23andme Health Testing
- Hi Peggy,studies of genetics are based on the three main populations, Sub Saharan, East Asian and Europeans. At 23andme the results you get are based on one of these three populations. The problem is we have a mixture of European and Native American and much of our genetics are from our Native American ancestors like Diabetes which runs highest in the Native American population. Different genes in these different populations can have the same results.Here is an example:
Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture.
The T(-13910) variant located in the enhancer element of the lactase (LCT) gene correlates perfectly with lactase persistence (LP) in Eurasian populations whereas the variant is almost nonexistent among Sub-Saharan African populations, showing high prevalence of LP. Here, we report identification of two new mutations among Saudis, also known for the high prevalence of LP. We confirmed the absence of the European T(-13910) and established two new mutations found as a compound allele: T/G(-13915) within the -13910 enhancer region and a synonymous SNP in the exon 17 of the MCM6 gene T/C(-3712), -3712 bp from the LCT gene. The compound allele is driven to a high prevalence among Middle East population(s). Our functional analyses in vitro showed that both SNPs of the compound allele, located 10 kb apart, are required for the enhancer effect, most probably mediated through the binding of the hepatic nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1 alpha). High selection coefficient (s) approximately 0.04 for LP phenotype was found for both T(-13910) and the compound allele. The European T(-13910) and the earlier identified East African G(-13907) LP allele share the same ancestral background and most likely the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption. These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture.
Mexico DNA Project Admin.--- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Peggy Deras wrote:>
> Since we are discussing the medical side of DNA testing, I have a
> question for Gary, Joel & Robert:
> Prior to receiving my 23 and Me results I ran through their entire
> battery of questionnaires.
> Some questions were about any illnesses I may have.
> I told them I was Type 2 diabetic and had essential tremor, a common
> movement disorder (my hands and head shake).
> Essential tremor is definitely a genetic illness.
> My mother, myself, a brother, and my daughter all have it.
> Yet, my results say I have "typical" risk of having these disorders,
> not "elevated".
> I said "huh?"
> Does this simply mean that the science is not yet there to read the
> genetic basis for my versions of these disorders?