VTPI News - Winter 2012
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
Winter 2012 Vol. 12, No. 1
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org ) has many resources addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also provides consulting services.
NEW VTPI DOCUMENTS
The following three papers were presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting:
"Transport Pricing Reforms for Traffic Safety: How Efficient Transport Pricing Can Reduce Roadway Crash Risk" (http://www.vtpi.org/price_safe.pdf )
This report, forthcoming in the Transportation Research Record, evaluates the traffic safety impacts of transport pricing reforms (increased fuel taxes, efficient road and parking pricing, distance-based insurance and registration fees, and public transit fare reductions). This analysis indicates that such reforms can significantly reduce traffic risks, but these benefits are often overlooked in policy analysis and safety planning.
This report critically evaluates the methods used to measure traffic congestion impacts, and applies a more comprehensive evaluation framework to various congestion reduction strategies. Current evaluation methods tend to exaggerate congestion costs and roadway expansion benefits, and underestimate the overall long-term impacts and benefits of pricing reforms, public transit improvements and land use policy reforms. The results indicate that more comprehensive evaluation can help identify more efficient and equitable congestion reduction solutions.
"New Social Equity Agenda for Sustainable Transportation" (http://www.vtpi.org/equityagenda.pdf ), with Marc Brenman
This report discusses the importance of incorporating social equity and environmental justice objectives into transport policy and planning analysis. It recommends a more systematic and comprehensive analysis framework that considers how planning decisions affect transport system diversity and therefore the transport options available to non-drivers, plus various external costs that harm disadvantaged people. More comprehensive analysis can help identify more integrated, win-win solutions, which achieve a variety of social, economic and environmental objectives.
"Comprehensive Evaluation of Transport Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Policies" (http://www.vtpi.org/comp_em_eval.pdf )
This report, submitted for publication in Transportation Research A, identifies factors to consider for comprehensive evaluation of transportation energy conservation and emission reduction policies. It applies this framework to strategies, including cleaner vehicle strategies that reduce emission rates per vehicle-kilometer, and mobility management strategies that reduce total vehicle travel. Analyses that favor clean vehicle strategies tend to overlook or undervalue significant impacts including embodied energy, rebound effects, and co-benefits. More comprehensive analysis tends to favor mobility management.
"Congestion Pricing In Asia: Options and Impacts" (http://www.vtpi.org/files/Delhi_EST_Congestion_Charging_Dec2011.pdf ).
This slideshow, presented at the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation Forum In Asia, New Delhi, India, describes the role that pricing reforms can play in reducing traffic congestion problems in large, growing cities.
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"Smart Traffic Congestion Reductions: A Comprehensive Analysis of Congestion Costs and Congestion Reduction Benefits" (http://www.trafficinfratech.com/smart-traffic-congestion-reductions ).
“Transport Pricing Reforms for More Efficient Cities: Options and Impacts” (http://sutpindia.com/docs/SUTPNewsletter_january2012.pdf ).
These two articles describe the role that pricing reforms can play in reducing traffic problems, particularly in rapidly-developing cities.
"Economic Value of Walkability" (http://www.walk21.com/papers/Litman(1).pdf )
"Can You Spy the Signs: How Walking with Children Can Change the World"
(http://www.walk21.com/papers/Litman,%20Suzanne%20Kort-Can%20you%20spy%20the%20signs.pdf ) and (http://www.walk21.com/papers/Fall%20Poem-S%20Kort%20Litman.pdf ).
These two papers were presented at Walk 21 Conferences.
Todd Litman interviewed by Sanskriti Menon (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQJ0WG0w4fU ) of the Centre for Environment Education India while attending the Urban Mobility India and Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) Form in Asia.
"Mobility Management Solutions to Transport Problems Around the World"
This draft chapter from the new book, "Cars and Carbon: Automobiles and European Climate Policy in a Global Context" (http://www.springer.com/978-94-007-2122-7 ) investigates the role that mobility management should play in an efficient transport system. It describes the basic principles that a transport system must reflect to optimize efficiency and maximize benefits, identifies various transport policy and planning distortions that result in economically-excessive motor vehicle travel, and describes various reforms that correct these distortions, resulting in more efficient transport patterns.
"Health Co-Benefits Of Climate Change Mitigation - Transport Sector: Health In The Green Economy" (http://www.who.int/hia/examples/trspt_comms/transport_sector_health_co-benefits_climate_change_mitigation/en/index.html ).
This World Health Organization report evaluates various health benefits that can result from climate change emission reduction strategies such as improving walking, cycling and public transport travel. VTPI Director Todd Litman was a contributing author.
Recent Planetizen Blogs (http://www.planetizen.com/blog/2394 ):
"Debating Smart Growth" (http://www.planetizen.com/node/54830 )
"Smart Growth And Housing Affordability" (http://www.planetizen.com/node/37958 )
"Optimal Transport Policy For An Uncertain Future" (http://www.planetizen.com/node/54215 )
"Yes, We Can Have a Healthy Environment and Economic Development: Reconciling Conflicting Planning Objectives" (http://www.planetizen.com/node/53449 )
"New Understanding of Pricing Impacts on Travel" (http://www.planetizen.com/node/52865 )
Let’s be friends. Todd Litman regularly posts on his Facebook page (http://www.facebook.com/todd.litman). Befriend him now!
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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD ACTIVITIES
"Sustainable Transportation Indicators Subcommittee" (ADD40) is working to identify practical sustainable transportation performance indicators. Todd Litman chairs this Subcommittee. You can contribute by subscribing to the Sustainable Transport Indicators listserve: lists.cutr.usf.edu/read/all_forums/subscribe?name=sti .
"Transportation Benefit-Cost Analysis Website" (https://sites.google.com/site/benefitcostanalysis ). The TRB Transportation Economics Committee is developing this website to provide detailed guidance on the process of transportation project economic analysis.
"Transportation Demand Management 2012 Conference" (http://www.mobil-tum2012.de ) 19th and 20th March 2012, Munich, Germany
This conference will explore ways to increase transport system efficiency through the use of mobility management strategies. Todd Litman will give a keynote presentation, “Transportation Demand Management: Win-win Solutions to Transport Problems.”
"Velo-city Global" (http://www.velo-city2012.com ) June 26 -29, 2012 in Vancouver, Canada. This is the world's premier international cycling planning conference. The four day event offers delegates from around the world a chance to share best practices for creating and sustaining cycling-friendly cities, where bicycles are valued as part of daily transport and recreation.
"Tiny Helmets Big Bikes" (http://www.tinyhelmetsbigbikes.com ) is a charming website that celebrates, and provides specific advice, for cycling with young children. Elle (mom), Jose (dad), Lennon and Theo (children) describe the joys and challenges of family cycling. Way to go!
"They Call Them Coffin Roads" (http://www.vtpi.org/Vollpracht.pdf ) and “Roads That Serve The Neediest Users, Yet All Too Often Kill Them In The Process,” (http://www.vtpi.org/Diallo.pdf ).
These two articles Hans-Joachim Vollpracht and Boubacar Diallo, published in Routes-Roads, N° 347, World Road Association and posted with the author's permission on our website, describe the severe traffic accident and pollution exposure risks that occur in many lower-income countries as informal commercial and residential districts – "linear settlements" – develop along busy roadways. The authors recommend a combination of traffic speed control, access management and better land use planning to reduce these risks. What do you think is the best way to accomplish this?
"Sustainable Transportation Planning: Tools for Creating Vibrant, Healthy and Resilient Communities,” (http://ca.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470540931.html ) by Jeffrey Tumlin and friends.
This new textbook offers both theory and practical guidance for developing more sustainable transportation systems. Using clear, nontechnical language, it provides step-by-step instructions for implementing smart transportation concepts in cities of all sizes.
"Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking about Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives" (http://islandpress.org/bookstore/detailsyy75.html ), by Jarrett Walker (www.HumanTransit.org )
This new book provides practical guidance for urban transit system development in clear and entertaining prose. This book should be useful to anybody involved in public transit planning, design, or advocacy.
"Better Street, Better Cities: A Guide To Street Design In Urban India" (www.itdp.org/betterstreets).
This beautiful and detailed book produced by the Institute for Transport and Development Policy and the Environmental Planning Collaborative illustrates ways that good design can help create safer streets and more livable public spaces. It describes practical ways to accommodate pedestrians, cyclists and public transport in towns and cities.
"Raising Automobile Dependency: How to Break the Trend?" GIZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project (http://www.sutp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2827 ).
This new report by Urban Transport Specialist Santhosh Kodukula describes the problems created by increasing automobile dependency in developing cities, and practical approaches being used to help create more efficient and diverse transport systems, based on examples from around the world.
"Measuring Public Transport Performance- Lessons for developing cities" (http://www.sutp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2826&Itemid=1&lang=en )
This new report by Chhavi Dhingra describes the role that performance measurement can play in public transportation planning and management, the need for developing cities to adopt performance evaluation, how to do this, and examples from cities across the world.
"Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency" (http://www.sutp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2858 ). This new report by Susanne Böhler-Baedeker and Hanna Hüging describes numerous ways to increase urban transport system energy efficiency, including more efficient and alternative fuel vehicles, mobility management, and smart growth development strategies. Includes examples from cities around the world.
“Europe’s Vibrant New Low Car(bon) Communities,” (http://www.itdp.org/documents/092611_ITDP_NED_Desktop_Print.pdf ).
This report by Nicole Foletta and Simon Field of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy evaluates various examples of resource efficient neighborhoods.
"Mainstreaming Transport Co-Benefits Approach: A Guide To Evaluating Transport Projects" (http://www.iges.or.jp/en/cp/pdf/co-benefits/Transport%20Co-benefits%20Guidelines.pdf ).
This report by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies describes ways to apply co-benefit analysis in order to identify more optimal development policies. Also see the "Asian Cobenefits Partnership" (http://www.cobenefit.org ).
"Changing Course in Urban Transport- An Illustrated Guide" (http://www.sutp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2825 ).
This new book highlights the importance of urban planning, traffic demand management, public transit, non-motorized transport, streetscape design, road planning, low-emission vehicles, and freight planning to promote sustainable transport in rapidly growing cities.
"Global Transport Intelligence Initiative" (http://www.slocat.net/key-slocat-prog/466 ) is working to improve the quality of transport-related data to support more sustainable transport planning.
"Bus do Kadam (Only Two Steps)" (http://www.undp.org.in/sites/default/files/reports_publication/SUTP-Oct2011.pdf ).
This charming article in the GEF-SUTP Quarterly Newsletter describes author L. K. Panigra’s enjoyment of walking, exploring and storytelling.
"Determination Of Personal Exposure To Traffic Pollution While Travelling By Different Modes" (http://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/457 )
"Predicting Walkability" (http://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/452 )
"Assessment Of The Type Of Cycling Infrastructure Required To Attract New Cyclists" (http://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/449 )
"Company Cars And Fringe Benefit Tax – Understanding The Impacts On Strategic Transport Targets" (http://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/474/docs/474.pdf ).
These new research reports by the New Zealand Transport Agency provide useful insights for more efficient transport planning.
"The New California Dream: How Demographic and Economic Trends May Shape the Housing Market" (http://www.uli.org/ResearchAndPublications/~/media/ResearchAndPublications/Report/ULI%20Voices%20Nelson%20The%20New%20California%20Dream.ashx ).
This detailed demographic and economic analysis by Professor Arthur C. Nelson indicates that much of California’s development could be accommodated in transit-oriented neighborhood, but achieving this will require policy changes to allow more compact and mixed development in those areas.
"Urban Retailers Call For More Transit, Less Parking" (http://www.globest.com/news/12_238/newyork/retail/-316347.html )
Major national retailers agreed that the need for mass transportation is beginning to outweigh the need for traditional parking design, according to speakers during day two of the International Council of Shopping Centers’ 2011 New York National Conference.
“Transport Policies, Automobile Use, and Sustainable Transport: A Comparison of Germany and the United States” (http://www.ciens.no/data/no_NO/file/5411.pdf ). This article Ralph Buehler published in the Journal of Planning Education and Research investigate the factors that cause the much higher vehicle travel and fuel consumption rates in the U.S. compared with Germany.
"Who Pays for Roads in Wisconsin? " (http://ssti.us/wp/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/WI_Road%20costs%20report.pdf ).
This University of Wisconsin study found that only about half of roadway expenditures are financed by user fees.
"Traffic in Villages – Safety and Civility for Rural Roads: A Toolkit for Communities," (http://www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/assets/downloads/Rural_Roads_Protocol/trafficinvillages-web.pdf ).
This report provides specific recommendations for better rural village traffic planning. It is based on the Dorset Rural Roads Protocol (www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/our-work/rural-roads.html ), a set of principles and practices to support safer and more livable rural transport planning. Cows are apparently an excellent traffic calming and speed control device.
"Urban Traffic Calming and Health: A Literature Review" (http://www.ncchpp.ca/docs/ReviewLiteratureTrafficCalming_En.pdf ). This report examines how traffic calming affects the number and severity of road collisions, air quality, environmental noise, physical fitness and health.
“Washington’s Complete Streets and Main Street Highways: Case Study Resource,” (http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/LocalPrograms/Planning/MainStreets.htm ).
This Washington State Department of Transportation guidebook provides recommendations and examples for planning complete streets programs and projects.
" 2012 Sustainable Transport Award!" (www.st-award.org )
San Francisco, USA and Medellín, Colombia were declared winners of the 8th annual Sustainable Transport Award. The candidates include a fascinating range of innovative policies and projects around the world that contribute to truly sustainable transport.
“Transport, Physical Activity and Health: Present Knowledge and the Way Ahead, Centre for Transport Studies” (https://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/pdf/transportactivityhealth.pdf ).
This detailed study by Professor Roger L Mackett and Belinda Brown indentifies ways to create healthier transport systems by improving transport options, including carsharing (vehicle rental services that substitute for private ownership).
"Parking Infrastructure: Energy, Emissions, and Automobile Life-cycle Environmental Accounting" (http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/5/3/034001 )
This detailed study by Mikhail Chester, Arpad Horvath, and Samer Madanat estimates the number of parking spaces in the U.S. (105 million and 2 billion spaces), and their environmental costs.
"Walking and Cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the NHTS" (http://www.policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/2001-2009.pdf )
"Active Travel in Germany and the USA: Contributions of Daily Walking and Cycling to Physical Activity" (http://www.policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/dailywalking.pdf ) "Bicycling Renaissance in North America? An Update and Re-Assessment of Cycling Trends and Policies" (http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/TRA960_01April2011.pdf )
These three articles by Ralph Buehler, John Pucher, Dafna Merom, Mark Seinen and Adrian Bauman, evaluate walking and cycling by various demographic groups, discuss factors that affect use of these modes and the health implications of the low rates of active transport in the U.S.
Last but not least:
"23 and 1/2 hours: What is the single best thing we can do for our health?" (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUaInS6HIGo&feature=email )
Very entertaining presentation on the value of regular physical fitness, such as 30 daily minutes of walking. A Doctor-Professor answers the old question "What is the single best thing we can do for our health" in a completely new way.
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“Efficiency - Equity - Clarity