed by the continued expansion of fossil fuels like coal -- as was exemplified last year by the explosive development of unconventional fossil resources, such as tar sands, oil shale, and shale gas. With life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions that are even worse than their conventional counterparts, these unconventional fossil resources threaten to crowd out investment in renewables and to entrench a long-term dependency on carbon-intensive energy supplies.
    Avoiding this scenario will require your administration to considerably speed the process of reforming the patchwork of federal subsidies, taxes, and other incentives and disincentives that distort energy markets. We look forward to substantial progress toward rational energy markets in 2013, including the pricing of greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy.
    2012 saw the arrival of an apparently abundant domestic natural gas resource, which could be an important contributor to a more environmentally sound energy future. We call on your administration to see that commercialization of this resource is pursued in ways that mitigate its environmental impacts, including its climate change impacts. Specifically, we urge you to create strong regulations for gas developers to minimize methane leakage and safeguard water resources, and for power-plant developers to incorporate carbon dioxide capture and storage.
    Mr. President, you have taken some steps to help nudge the country along a more rational energy path. You kept alive the incentives for wind and other renewable power, and you strengthened vehicle fuel-efficiency standards. These are important steps, but without a concerted effort to launch a comprehensive and ambitious response to the climate challenge in 2013, we face diminishing prospects for averting the worst and most costly effects of a disrupted climate.
    Since your re-election, you have noted with concern that the Earth is warming and the Arctic ice cap is mel

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