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European origins laid bare by DNA

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  • Peggy Deras
    I am Haplogroup H. So this interested me. Looks like we originated in Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal. Peggy 10 October 2013 Last updated at 18:23 ET
    Message 1 of 5 , Oct 12, 2013
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      I am Haplogroup H.
      So this interested me.
      Looks like we originated in Iberia
      - modern Spain and Portugal.

      Peggy

      10 October 2013 Last updated at 18:23 ET
      http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24475342

      European origins laid bare by DNA

      The emergence of the Corded Ware Culture involved the spread of people as well as ideas

      Related Stories


      DNA from ancient skeletons has revealed how a complex patchwork of prehistoric migrations fashioned the modern European gene pool.

      The study appears to refute the picture of Europeans as a simple mixture of indigenous hunters and Near Eastern farmers who arrived 7,000 years ago.

      The findings by an international team have been published in Science journal.

      DNA was analysed from 364 skeletons unearthed in Germany - an important crossroads for prehistoric cultures.

      "This is the largest and most detailed genetic time series of Europe yet created, allowing us to establish a complete genetic chronology," said co-author Dr Wolfgang Haak of the Australian Centre for DNA (ACAD) in Adelaide.

      "Focusing on this small but highly important geographic region meant we could generate a gapless record, and directly observe genetic changes in 'real-time' from 7,500 to 3,500 years ago, from the earliest farmers to the early Bronze Age."

      Dr Haak and his colleagues analysed DNA extracted from the teeth and bones of well-preserved remains from the Mittelelbe-Saale region of Germany. They focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - the genetic information in the cell's "batteries".

      MtDNA is passed down from a mother to her children, allowing geneticists to probe the maternal histories of populations. Geneticists recognise a variety of mitochondrial DNA "clans", or lineages, in human populations. And each of these lineages has its own distinct history.

      The team's results show that indigenous hunter-gatherers in Central Europe were edged out by incomers from Anatolia (modern Turkey) some 7,500 years ago. A majority of the hunters belonged to the maternal clan known as haplogroup U, whilst the farmers carried a selection of genetic lineages characteristic of the Near East.

      Around 6,100 years ago, farming was introduced to Scandinavia, which coincided with the appearance of Neolithic mtDNA lineages in that region too.

      "In some ways agriculture was an obvious and easy way to go in the Fertile Crescent. But once you take it out of there, it involves an abrupt shift in lifestyle," said Dr Spencer Wells, director of the Genographic Project and an Explorer-in-Residence at National Geographic, adding that early agricultural groups were living "on the edge".

      "They were basically taking crops that had evolved over millions of years in the Middle East and were adapted to that dry-wet pattern of seasonality and moving them into an area that was recently de-glaciated.
      The Bell Beaker folk seem to represent a migration from south-west Europe

      "It was no trivial thing to transfer crops such as barley and rye to the northern fringes of Europe."

      Dr Wells thinks this precarious existence may be reflected in the spread of the lactase persistence gene, which enables people to digest milk into adulthood. Scandinavian populations have some of the highest frequencies of this gene variant in Europe, and it appears to have undergone strong natural selection in the last few thousand years - suggesting milk had a key nutritional role and the ability to drink it conferred an enormous advantage.

      "What it implies is that the underlying farming culture is not stable. They are literally teetering on the brink of dying out," said Dr Wells.

      Indeed, something does seem to have happened to the descendents of the first farmers in Central Europe. The DNA evidence shows that about a millennium later, genetic lineages associated with these Near Eastern pioneers decline, and those of the hunter-gatherers bounce back. Climate change and disease are both possibilities, but the causes are a matter for further investigation.

      A second study, also published in Science by Ruth Bollongino at the University of Mainz, Germany and colleagues, implies that hunter-gatherer cultures persisted alongside farming cultures for 2,000 years after the introduction of agriculture to the region - with very little interbreeding between the two.

      From 4,800 years ago, novel maternal lineages spread into the region, associated with the emergence of the Corded Ware people - who take their name from the inscribed patterns on their pottery.

      The study suggests this culture was brought by groups moving in from the East. Scientists compared the mtDNA types found in Corded Ware people with modern populations and found distinct affinities with present-day groups in Eastern Europe, the Baltic region and the Caucasus.

      A few hundred years later, a counterpart of this society swept in from the West. This ancient group, known as the Bell Beaker Culture, was in part responsible for the spread of a mtDNA lineage called Haplogroup H.
      Scientists take many precautions to avoid ancient samples being contaminated with modern DNA

      Largely absent from Central European hunters and scarce in early Neolithic farmers, H remains the dominant maternal lineage in Europe today and comparisons between the Bell Beaker people and modern populations suggest they came from Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal.

      "Our study shows that a simple mix of indigenous hunter-gatherers and the incoming Near Eastern farmers cannot explain the modern-day diversity alone," said co-author Guido Brandt, from the University of Mainz.

      "The genetic results are much more complex than that. Instead, we found that two particular cultures at the brink of the Bronze Age 4,200 years ago had a marked role in the formation of Central Europe's genetic makeup."

      Spencer Wells explained: "When you look at today's populations, what you are seeing is a hazy palimpsest of what actually went on to create present-day patterns."

      Dr Haak concurs: "None of the dynamic changes we observed could have been inferred from modern-day genetic data alone, highlighting the potential power of combining ancient DNA studies with archaeology to reconstruct human evolutionary history."

    • JOEL SR
      Hola Peggy: Sugiero que consulten la Página Web de El Dr. Donald N. Yates PH.D.. Sitio es Cherokee ADN fase II. Desde que los europeos llegaron a América del
      Message 2 of 5 , Oct 12, 2013
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        Hola Peggy:
        Sugiero que consulten la Página Web de
        El Dr. Donald N. Yates PH.D..
        Sitio es Cherokee ADN fase II. Desde que los europeos llegaron a América del Norte han cambiado los haplogrupos con nativos americanos debido a la mezcla de las razas.
        Te puedo enviar su número de teléfono si usted está interesado.
        Cuídate
           
        Joel K. Harris, Sr., Ph.D.
        From: Peggy Deras <pderas@...>
        To: MexicoDNAProject-yahoogroups.com <MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Saturday, October 12, 2013 1:46 PM
        Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] European origins laid bare by DNA
         
        I am Haplogroup H.
        So this interested me.
        Looks like we originated in Iberia
        - modern Spain and Portugal.

        Peggy

        10 October 2013 Last updated at 18:23 ET
        http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24475342

        European origins laid bare by DNA

        The emergence of the Corded Ware Culture involved the spread of people as well as ideas

        Related Stories


        DNA from ancient skeletons has revealed how a complex patchwork of prehistoric migrations fashioned the modern European gene pool.

        The study appears to refute the picture of Europeans as a simple mixture of indigenous hunters and Near Eastern farmers who arrived 7,000 years ago.

        The findings by an international team have been published in Science journal.DNA was analysed from 364 skeletons unearthed in Germany - an important crossroads for prehistoric cultures.

        "This is the largest and most detailed genetic time series of Europe yet created, allowing us to establish a complete genetic chronology," said co-author Dr Wolfgang Haak of the Australian Centre for DNA (ACAD) in Adelaide.

        "Focusing on this small but highly important geographic region meant we could generate a gapless record, and directly observe genetic changes in 'real-time' from 7,500 to 3,500 years ago, from the earliest farmers to the early Bronze Age."

        Dr Haak and his colleagues analysed DNA extracted from the teeth and bones of well-preserved remains from the Mittelelbe-Saale region of Germany. They focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - the genetic information in the cell's "batteries".

        MtDNA is passed down from a mother to her children, allowing geneticists to probe the maternal histories of populations. Geneticists recognise a variety of mitochondrial DNA "clans", or lineages, in human populations. And each of these lineages has its own distinct history. The team's results show that indigenous hunter-gatherers in Central Europe were edged out by incomers from Anatolia (modern Turkey) some 7,500 years ago. A majority of the hunters belonged to the maternal clan known as haplogroup U, whilst the farmers carried a selection of genetic lineages characteristic of the Near East. Around 6,100 years ago, farming was introduced to Scandinavia, which coincided with the appearance of Neolithic mtDNA lineages in that region too. "In some ways agriculture was an obvious and easy way to go in the Fertile Crescent. But once you take it out of there, it involves an abrupt shift in lifestyle," said Dr Spencer Wells, director of the Genographic Project and an Explorer-in-Residence at National Geographic, adding that early agricultural groups were living "on the edge". "They were basically taking crops that had evolved over millions of years in the Middle East and were adapted to that dry-wet pattern of seasonality and moving them into an area that was recently de-glaciated. The Bell Beaker folk seem to represent a migration from south-west Europe "It was no trivial thing to transfer crops such as barley and rye to the northern fringes of Europe." Dr Wells thinks this precarious existence may be reflected in the spread of the lactase persistence gene, which enables people to digest milk into adulthood. Scandinavian populations have some of the highest frequencies of this gene variant in Europe, and it appears to have undergone strong natural selection in the last few thousand years - suggesting milk had a key nutritional role and the ability to drink it conferred an enormous advantage. "What it implies is that the underlying farming culture is not stable. They are literally teetering on the brink of dying out," said Dr Wells. Indeed, something does seem to have happened to the descendents of the first farmers in Central Europe. The DNA evidence shows that about a millennium later, genetic lineages associated with these Near Eastern pioneers decline, and those of the hunter-gatherers bounce back. Climate change and disease are both possibilities, but the causes are a matter for further investigation. A second study, also published in Science by Ruth Bollongino at the University of Mainz, Germany and colleagues, implies that hunter-gatherer cultures persisted alongside farming cultures for 2,000 years after the introduction of agriculture to the region - with very little interbreeding between the two. From 4,800 years ago, novel maternal lineages spread into the region, associated with the emergence of the Corded Ware people - who take their name from the inscribed patterns on their pottery. The study suggests this culture was brought by groups moving in from the East. Scientists compared the mtDNA types found in Corded Ware people with modern populations and found distinct affinities with present-day groups in Eastern Europe, the Baltic region and the Caucasus. A few hundred years later, a counterpart of this society swept in from the West. This ancient group, known as the Bell Beaker Culture, was in part responsible for the spread of a mtDNA lineage called Haplogroup H. Scientists take many precautions to avoid ancient samples being contaminated with modern DNA Largely absent from Central European hunters and scarce in early Neolithic farmers, H remains the dominant maternal lineage in Europe today and comparisons between the Bell Beaker people and modern populations suggest they came from Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal. "Our study shows that a simple mix of indigenous hunter-gatherers and the incoming Near Eastern farmers cannot explain the modern-day diversity alone," said co-author Guido Brandt, from the University of Mainz. "The genetic results are much more complex than that. Instead, we found that two particular cultures at the brink of the Bronze Age 4,200 years ago had a marked role in the formation of Central Europe's genetic makeup." Spencer Wells explained: "When you look at today's populations, what you are seeing is a hazy palimpsest of what actually went on to create present-day patterns." Dr Haak concurs: "None of the dynamic changes we observed could have been inferred from modern-day genetic data alone, highlighting the potential power of combining ancient DNA studies with archaeology to reconstruct human evolutionary history."
      • garyf@pacbell.net
        Hi Peggy,this second study implies that the idea of hunter gatherers and farmers in Central Europe, living together for over a thousand years is newly found.
        Message 3 of 5 , Oct 12, 2013
        • 0 Attachment
          Hi Peggy,
          this second study implies that the idea of hunter gatherers and farmers in Central Europe, living together for over a thousand years is newly found.
          > A second study, 
          >  also 
          > published in Science by Ruth Bollongino at the University of Mainz, 
          > Germany and colleagues, implies that hunter-gatherer cultures 
          > persisted alongside farming cultures for 2,000 years after the 
          > introduction of agriculture to the region - with very little 
          > interbreeding between the two.

          There has been archaeological evidence of this as sited in my post on Rootsweb DNA  28 Apr 2012:

          List,
          from what I have read of the lowlands the Mesolithic held off farmers for over 1K years.  In Southeastern France the Mesolithic kept their religion even after fully adopting farming.  
           
          I suspect the hunter gatherers (HG) slowly adopted some facets of the farming toolkit until they were fully enveloped in having to feed their offspring. 
           
          Looks like they stayed away from each other with farmers clearing forest that the HG didn't need.  5K years ago there was nowhere else to go in Europe.
           
          _______________________

          This also occurred in the North Sea area with Hunter Gatherers holding the upper hand there.

          I mentioned on the rootsweb list some years back that Lactose Persistence was key in the Hunter Gatherer expansion in Western Europe where it is most prevalent.
          For the Neolithic it was Wheat. For the East Asians it was Rice. For Mesoamerica it Corn and Potatoes. All supply much energy for farming. 

          Thank you for making the group aware of this article
           Gary
          Mexico DNA Project Admin.


          --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Peggy Deras wrote:
          >
          > I am Haplogroup H.
          > So this interested me.
          > Looks like we originated in Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal.
          >
          > Peggy
          >
          > 10 October 2013 Last updated at 18:23 ET
          > http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24475342
          >
          > European origins laid bare by DNA
          >
          > The emergence of the Corded Ware Culture involved the spread of
          > people as well as ideas
          >
          > Related Stories
          >
          > * Making
          > of Europe unlocked by DNA
          > * DNA
          > reveals origin of Minoan culture
          > * Farming
          > 'spread by migrant wave'
          >
          > DNA from ancient skeletons has revealed how a complex patchwork of
          > prehistoric migrations fashioned the modern European gene pool.
          >
          > The study appears to refute the picture of Europeans as a simple
          > mixture of indigenous hunters and Near Eastern farmers who arrived
          > 7,000 years ago.
          >
          > The findings by an international team have been published in Science journal.
          >
          > DNA was analysed from 364 skeletons unearthed in Germany - an
          > important crossroads for prehistoric cultures.
          >
          > "This is the largest and most detailed genetic time series of Europe
          > yet created, allowing us to establish a complete genetic chronology,"
          > said co-author Dr Wolfgang Haak of the Australian Centre for DNA
          > (ACAD) in Adelaide.
          >
          > "Focusing on this small but highly important geographic region meant
          > we could generate a gapless record, and directly observe genetic
          > changes in 'real-time' from 7,500 to 3,500 years ago, from the
          > earliest farmers to the early Bronze Age."
          >
          > Dr Haak and his colleagues analysed DNA extracted from the teeth and
          > bones of well-preserved remains from the Mittelelbe-Saale region of
          > Germany. They focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - the genetic
          > information in the cell's "batteries".
          >
          > MtDNA is passed down from a mother to her children, allowing
          > geneticists to probe the maternal histories of populations.
          > Geneticists recognise a variety of mitochondrial DNA "clans", or
          > lineages, in human populations. And each of these lineages has its
          > own distinct history.
          >
          > The team's results show that indigenous hunter-gatherers in Central
          > Europe were edged out by incomers from Anatolia (modern Turkey) some
          > 7,500 years ago. A majority of the hunters belonged to the maternal
          > clan known as haplogroup U, whilst the farmers carried a selection of
          > genetic lineages characteristic of the Near East.
          >
          > Around 6,100 years ago, farming was introduced to Scandinavia, which
          > coincided with the appearance of Neolithic mtDNA lineages in that region too.
          >
          > "In some ways agriculture was an obvious and easy way to go in the
          > Fertile Crescent. But once you take it out of there, it involves an
          > abrupt shift in lifestyle," said Dr Spencer Wells, director of the
          > Genographic Project and an
          > Explorer-in-Residence at National Geographic, adding that early
          > agricultural groups were living "on the edge".
          >
          > "They were basically taking crops that had evolved over millions of
          > years in the Middle East and were adapted to that dry-wet pattern of
          > seasonality and moving them into an area that was recently de-glaciated.
          > The Bell Beaker folk seem to represent a migration from south-west Europe
          >
          > "It was no trivial thing to transfer crops such as barley and rye to
          > the northern fringes of Europe."
          >
          > Dr Wells thinks this precarious existence may be reflected in the
          > spread of the lactase persistence gene, which enables people to
          > digest milk into adulthood. Scandinavian populations have some of the
          > highest frequencies of this gene variant in Europe, and it appears to
          > have undergone strong natural selection in the last few thousand
          > years - suggesting milk had a key nutritional role and the ability to
          > drink it conferred an enormous advantage.
          >
          > "What it implies is that the underlying farming culture is not
          > stable. They are literally teetering on the brink of dying out," said Dr Wells.
          >
          > Indeed, something does seem to have happened to the descendents of
          > the first farmers in Central Europe. The DNA evidence shows that
          > about a millennium later, genetic lineages associated with these Near
          > Eastern pioneers decline, and those of the hunter-gatherers bounce
          > back. Climate change and disease are both possibilities, but the
          > causes are a matter for further investigation.
          >
          > A second study,
          > also
          > published in Science by Ruth Bollongino at the University of Mainz,
          > Germany and colleagues, implies that hunter-gatherer cultures
          > persisted alongside farming cultures for 2,000 years after the
          > introduction of agriculture to the region - with very little
          > interbreeding between the two.
          >
          > From 4,800 years ago, novel maternal lineages spread into the
          > region, associated with the emergence of the Corded Ware people - who
          > take their name from the inscribed patterns on their pottery.
          >
          > The study suggests this culture was brought by groups moving in from
          > the East. Scientists compared the mtDNA types found in Corded Ware
          > people with modern populations and found distinct affinities with
          > present-day groups in Eastern Europe, the Baltic region and the Caucasus.
          >
          > A few hundred years later, a counterpart of this society swept in
          > from the West. This ancient group, known as the Bell Beaker Culture,
          > was in part responsible for the spread of a mtDNA lineage called Haplogroup H.
          > Scientists take many precautions to avoid ancient samples being
          > contaminated with modern DNA
          >
          > Largely absent from Central European hunters and scarce in early
          > Neolithic farmers, H remains the dominant maternal lineage in Europe
          > today and comparisons between the Bell Beaker people and modern
          > populations suggest they came from Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal.
          >
          > "Our study shows that a simple mix of indigenous hunter-gatherers and
          > the incoming Near Eastern farmers cannot explain the modern-day
          > diversity alone," said co-author Guido Brandt, from the University of Mainz.
          >
          > "The genetic results are much more complex than that. Instead, we
          > found that two particular cultures at the brink of the Bronze Age
          > 4,200 years ago had a marked role in the formation of Central
          > Europe's genetic makeup."
          >
          > Spencer Wells explained: "When you look at today's populations, what
          > you are seeing is a hazy palimpsest of what actually went on to
          > create present-day patterns."
          >
          > Dr Haak concurs: "None of the dynamic changes we observed could have
          > been inferred from modern-day genetic data alone, highlighting the
          > potential power of combining ancient DNA studies with archaeology to
          > reconstruct human evolutionary history."
          >
        • Gary Felix
          Hi Peggy, haplogroup H has a wide disperal pattern and is very old. H1 and H3 appear to dominate Western Europe and appear to have come from N. Iberia and S.
          Message 4 of 5 , Oct 13, 2013
          • 0 Attachment
            Hi Peggy,
            haplogroup H has a wide disperal pattern and is very old. H1 and H3 appear to dominate Western Europe and appear to have come from N. Iberia and S. France.

            H5 for instance is currently most prevalent in Lebanon with hot-spots in Ireland and Poland.

            H appears to have come out of Central Asia and headed west and ended up in refugiums at various locations in the south.

            Gary


            From: Peggy Deras <pderas@...>
            To: MexicoDNAProject-yahoogroups.com <MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Saturday, October 12, 2013 10:46 AM
            Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] European origins laid bare by DNA

             
            I am Haplogroup H.
            So this interested me.
            Looks like we originated in Iberia
            - modern Spain and Portugal.

            Peggy

            10 October 2013 Last updated at 18:23 ET
            http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24475342
            DNA reveals origin of Minoan culture Farming 'spread by migrant wave'
            DNA from ancient skeletons has revealed how a complex patchwork of prehistoric migrations fashioned the modern European gene pool.

            The study appears to refute the picture of Europeans as a simple mixture of indigenous hunters and Near Eastern farmers who arrived 7,000 years ago.

            The findings by an international team have been
            published in Science journal.

            DNA was analysed from 364 skeletons unearthed in Germany - an important crossroads for prehistoric cultures.

            "This is the largest and most detailed genetic time series of Europe yet created, allowing us to establish a complete genetic chronology," said co-author Dr Wolfgang Haak of the Australian Centre for DNA (ACAD) in Adelaide.

            "Focusing on this small but highly important geographic region meant we could generate a gapless record, and directly observe genetic changes in 'real-time' from 7,500 to 3,500 years ago, from the earliest farmers to the early Bronze Age."

            Dr Haak and his colleagues analysed DNA extracted from the teeth and bones of well-preserved remains from the Mittelelbe-Saale region of Germany. They focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - the genetic information in the cell's "batteries".

            MtDNA is passed down from a mother to her children, allowing geneticists to probe the maternal histories of populations. Geneticists recognise a variety of mitochondrial DNA "clans", or lineages, in human populations. And each of these lineages has its own distinct history.

            The team's results show that indigenous hunter-gatherers in Central Europe were edged out by incomers from Anatolia (modern Turkey) some 7,500 years ago. A majority of the hunters belonged to the maternal clan known as haplogroup U, whilst the farmers carried a selection of genetic lineages characteristic of the Near East.

            Around 6,100 years ago, farming was introduced to Scandinavia, which coincided with the appearance of Neolithic mtDNA lineages in that region too.

            "In some ways agriculture was an obvious and easy way to go in the Fertile Crescent. But once you take it out of there, it involves an abrupt shift in lifestyle," said Dr Spencer Wells, director of the Genographic Project and an Explorer-in-Residence at National Geographic, adding that early agricultural groups were living "on the edge".

            "They were basically taking crops that had evolved over millions of years in the Middle East and were adapted to that dry-wet pattern of seasonality and moving them into an area that was recently de-glaciated.
            The Bell Beaker folk seem to represent a migration from south-west Europe

            "It was no trivial thing to transfer crops such as barley and rye to the northern fringes of Europe."

            Dr Wells thinks this precarious existence may be reflected in the spread of the lactase persistence gene, which enables people to digest milk into adulthood. Scandinavian populations have some of the highest frequencies of this gene variant in Europe, and it appears to have undergone strong natural selection in the last few thousand years - suggesting milk had a key nutritional role and the ability to drink it conferred an enormous advantage.

            "What it implies is that the underlying farming culture is not stable. They are literally teetering on the brink of dying out," said Dr Wells.

            Indeed, something does seem to have happened to the descendents of the first farmers in Central Europe. The DNA evidence shows that about a millennium later, genetic lineages associated with these Near Eastern pioneers decline, and those of the hunter-gatherers bounce back. Climate change and disease are both possibilities, but the causes are a matter for further investigation.

            A second study, also published in Science by Ruth Bollongino at the University of Mainz, Germany and colleagues, implies that hunter-gatherer cultures persisted alongside farming cultures for 2,000 years after the introduction of agriculture to the region - with very little interbreeding between the two.

            From 4,800 years ago, novel maternal lineages spread into the region, associated with the emergence of the Corded Ware people - who take their name from the inscribed patterns on their pottery.

            The study suggests this culture was brought by groups moving in from the East. Scientists compared the mtDNA types found in Corded Ware people with modern populations and found distinct affinities with present-day groups in Eastern Europe, the Baltic region and the Caucasus.

            A few hundred years later, a counterpart of this society swept in from the West. This ancient group, known as the Bell Beaker Culture, was in part responsible for the spread of a mtDNA lineage called Haplogroup H.
            Scientists take many precautions to avoid ancient samples being contaminated with modern DNA

            Largely absent from Central European hunters and scarce in early Neolithic farmers, H remains the dominant maternal lineage in Europe today and comparisons between the Bell Beaker people and modern populations suggest they came from Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal.

            "Our study shows that a simple mix of indigenous hunter-gatherers and the incoming Near Eastern farmers cannot explain the modern-day diversity alone," said co-author Guido Brandt, from the University of Mainz.

            "The genetic results are much more complex than that. Instead, we found that two particular cultures at the brink of the Bronze Age 4,200 years ago had a marked role in the formation of Central Europe's genetic makeup."

            Spencer Wells explained: "When you look at today's populations, what you are seeing is a hazy palimpsest of what actually went on to create present-day patterns."

            Dr Haak concurs: "None of the dynamic changes we observed could have been inferred from modern-day genetic data alone, highlighting the potential power of combining ancient DNA studies with archaeology to reconstruct human evolutionary history."



          • Teddi Montes
            Lucia Efigenia Millan (married to Juan Carrillo-founder of the Carrillos of Baja and Alta California1700-on), the daughter of Lazaro Millan (who is found on
            Message 5 of 5 , Oct 13, 2013
            • 0 Attachment
               Lucia Efigenia Millan (married to Juan Carrillo-founder of the Carrillos of Baja and Alta California1700-on), the daughter of Lazaro Millan (who is found on the roster for the 1695 Pima wars in Sonora and also found as a mission servant, 1730, Mision de Comondu, Baja California Sur) and is the ONLY MIllan on the peninsula pre-1750), is the furthest back female (maternal) line of my paternal aunt.   The mtDNA haplo for her is H5a3b.  

              So this is one female line w a non-Native mtDNAhaplo.
              Just thought I'd throw this out there since this a topic (H).

              Teddi Montes
              The Californio DNA Project


              On Oct 13, 2013, at 10:44 AM, Gary Felix wrote:

               

              Hi Peggy,
              haplogroup H has a wide disperal pattern and is very old. H1 and H3 appear to dominate Western Europe and appear to have come from N. Iberia and S. France.

              H5 for instance is currently most prevalent in Lebanon with hot-spots in Ireland and Poland.

              H appears to have come out of Central Asia and headed west and ended up in refugiums at various locations in the south.

              Gary


              From: Peggy Deras <pderas@...>
              To: MexicoDNAProject-yahoogroups.com <MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com>
              Sent: Saturday, October 12, 2013 10:46 AM
              Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] European origins laid bare by DNA

               
              I am Haplogroup H.
              So this interested me.
              Looks like we originated in Iberia
              - modern Spain and Portugal.

              Peggy

              10 October 2013 Last updated at 18:23 ET
              http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24475342
              DNA reveals origin of Minoan culture Farming 'spread by migrant wave'
              DNA from ancient skeletons has revealed how a complex patchwork of prehistoric migrations fashioned the modern European gene pool.

              The study appears to refute the picture of Europeans as a simple mixture of indigenous hunters and Near Eastern farmers who arrived 7,000 years ago.

              The findings by an international team have been
              published in Science journal.

              DNA was analysed from 364 skeletons unearthed in Germany - an important crossroads for prehistoric cultures.

              "This is the largest and most detailed genetic time series of Europe yet created, allowing us to establish a complete genetic chronology," said co-author Dr Wolfgang Haak of the Australian Centre for DNA (ACAD) in Adelaide.

              "Focusing on this small but highly important geographic region meant we could generate a gapless record, and directly observe genetic changes in 'real-time' from 7,500 to 3,500 years ago, from the earliest farmers to the early Bronze Age."

              Dr Haak and his colleagues analysed DNA extracted from the teeth and bones of well-preserved remains from the Mittelelbe-Saale region of Germany. They focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - the genetic information in the cell's "batteries".

              MtDNA is passed down from a mother to her children, allowing geneticists to probe the maternal histories of populations. Geneticists recognise a variety of mitochondrial DNA "clans", or lineages, in human populations. And each of these lineages has its own distinct history.

              The team's results show that indigenous hunter-gatherers in Central Europe were edged out by incomers from Anatolia (modern Turkey) some 7,500 years ago. A majority of the hunters belonged to the maternal clan known as haplogroup U, whilst the farmers carried a selection of genetic lineages characteristic of the Near East.

              Around 6,100 years ago, farming was introduced to Scandinavia, which coincided with the appearance of Neolithic mtDNA lineages in that region too.

              "In some ways agriculture was an obvious and easy way to go in the Fertile Crescent. But once you take it out of there, it involves an abrupt shift in lifestyle," said Dr Spencer Wells, director of the Genographic Project and an Explorer-in-Residence at National Geographic, adding that early agricultural groups were living "on the edge".

              "They were basically taking crops that had evolved over millions of years in the Middle East and were adapted to that dry-wet pattern of seasonality and moving them into an area that was recently de-glaciated.
              The Bell Beaker folk seem to represent a migration from south-west Europe

              "It was no trivial thing to transfer crops such as barley and rye to the northern fringes of Europe."

              Dr Wells thinks this precarious existence may be reflected in the spread of the lactase persistence gene, which enables people to digest milk into adulthood. Scandinavian populations have some of the highest frequencies of this gene variant in Europe, and it appears to have undergone strong natural selection in the last few thousand years - suggesting milk had a key nutritional role and the ability to drink it conferred an enormous advantage.

              "What it implies is that the underlying farming culture is not stable. They are literally teetering on the brink of dying out," said Dr Wells.

              Indeed, something does seem to have happened to the descendents of the first farmers in Central Europe. The DNA evidence shows that about a millennium later, genetic lineages associated with these Near Eastern pioneers decline, and those of the hunter-gatherers bounce back. Climate change and disease are both possibilities, but the causes are a matter for further investigation.

              A second study, also published in Science by Ruth Bollongino at the University of Mainz, Germany and colleagues, implies that hunter-gatherer cultures persisted alongside farming cultures for 2,000 years after the introduction of agriculture to the region - with very little interbreeding between the two.

              From 4,800 years ago, novel maternal lineages spread into the region, associated with the emergence of the Corded Ware people - who take their name from the inscribed patterns on their pottery.

              The study suggests this culture was brought by groups moving in from the East. Scientists compared the mtDNA types found in Corded Ware people with modern populations and found distinct affinities with present-day groups in Eastern Europe, the Baltic region and the Caucasus.

              A few hundred years later, a counterpart of this society swept in from the West. This ancient group, known as the Bell Beaker Culture, was in part responsible for the spread of a mtDNA lineage called Haplogroup H.
              Scientists take many precautions to avoid ancient samples being contaminated with modern DNA

              Largely absent from Central European hunters and scarce in early Neolithic farmers, H remains the dominant maternal lineage in Europe today and comparisons between the Bell Beaker people and modern populations suggest they came from Iberia - modern Spain and Portugal.

              "Our study shows that a simple mix of indigenous hunter-gatherers and the incoming Near Eastern farmers cannot explain the modern-day diversity alone," said co-author Guido Brandt, from the University of Mainz.

              "The genetic results are much more complex than that. Instead, we found that two particular cultures at the brink of the Bronze Age 4,200 years ago had a marked role in the formation of Central Europe's genetic makeup."

              Spencer Wells explained: "When you look at today's populations, what you are seeing is a hazy palimpsest of what actually went on to create present-day patterns."

              Dr Haak concurs: "None of the dynamic changes we observed could have been inferred from modern-day genetic data alone, highlighting the potential power of combining ancient DNA studies with archaeology to reconstruct human evolutionary history."





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