An excerpt on the four natural enemies, from Chapter 3
of The Teachings of Don Juan, by Carlos
Sunday, 1962 April 15
As I was getting ready to leave, I decided to
ask him once more about the enemies of a man of knowledge. I argued that I could
not return for some time, and it would be a good idea to write down what he had
to say, and then think about it while I was away.
He hesitated for a while, but then began to talk.
"When a man starts to learn, he is never clear about his objectives.
His purpose is faulty. His intent is vague. He hopes for rewards that will never
materialize, for he knows nothing of the hardships of learning.
"He slowly begins to learn- bit by bit at first, then in big chunks.
And his thoughts soon clash. What he learns is never what he pictured, or
imagined, and so he begins to be afraid. Learning is never what one expects.
Every step of learning is a new task, and the fear the man is experiencing
begins to mount mercilessly, unyieldingly. His purpose becomes a
"And thus he has tumbled upon the first of his natural enemies: Fear! A
terrible enemy- treacherous, and difficult to overcome. It remains concealed at
every turn of the way, prowling, waiting. And if the man, terrified in its
presence, runs away, his enemy will have put an end to his quest."
"What will happen to the man if he runs away in fear?"
"Nothing happens to him except that he will never learn. He will never
become a man of knowledge. He will perhaps be a bully or a harmless, scared man.
At any rate, he will be a defeated man. His first enemy will have put an end to
"And what can he do to overcome fear?"
"The answer is very simple. He must not run away. He must defy his
fear, and in spite of it, he must take the next step in learning, and the next,
and the next. He must be fully afraid, and yet he must not stop. That is the
rule! And a moment will come when his first enemy retreats. The man begins to
feel sure of himself. His intent becomes stronger. Learning is no longer a
"When this joyful moment comes, the man can say without hesitation that
he has defeated his first natural enemy."
"Does it happen at once, don Juan, or little by little?"
"It happens little by little, and yet the fear is vanquished suddenly
"But will the man not be afraid again if something new happens to
"No. Once a man has vanquished fear, he is free from it for the rest of
his life because, instead of fear, he has acquired clarity- a clarity of mind
which erases fear. By then a man knows his desires. He knows how to satisfy
those desires. He can anticipate the new steps of learning, and a sharp clarity
surrounds everything. The man feels that nothing is concealed.
"And thus he has encountered his second enemy: Clarity! That clarity of
mind which is so hard to obtain, dispels fear but also blinds.
"It forces the man never to doubt himself. It gives him the assurance
he can do anything he pleases, for he sees clearly into everything; and he is
courageous because he is clear; and he stops at nothing because he is
"But all that is a mistake. It is like something incomplete. If the man
yields to this make-believe power, he has succumbed to his second enemy and will
fumble with learning. He will rush when he should be patient, or he will be
patient when he should rush; and he will fumble with learning until he winds up
incapable of learning anything more."
"What becomes of a man who is defeated in that way, don Juan? Does he
die as a result?"
"No, he does not die. His second enemy has just stopped him cold from
trying to become a man of knowledge. Instead, the man may turn into a buoyant
warrior, or a clown. Yet the clarity for which he has paid so dearly will never
change to darkness and fear again. He will be clear as long as he lives, but he
will no longer learn, or yearn for anything."
"But what does he have to do to avoid being defeated?"
"He must do what he did with fear. He must defy his clarity and use it
only to see, and wait patiently and measure carefully before taking new steps.
He must think, above all, that his clarity is almost a mistake; and a moment
will come when he will understand that his clarity was only a point before his
"And thus he will have overcome his second enemy, and will arrive at a
position where nothing can harm him any more. This will not be a mistake. It
will not be only a point before his eyes. It will be true power.
"He will know at this point that the power he has been pursuing for so
long is finally his. He can do with it whatever he pleases. His ally is at his
command. His wish is the rule. He sees all that is around him. But he has also
come across his third enemy: Power!
"Power is the strongest of all enemies. And naturally, the easiest
thing to do is to give in. After all, the man is truly invincible. He commands:
He begins by taking calculated risks, and ends in making rules because he is a
"A man at this stage hardly notices his third enemy closing in on him;
and suddenly, without knowing, he will certainly have lost the battle. His enemy
will have turned him into a cruel, capricious man."
"Will he lose his power?"
"No, he will never lose his clarity or his power."
"What then will distinguish him from a man of knowledge?"
"A man who is defeated by power dies without really knowing how to
handle it. Power is only a burden upon his fate. Such a man has no command over
himself, and cannot tell when or how to use his power."
"Is the defeat by any of these enemies a final defeat?"
"Of course it is final. Once one of these enemies overpowers a man
there is nothing he can do."
"Is it possible, for instance, that the man who is defeated by power may
see his error and mend his ways?"
"No. Once a man gives in he is through."
"But what if he is temporarily blinded by power, and then refuses
"That means his battle is still on. That means he is still trying to
become a man of knowledge. A man is defeated only when he no longer tries, and
"But then, don Juan, it is possible that a man may abandon himself to
fear for years, but finally conquer it."
"No, that is not true. If he gives in to fear, he will never conquer it
because he will shy away from learning and never try again. But if he tries to
learn for years in the midst of his fear, he will eventually conquer it because
he will never have really abandoned himself to it."
"How can he defeat his third enemy, don Juan?"
"He has to defy it, deliberately. He has to come to realize the power
he has seemingly conquered is in reality never his. He must keep himself in line
at all times, handling carefully and faithfully all that he has learned. If he
can see that clarity and power without his control over himself are worse than
mistakes, he will reach a point where everything is held in check. He will know
then when and how to use his power; and thus he will have defeated his third
"The man will be, by then, at the end of his journey of learning, and
almost without warning he will come upon the last of his enemies: Old age! This
enemy is the cruelest of all; the one he will not be able to defeat completely,
but only fight away.
"This is the time when a man has no more fears, no more impatient
clarity of mind- a time when all his power is in check, but also the time when
he has an unyielding desire to rest. If he gives in totally to his desire to lie
down and forget; if he soothes himself in tiredness, he will have lost his last
round and his enemy will cut him down into a feeble old creature. His desire to
retreat will overrule all his clarity, his power, and his knowledge.
"But if the man sloughs off his tiredness, and lives his fate through,
he can then be called a man of knowledge; if only for the brief moment when he
succeeds in fighting off his last, invincible enemy. That moment of clarity,
power, and knowledge is enough."
~ ~ ~
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