4794VTPI News, Fall 2012
- Dec 10, 2012
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
Fall 2012 Vol. 12, No. 4
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org ) has many resources addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also provides consulting services.
NEW VTPI DOCUMENTS
"Evaluating Complete Streets: The Value of Designing Roads For Diverse Modes, Users and Activities" (http://www.vtpi.org/compstr.pdf )
'Complete streets' refers to roads designed to accommodate diverse modes, users and activities including walking, cycling, public transit, automobile, nearby businesses and residents. Such street design helps create more multi-modal transport systems and more livable communities. This report discusses reasons to implement complete streets and how it relates to other planning innovations. Complete streets can provide many direct and indirect benefits including improved accessibility for non-drivers, user savings and affordability, energy conservation and emission reductions, improved community livability, improved public fitness and health, and support for strategic development objectives such as urban redevelopment and reduced sprawl.
"Safer Than You Think! Revising the Transit Safety Narrative" (http://www.vtpi.org/safer.pdf )
Public transportation is a very safe mode of travel, and total per capita traffic casualties tend to decline as public transit ridership increases in a community. However, many people have the misimpression that transit is dangerous, and so are reluctant to use it or support transit service expansion in their communities. Various factors contribute to this transit dread (excessive and irrational fear), including conventional traffic safety messages, heavy media coverage of transit-related crashes and crimes, and the nature of public transit, which requires travel with strangers in confined spaces. There is much that public transit agencies can do to change the narrative to emphasize the overall safety of public transit travel, improve passengers’ sense of security, and provide better guidance concerning how passengers and communities can enhance transit safety and security.
"Local Funding Options for Public Transportation" (http://www.vtpi.org/tranfund.pdf )
This paper summarizes results of a study that identified and evaluated potential local funding options to help finance public transit improvements. It evaluates eighteen options according to eight criteria. This is a somewhat larger set of funding options and more detailed and systematic evaluation process than most previous studies of this type. This research discovered no new options that are particularly cost effective and easy to implement; each option has disadvantages and constraints. As a result, the overall conclusion of this study is that a variety of funding options should be used to help finance public transit improvements to insure stability and distribute costs broadly.
"Toward More Comprehensive and Multi-modal Transport Evaluation" (http://www.vtpi.org/comp_evaluation.pdf )
This report critically evaluates conventional transport policy and project evaluation practices and describes ways to make them more comprehensive and multi-modal. The conventional transport planning paradigm is mobility-based, it assumes that the planning objective is to maximize travel speed and distance, and evaluates transport system performance based primarily on automobile travel conditions. A new paradigm recognizes that mobility is seldom an end in itself; the ultimate goal of most transport activity is accessibility, which refers to people’s overall ability to reach desired services and activities. This new paradigm expands the range of objectives, impacts and options considered in the planning process. It recognizes additional costs from increased motorized transportation and more benefits from walking, cycling and public transport. More comprehensive and multi-modal planning is particularly important in large growing cities where increased motor vehicle traffic imposes particularly large costs, and in developing countries where a major portion of households cannot afford cars.
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This report examines the methods used to evaluate traffic congestion costs and the benefits of various congestion reduction strategies. It describes various biases in current congestion evaluation practices. It develops a more comprehensive framework for evaluating congestion reduction strategies. It is important that decision makers understand the omissions and biases in current evaluation methods.
This report investigates how demographic and economic trends will affect future transport demands (the amount and type of travel people would choose), and their implications. Motor vehicle travel grew steadily during the Twentieth Century but has started to peak in most developed countries. Aging population, rising fuel prices, increasing urbanization, improving travel options, increasing health and environmental concerns, and changing consumer preferences are reducing demand for automobile travel and increasing demand for alternatives. This paper discusses ways that transport policies and planning practices can respond to these changing demands.
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"Reducing Carbon Emissions through TDM Strategies - A Review of International Examples" (http://tdm-beijing.org/files/International_Review_Executive_Summary.pdf ) for Transport Demand Management in Beijing. This report discusses promising TDM options for Chinese cities. It describes international examples of effective transport policy reforms used in London, Singapore, New York, Berlin, Seoul, San Francisco and other cities.
"Current Mobility Trends – Implications for Sustainability" (http://www.vtpi.org/Keep_Moving_Litman.pdf ) chapter in Keep Moving, Towards Sustainable Mobility, for the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli).
"Comprehensive Evaluation of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Policies" (http://www.vtpi.org/comp_em_eval.pdf ) will be published in Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.
This article uses a comprehensive framework for evaluating various transportation energy conservation and emission reduction strategies.
"You Pay the Toll. Where Should That Money Go? " (http://nyti.ms/UNZlfN ), New York Times Room For Debate.
Recent Planetizen Blogs (http://www.planetizen.com/blog/2394 ):
'Toward Comprehensive and Multi-Modal Performance Evaluation' (http://www.planetizen.com/node/59466 )
'Greetings from Manila' (http://www.planetizen.com/node/59172 )
'Share Your Ideas for Evaluating Transport System Performance' (http://www.planetizen.com/node/58924 )
'Toward More Comprehensive Understanding of Traffic Congestion' (http://www.planetizen.com/node/58429 )
Let’s be friends. Todd Litman regularly posts on his Facebook page (http://www.facebook.com/todd.litman). Befriend him now!
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The Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (http://www.trb.org/AnnualMeeting2013/AnnualMeeting2013.aspx ) takes place January 13-17 in Washington DC. Below are sessions and committee meeting were Todd Litman will present.
Revenue and Finance Showcase
Hilton, International Center
Innovative Approaches and Case Studies in Transit Management and Performance
Hilton, International Center
Valuing Transportation-Related Data
Hilton, International West
Sustainable Transportation Indicators Subcommittee, ADD40(1)
Hilton, Columbia Hall 4
Transport Data Program Development: International Best Practices, Part 1 (Part 2, Session 824)
Hilton, International West
Transport Data Program Development: International Best Practices, Part 2 (Part 1, Session 798)
Hilton, International West
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BEEN THERE, DONE THAT
Discussion of how transport policy affects art and beauty, presented at the ' Flesh and Concrete' art exhibition in Mexico City:
"Integrating Transportation Demand Management Into the Planning and Development Process: A Reference for Cities" (http://www.icommutesd.com/documents/TDMStudy_May2012_webversion_000.pdf ). This guide offers policy makers, planners, traffic engineers, and land development proposal reviewers appropriate case studies and resources for integrating TDM throughout the various land development stages from long-range planning to site development, and recommendations for managing, monitoring, and evaluating TDM program effectiveness.
"The Environmental Paradox of Cities: Getting Around Dubai" (http://www.vtpi.org/Kelbaugh_Dubai.pdf )
This editorial by Professor Douglas Kelbaugh discusses the environmental paradox of cities: when humans inhabit dense urban space they decrease their global environmental impacts but increase their local environmental impacts. It uses the rapid development in Dubai to illustrate ways to maximize urban planning benefits.
"National Urban Street Design Guide" (http://nacto.org/urbanstreetdesignguide-overview )
The National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) Urban Street Design Guide describes the design principles and strategies that can be used to achieve diverse uses within and adjacent to public streets, including walking, cycling, public transit travel, parking, recreation, business activities and living. It is based on the fundamental idea that streets are spaces for people as well as vehicle traffic corridors. The guide provides specific recommendations.
"Steps to a Walkable Community: A Guide for Citizens, Planners, and Engineers" (http://americawalks.org/walksteps )
This comprehensive guide discusses the benefits of more walkable communities and describes numerous strategies that can help create more walkable communities, including both time-tested and innovative techniques that are realistic and achievable.
"Do Not Adapt to Air Pollution – Clean Air Asia launches Hairy Nose Campaign" (www.cleanairasia.org/hairynose ). This humorous campaign inspires urban residents to take action for healthier air.
"Are We There Yet?" (http://reconnectingamerica.org/arewethereyet/home.php ). This new report by Reconnecting America describes why and how to create more complete communities where everybody, including non-drivers, has convenient access to services and activities. It defines and discusses various accessibility indicators and defines “Opportunity Areas,” based on whether a neighborhood achieves walkability and density thresholds needed for a complete, multi-modal community.
"Adolescent Mobility Health Consortium" (https://blogs.otago.ac.nz/amc )
New Zealand researchers have introduced the concept of ‘adolescent mobility health’ which bridges health, safety and sustainable mobility issues by creating communities where young people drive less and rely more on active and public transport.
Slide show at http://epomm.eu/ecomm2012/E15_PK_EU-Projekte/E15_6_Weiss,%20Ward_Adolescent%20mobility%20health.pdf
"Online Complete Streets Design Tool" (http://usdm.upc.gov.ae/usdm_online_tool/USDM_Online_Tool.html ).
This unique resource provides designers, planners, decision makers tools for visualizing complete streets. Although originally developed for use in Abu Dhabi, it is suitable for use in any city.
"The Planning Checklist for Cycling" (https://www.bicyclenetwork.com.au/general/bike-futures/94793 ) is designed to help suburbs improve cycling conditions. It enables planners to make sure new sub-divisions meet current planning and engineering requirements.
"City Cycling" (http://citycyclingbook.wordpress.com ). This new book edited by professors John Pucher and Ralph Buehler offers a guide to this urban cycling renaissance. It reports on cycling trends in cities around the world, and offers information on such topics as cycling safety, and cycling infrastructure provisions including bikeways and bike parking.
"Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets" (http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-10-measuring-the-street.pdf )
This report discusses key approaches to street design projects, and how results can be measured against goals for safety, serving all users and creating great public spaces while also maintaining the flow of traffic.
"Impact of Baby Boomers on U.S. Travel, 1969-2009" (http://www.aarp.org/research/ppi/liv-com2/policy/transportation/articles/impact-of-baby-boomers-on-us-travel-1969-2009-AARP-ppi-liv-com.html ). This new report by Nancy McGuckin and Jana Lynott for the American Association of Retired Persons examines how demographic trends affect travel demands. This analysis explains why vehicle travel grew rapidly during the 1980-2000, and peaked about 2006.
"Expanded Transportation Performance Measures to Supplement Level of Service for Growth Management and Transportation Impact Analysis" (http://www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center/Completed_Proj/Summary_PL/FDOT_BDK77_977-14_rpt.pdf ).
This report by the Florida Department of Transportation discusses methods for evaluating transport system performance, describes current trends toward more comprehensive and multi-modal indicators, and provides a framework for selecting performance measures that are consistent with a community’s strategic goals.
"Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health" (http://www.oecd.org/bookshop?9789282103654 ).
This new report by the International Transport Forum describes why and how to improve walking conditions and create more liveable cities. It identifies 12 government actions to support walking.
"Losing Ground: The Struggle of Moderate-Income Households to Afford the Rising Costs of Housing and Transportation" (https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/472161-losing-ground.html ). This new report by the Center for Housing Policy uses newly available data to evaluate the housing and transportation cost burdens of moderate income households. It identifies where households bear excessive costs.
"Montana Complete Streets Toolkit For Cities, Small Towns and Tribal Communities" (http://www.mtnapa.org/images/Montana%20Complete%20Streets%20Toolkit-August_23_small.pdf )
This toolkit provides guidance to help communities improve healthy and safe transportation options by improving walking and cycling conditions.
"Reinventing Parking" (https://www.facebook.com/pages/Reinventing-Parking/135540786504306 ) by Professor Paul Barter share timely ideas on ways to reform parking policies and planning practices.
"MetroMile" (http://www.metromile.com) began offering pay-per-mile auto insurance in the state of Oregon. It offers motorists a new opportunity to save money by reducing their vehicle travel. MetroMile is targeted at people who drive less than 10,000 miles per year.
"Bicycling Means Business: The Economic Benefits of Bicycling Infrastructure" (http://www.advocacyadvance.org/site_images/content/Final_Econ_Update(small).pdf )
This report discusses the economic benefits of improving cycling conditions, discusses the cost effectiveness of investments, and identifies the cost savings associated with a mode shift from car to bicycle. It concludes that bicycle improvements are often cost effective investments.
"The Correlates of House Price Changes with Geography, Density, Design and Use: Evidence from Philadelphia" (http://www.cnu.org/sites/www.cnu.org/files/finalcnu_phila_report.pdf )
This study indicates that during the 2007-2012 period houses located in more accessible and multi-modal neighborhoods exhibited greater price stability than those located in lower-density, automobile-dependent suburbs.
"Consumer Behavior And Travel Mode Choices" (http://kellyjclifton.com/Research/EconImpactsofBicycling/OTRECReport-ConsBehavTravelChoices_Nov2012.pdf ). This study by the Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium indicates that shoppers who arrive by walking, cycling or public transport tend to spend less per trip but make more trips per month and so spend more in total than automobile shoppers.
"Accessibility Analysis And Transport Planning: Challenges for Europe and North America" (http://www.e-elgar.com/bookentry_main.lasso?id=14718 )
This unique and fascinating new book introduces new accessibility approaches to transport planning across Europe and the United States.
"Livability Literature Review: A Synthesis Of Current Practice" (http://narc.org/wp-content/uploads/Livability-Report-FINAL.pdf ).
This literature review examines ways to define and evaluate livability and sustainability, and how they relate to various current planning concepts including smart growth, complete streets, lifelong communities, safe routes to schools, context sensitive solutions/design, new urbanism, transit-oriented development and placemaking. It provides a foundation for applying more comprehensive community planning, including more accessible development and multi-modal transport planning.
"New Zealand Transportation Agency Post Implementation Reviews" (http://www.nzta.govt.nz/planning/monitoring/audits/pir.html )
This study describes post implementation reviews (PIRs) which evaluate how well transport projects actually achieved their projected goals.
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“Efficiency - Equity - Clarity”
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