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Udacity course - Tales from the Genome

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  • Peggy Deras
    I just took the first course of this series. Hopefully I ll understand better what I m doing with my DNA testing after completing all of them. Thought maybe
    Message 1 of 10 , Sep 30, 2013
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      I just took the first course of this series.
      Hopefully I'll understand better what I'm doing with my DNA testing  after completing all of them.
      Thought maybe others here might enjoy it too.
      It's FREE!

      Peggy

      Tuesday, September 17, 2013


      Udacity Genetics Course Launching September 30th

      Hi Udacity! Together with personal genetics company 23andMe, Udacity has developed an exciting new introductory course, Tales from the Genome, where you will take a journey into the biology of the human genome and learn basic genetics. Make sure to sign up for the course, which launches on September 30th, and share with your friends!




      Although the whole course will be a learning extravaganza, Lesson 7 will be particularly handy when you want to read and understand genetic information available from personal genetics services such as 23andMe. We�re very excited to announce that 23andMe is offering a sweepstakes of 50 personal DNA testing kits for Tales from the Genome students! To be eligible, students must enroll in the course by October 31, 2013, and be based in the US. Winners will be announced on November 6, 2013. See the official rules here.


      To be eligible, students must:

      • Sign up for an account at 23andMe.com (both free demo account and Personal Genome Service accounts are eligible);
      • Sign up for an account at Udacity.com using the same email address as 23andMe account;
      • Enroll in Udacity�s course, Tales from the Genome; and
      • Complete any two lessons and two problem sets in Tales from the Genome.  The participant must answer all quiz questions within any two lessons and all questions within any two problem sets correctly.  These problem sets do not need to correspond to the two lessons completed. 


      Want to get started early with Tales from the Genome? You�re in luck, because course instructor Dr. Matt Cook has created a special bonus lesson, DIY Genetics: DNA Extraction in Your Kitchen. Grab a DIY buddy and get ready to get messy with DNA in your kitchen!
      - See more at: http://blog.udacity.com/2013/09/udacity-genetics-course-launching.html?utm_source=sendgrid&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=bio930#sthash.AWz75WO4.dpuf

    • garyf@pacbell.net
      Looks like a very good course Peggy. This is the way of the future when it comes to health. Genome research is happening all the time and specific genes are
      Message 2 of 10 , Oct 2, 2013
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        Looks like a very good course Peggy. This is the way of the future when it comes to health. Genome research is happening all the time and specific genes are associated with health risks or benefits.

        I saw recently a study at 23andme.com where my most variant genes have been identified an association with longevity and telemere length. I wasn't fortunate enough to have the right variants that would indicate a long life.

        Gary
        Living for the moment

        --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Peggy Deras <pderas@...> wrote:
        >
        > I just took the first course of this series.
        > Hopefully I'll understand better what I'm doing with my DNA
        > testing after completing all of them.
        > Thought maybe others here might enjoy it too.
        > It's FREE!
        >
        > Peggy
        >
        >
        > Tuesday, September 17, 2013
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Udacity Genetics Course Launching September 30th
        >
        > Hi Udacity! Together with personal genetics company 23andMe, Udacity
        > has developed an exciting new introductory course,
        > <https://www.udacity.com/course/bio110>Tales from the Genome, where
        > you will take a journey into the biology of the human genome and
        > learn basic genetics. Make sure to
        > <https://www.udacity.com/course/bio110>sign up for the course, which
        > launches on September 30th, and share with your friends!
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Although the whole course will be a learning extravaganza, Lesson 7
        > will be particularly handy when you want to read and understand
        > genetic information available from personal genetics services such as
        > 23andMe. We're very excited to announce that
        > <https://www.23andme.com/>23andMe is offering a sweepstakes of 50
        > personal DNA testing kits for Tales from the Genome students! To be
        > eligible, students must enroll in the course by October 31, 2013, and
        > be based in the US. Winners will be announced on November 6, 2013.
        > See the
        > <http://tftgrafflerules.blogspot.com/2013/09/23andmes-udacity-pgs-raffle-official.html>official
        > rules here.
        >
        >
        > To be eligible, students must:
        >
        > * Sign up for an account at 23andMe.com (both free demo account
        > and Personal Genome Service accounts are eligible);
        > * Sign up for an account at Udacity.com using the same email
        > address as 23andMe account;
        > * Enroll in Udacity's course, Tales from the Genome; and
        > * Complete any two lessons and two problem sets in Tales from the
        > Genome. The participant must answer all quiz questions within any
        > two lessons and all questions within any two problem sets
        > correctly. These problem sets do not need to correspond to the two
        > lessons completed.
        >
        >
        > Want to get started early with Tales from the Genome? You're in luck,
        > because course instructor Dr. Matt Cook has created a special bonus
        > lesson,
        > <https://www.udacity.com/course/viewer#%21/c-bio110/l-300800669/m-301007992>DIY
        > Genetics: DNA Extraction in Your Kitchen. Grab a DIY buddy and get
        > ready to get messy with DNA in your kitchen!
        > - See more at:
        > http://blog.udacity.com/2013/09/udacity-genetics-course-launching.html?utm_source=sendgrid&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=bio930#sthash.AWz75WO4.dpuf
        >
      • Edward Romero
        Hi Gary, I have already taken the Mito-DNA test with Family Tree DNA, I was given misleading information before I took the test, I was advised that by taking
        Message 3 of 10 , Oct 2, 2013
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          Hi Gary, I have already taken the Mito-DNA test with Family Tree DNA, I was given misleading information before I took the test, I was advised that by taking the test I could locate most of my Mother's direct family, that was not true. It's now time to take the Upgraded DNA test, but I really do not want to use Family Tree again, can I use another Company and do you have any suggestions and how will my Family Tree DNA results be merged with the new Company if I decide to take that action. I've read a lot about 23andme, what do you think?  Thanks for any comments. Ed

          From: "garyf@..." <garyf@...>
          To: MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Wednesday, October 2, 2013 12:15 AM
          Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] Re: Udacity course - Tales from the Genome
           
          Looks like a very good course Peggy. This is the way of the future when it comes to health. Genome research is happening all the time and specific genes are associated with health risks or benefits.

          I saw recently a study at 23andme.com where my most variant genes have been identified an association with longevity and telemere length. I wasn't fortunate enough to have the right variants that would indicate a long life.

          Gary
          Living for the moment

          --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Peggy Deras <pderas@...> wrote:
          >
          > I just took the first course of this series.
          > Hopefully I'll understand better what I'm doing with my DNA
          > testing after completing all of them.
          > Thought maybe others here might enjoy it too.
          > It's FREE!
          >
          > Peggy
          >
          >
          > Tuesday, September 17, 2013
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Udacity Genetics Course Launching September 30th
          >
          > Hi Udacity! Together with personal genetics company 23andMe, Udacity
          > has developed an exciting new introductory course,
          > <https://www.udacity.com/course/bio110>Tales from the Genome, where
          > you will take a journey into the biology of the human genome and
          > learn basic genetics. Make sure to
          > <https://www.udacity.com/course/bio110>sign up for the course, which
          > launches on September 30th, and share with your friends!
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Although the whole course will be a learning extravaganza, Lesson 7
          > will be particularly handy when you want to read and understand
          > genetic information available from personal genetics services such as
          > 23andMe. We're very excited to announce that
          > <https://www.23andme.com/>23andMe is offering a sweepstakes of 50
          > personal DNA testing kits for Tales from the Genome students! To be
          > eligible, students must enroll in the course by October 31, 2013, and
          > be based in the US. Winners will be announced on November 6, 2013.
          > See the
          > <http://tftgrafflerules.blogspot.com/2013/09/23andmes-udacity-pgs-raffle-official.html>official
          > rules here.
          >
          >
          > To be eligible, students must:
          >
          > * Sign up for an account at 23andMe.com (both free demo account
          > and Personal Genome Service accounts are eligible);
          > * Sign up for an account at Udacity.com using the same email
          > address as 23andMe account;
          > * Enroll in Udacity's course, Tales from the Genome; and
          > * Complete any two lessons and two problem sets in Tales from the
          > Genome. The participant must answer all quiz questions within any
          > two lessons and all questions within any two problem sets
          > correctly. These problem sets do not need to correspond to the two
          > lessons completed.
          >
          >
          > Want to get started early with Tales from the Genome? You're in luck,
          > because course instructor Dr. Matt Cook has created a special bonus
          > lesson,
          > <https://www.udacity.com/course/viewer#%21/c-bio110/l-300800669/m-301007992>DIY
          > Genetics: DNA Extraction in Your Kitchen. Grab a DIY buddy and get
          > ready to get messy with DNA in your kitchen!
          > - See more at:
          > http://blog.udacity.com/2013/09/udacity-genetics-course-launching.html?utm_source=sendgrid&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=bio930#sthash.AWz75WO4.dpuf
          >

        • Peggy Deras
          Took the second course yesterday. This is HARD! I have a new respect for Gary and Robert and others who guide us through translating those As & Ts, & Gs & Cs.
          Message 4 of 10 , Oct 2, 2013
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            Took the second course yesterday.
            This is HARD!
            I have a new respect for Gary and Robert and others who guide us
            through translating those As & Ts, & Gs & Cs.
            It's so much easier when you do it for me Gary!

            Peggy
          • garyf@pacbell.net
            Hi Ed, your welcome. Autosomal testing would be the way to go if you were looking to find your Mothers family lines. While both FTDNA and 23andme offer
            Message 5 of 10 , Oct 3, 2013
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              Hi Ed,
              your welcome.

              Autosomal testing would be the way to go if you were looking to find your Mothers family lines. While both FTDNA and 23andme offer Autosomal testing, if you were looking to go with another company I would suggest 23andme. The same haplogroup would show up but the mtdna markers you received from FTDNA would not since it is a different type of test. Where 23andme would show your mother's side of the family along with Mtdna haplogroup; with FTDNA's Mtdna testing you only get one line of ancestry and that is the line that is your Mother's, Mother's Mother's line back many thousands of years. When you test autosomal dna either with 23andme or FTDNA you will not be sure what side of the family your relative comes from unless you share a papertrail or you test one of your parents. Of course it would help if your parents come from entirely different populations.

              Gary

              --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Edward Romero <itsmeed20@...> wrote:
              >
              > Hi Gary, I have already taken the Mito-DNA test with Family Tree DNA, I was given misleading information before I took the test, I was advised that by taking the test I could locate most of my Mother's direct family, that was not true. It's now time to take the Upgraded DNA test, but I really do not want to use Family Tree again, can I use another Company and do you have any suggestions and how will my Family Tree DNA results be merged with the new Company if I decide to take that action. I've read a lot about 23andme, what do you think?  Thanks for any comments. Ed
              >
            • JOEL SR
              Hola:   Family Finder, 22 chromosomes, will only identify those who are in the gene pool with Family Tree DNA that relate to your genes. Your mothers family
              Message 6 of 10 , Oct 3, 2013
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                Hola:
                 
                Family Finder, 22 chromosomes, will only identify those who are in the gene pool with Family Tree DNA that relate to your genes. Your mothers family line must be in the gene pool that Family Tree DNA matches your genes with.
                 
                The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina use the Family Finder, 22 chromosomes, to prove all new born infants match with their parents to be enrolled. If the infant does not match the child can not be enrolled with the tribe. Each tribal member receives funds from the tribe yearly.
                 
                I am enrolled with the Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama. My family Finder has matched me with Flores who is a Mexican Indian and others who are non-Indian.
                 
                Due to the massive mixture with the European's, English, Irish, Scotts etc.,  with the Cherokees the present DNA for Cherokee is not what it had been 500 years ago must less 10,000 years ago.
                 
                My friend James Billie, Chairman for the Seminole Tribe of Florida, father was English.
                 
                A tribe is family. Not a amorphous, but solid unit e.g. such as a citizen of America VS a tribal citizen is not the same. All American citizens are not family members, but a tribe is a family. 
                 
                Presently the Echota Cherokee tribal council does not promote DNA testing within the tribe. However, tribal enrollment is identical with the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. All anyone must do is prove they are a relative to a current or past enrolled tribal member. The degree of Indian blood has been dropped from the requirement by both tribes. Presently there is no scientific method to prove ones degree of Indian blood for a specific tribe as Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw etc. due to inter-marrying with these tribes and non-tribal members and the methodology used e.g. A is said to be a full blood, but there is not scientific proof this is correct and any assumption beyond this is invalid.
                 
                I want the Echota Cherokee Tribe to participate in DNA testing. This will expand tribal enrollment and solidify family ties within the tribe. We have about 35, 000 citizens.
                 
                I want the tribe to refuse to align with the federal government and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. No government has a right to dictate to our nation as to who is family and take our land.
                 
                I and others seek total sovereignty as a tribal nation.  
                 
                I live in Florida. Horse racing is big business. These horses DNA is precise and accurate.     
                 
                I think the question to seek is what is the diversity and population number of those in the Family Finder by Family Tree DNA. 
                 
                Joel K. Harris, Sr., PH.D.
                From: "garyf@..." <garyf@...>
                To: MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Thursday, October 3, 2013 4:48 AM
                Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] 23andme Autosomal Testing vs FTDNA's Mtdna Testing
                 
                Hi Ed,
                your welcome.

                Autosomal testing would be the way to go if you were looking to find your Mothers family lines. While both FTDNA and 23andme offer Autosomal testing, if you were looking to go with another company I would suggest 23andme. The same haplogroup would show up but the mtdna markers you received from FTDNA would not since it is a different type of test. Where 23andme would show your mother's side of the family along with Mtdna haplogroup; with FTDNA's Mtdna testing you only get one line of ancestry and that is the line that is your Mother's, Mother's Mother's line back many thousands of years. When you test autosomal dna either with 23andme or FTDNA you will not be sure what side of the family your relative comes from unless you share a papertrail or you test one of your parents. Of course it would help if your parents come from entirely different populations.

                Gary

                --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Edward Romero <itsmeed20@...> wrote:
                >
                > Hi Gary, I have already taken the Mito-DNA test with Family Tree DNA, I was given misleading information before I took the test, I was advised that by taking the test I could locate most of my Mother's direct family, that was not true. It's now time to take the Upgraded DNA test, but I really do not want to use Family Tree again, can I use another Company and do you have any suggestions and how will my Family Tree DNA results be merged with the new Company if I decide to take that action. I've read a lot about 23andme, what do you think?  Thanks for any comments. Ed
                >

              • Gary Felix
                Thank you for the kind words Peggy. I found this in the NY Post yesterday: http://nypost.com/2013/10/02/gene-scans-solving-mystery-diseases/ They were mystery
                Message 7 of 10 , Oct 3, 2013
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                  Thank you for the kind words Peggy.

                  I found this in the NY Post yesterday:

                  They were mystery diseases that had stumped doctors for years — adults with strange symptoms and children with neurological problems, mental slowness or muscles too weak to let them stand. Now scientists say they were able to crack a quarter of these cases by decoding the patients’ genes.
                  Their study is the first large-scale effort to move gene sequencing out of the lab and into ordinary medical care, and it shows that high hopes for this technology are finally paying off.
                  “This is a direct benefit of the Human Genome Project,” the big effort to decode our DNA, said Dr. Christine M. Eng of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. “We’re now able to directly benefit patients through more accurate diagnosis.”
                  She led the study, which was published online Wednesday by the New England Journal of Medicine. It gives results on the first 250 patients referred to Baylor for a newer type of sequencing — just the DNA segments that hold the recipes for all the proteins the body needs. That’s only about 1 percent of the whole genome.
                  Baylor has sequenced more patients beyond those in the study — 1,700 so far — and found gene flaws in 1 out of 4, Eng said.
                  Modal Trigger
                  Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine prepare reagents for the DNA sequencing of patient samples.
                  That rate will improve as more genes are linked to diseases, but it’s already much higher than the less comprehensive gene tests done now, said Rebecca Nagy, a scientist at Ohio State University and president of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.
                  “For some of these conditions there could be treatments that are lifesaving,” she said.
                  Already, three people tested at Baylor were found to have a muscle disorder that can cause respiratory problems and even death. The condition is aggravated by infections and stress, and there are drugs to treat those and prevent serious episodes, Eng said.
                  In other cases, having a diagnosis helped parents like Lindsey and Brandon Collier decide whether to have more children. The Colliers, who live in Georgetown, Texas, about 30 miles north of Austin, searched for years for an answer to what was plaguing their son, Cannon, now 4.
                  “He was a pretty floppy baby” with poor muscle tone and problems eating, Lindsey Collier said. “We weren’t getting any answers and they were just all over the map on everything they were testing for.”
                  “It is a huge weight lifted off our shoulders” she said of testing at Baylor that found a rare muscle disorder.
                  Genetic counselors said the problem was not likely to occur in other offspring, so the Colliers had a second child. Their 6-week-old daughter, Smith, is fine, and Cannon is being helped now by intensive physical therapy and other treatments.
                  Just having a diagnosis is very valuable because it ends the expensive and emotionally exhausting testing that parents go through, said Dr. Robert C. Green, a geneticist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
                  “Many of these are children or adults that have had a mystery illness for many years. Their families don’t know what it is and they’re sort of desperate for an answer,” and it’s not possible to find a treatment until you find the cause, he said.
                  In the study of the first 250 patients at Baylor, 62 were found to have gene flaws. In 33 cases, only one faulty copy of a gene was responsible. In 16 other cases, both copies of a gene were bad. Four patients had problems in two different genes. Nine patients had faulty genes on the X chromosome. Since boys have only one copy of that sex chromosome, those disorders mostly affect that gender.
                  Baylor gets revenue from gene testing, and two study leaders are consultants or paid speakers for gene testing companies not involved in the study. The government’s National Human Genome Research Institute helped pay for the study, and insurers covered much of the testing. It cost $7,000 per case, which usually included sequencing the parents’ genes.
                  The price will drop and the usefulness will rise over time, Dr. Howard Jacob of the Medical College of Wisconsin wrote in an editorial in the journal. Several years ago, he sequenced the genes of a 5-year-old Wisconsin boy who suffered from a rare genetic disease. That unprecedented feat led to a cord blood transplant and other treatments for the boy.
                  Other areas of medicine are exploring gene sequencing. Last month, the government launched a pilot project to try it for newborn screening. In December, two studies reported on its use to screen embryos during fertility treatments, and for figuring out the cause of stillbirths.

                  Gary


                  From: Peggy Deras <pderas@...>
                  To: MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Wednesday, October 2, 2013 11:00 AM
                  Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] Re: Udacity course - Tales from the Genome

                   
                  Took the second course yesterday.
                  This is HARD!
                  I have a new respect for Gary and Robert and others who guide us
                  through translating those As & Ts, & Gs & Cs.
                  It's so much easier when you do it for me Gary!

                  Peggy



                • Edward Romero
                  Gary, thanks for your reply. My only goal is to locate a living relative of my Mother s, so it looks like I will go with 23andme. Thanks for helping so many
                  Message 8 of 10 , Oct 3, 2013
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Gary, thanks for your reply. My only goal is to locate a living relative of my Mother's, so it looks like I will go with 23andme. Thanks for helping so many people with their DNA research. Ed

                    From: JOEL SR <hrjoel3@...>
                    To: "MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com" <MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Thursday, October 3, 2013 11:13 AM
                    Subject: Re: [MexicoDNAProject] 23andme Autosomal Testing vs FTDNA's Mtdna Testing
                     
                    Hola:
                     
                    Family Finder, 22 chromosomes, will only identify those who are in the gene pool with Family Tree DNA that relate to your genes. Your mothers family line must be in the gene pool that Family Tree DNA matches your genes with.
                     
                    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina use the Family Finder, 22 chromosomes, to prove all new born infants match with their parents to be enrolled. If the infant does not match the child can not be enrolled with the tribe. Each tribal member receives funds from the tribe yearly.
                     
                    I am enrolled with the Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama. My family Finder has matched me with Flores who is a Mexican Indian and others who are non-Indian.
                     
                    Due to the massive mixture with the European's, English, Irish, Scotts etc.,  with the Cherokees the present DNA for Cherokee is not what it had been 500 years ago must less 10,000 years ago.
                     
                    My friend James Billie, Chairman for the Seminole Tribe of Florida, father was English.
                     
                    A tribe is family. Not a amorphous, but solid unit e.g. such as a citizen of America VS a tribal citizen is not the same. All American citizens are not family members, but a tribe is a family. 
                     
                    Presently the Echota Cherokee tribal council does not promote DNA testing within the tribe. However, tribal enrollment is identical with the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. All anyone must do is prove they are a relative to a current or past enrolled tribal member. The degree of Indian blood has been dropped from the requirement by both tribes. Presently there is no scientific method to prove ones degree of Indian blood for a specific tribe as Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw etc. due to inter-marrying with these tribes and non-tribal members and the methodology used e.g. A is said to be a full blood, but there is not scientific proof this is correct and any assumption beyond this is invalid.
                     
                    I want the Echota Cherokee Tribe to participate in DNA testing. This will expand tribal enrollment and solidify family ties within the tribe. We have about 35, 000 citizens.
                     
                    I want the tribe to refuse to align with the federal government and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. No government has a right to dictate to our nation as to who is family and take our land.
                     
                    I and others seek total sovereignty as a tribal nation.  
                     
                    I live in Florida. Horse racing is big business. These horses DNA is precise and accurate.     
                     
                    I think the question to seek is what is the diversity and population number of those in the Family Finder by Family Tree DNA. 
                     
                    Joel K. Harris, Sr., PH.D.
                    From: "garyf@..." <garyf@...>
                    To: MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Thursday, October 3, 2013 4:48 AM
                    Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] 23andme Autosomal Testing vs FTDNA's Mtdna Testing
                     
                    Hi Ed, your welcome. Autosomal testing would be the way to go if you were looking to find your Mothers family lines. While both FTDNA and 23andme offer Autosomal testing, if you were looking to go with another company I would suggest 23andme. The same haplogroup would show up but the mtdna markers you received from FTDNA would not since it is a different type of test. Where 23andme would show your mother's side of the family along with Mtdna haplogroup; with FTDNA's Mtdna testing you only get one line of ancestry and that is the line that is your Mother's, Mother's Mother's line back many thousands of years. When you test autosomal dna either with 23andme or FTDNA you will not be sure what side of the family your relative comes from unless you share a papertrail or you test one of your parents. Of course it would help if your parents come from entirely different populations. Gary --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Edward Romero <itsmeed20@...> wrote: > > Hi Gary, I have already taken the Mito-DNA test with Family Tree DNA, I was given misleading information before I took the test, I was advised that by taking the test I could locate most of my Mother's direct family, that was not true. It's now time to take the Upgraded DNA test, but I really do not want to use Family Tree again, can I use another Company and do you have any suggestions and how will my Family Tree DNA results be merged with the new Company if I decide to take that action. I've read a lot about 23andme, what do you think?  Thanks for any comments. Ed >
                  • Peggy Deras
                    Since we are discussing the medical side of DNA testing, I have a question for Gary, Joel & Robert: Prior to receiving my 23 and Me results I ran through their
                    Message 9 of 10 , Oct 4, 2013
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                      Since we are discussing the medical side of DNA testing, I have a
                      question for Gary, Joel & Robert:

                      Prior to receiving my 23 and Me results I ran through their entire
                      battery of questionnaires.
                      Some questions were about any illnesses I may have.
                      I told them I was Type 2 diabetic and had essential tremor, a common
                      movement disorder (my hands and head shake).
                      Essential tremor is definitely a genetic illness.
                      My mother, myself, a brother, and my daughter all have it.
                      Yet, my results say I have "typical" risk of having these disorders,
                      not "elevated".
                      I said "huh?"

                      Does this simply mean that the science is not yet there to read the
                      genetic basis for my versions of these disorders?

                      Peggy
                    • garyf@pacbell.net
                      Hi Peggy,studies of genetics are based on the three main populations, Sub Saharan, East Asian and Europeans. At 23andme the results you get are based on one of
                      Message 10 of 10 , Oct 4, 2013
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Hi Peggy,
                        studies of genetics are based on the three main populations, Sub Saharan, East Asian and Europeans. At 23andme the results you get are based on one of these three populations. The problem is we have a mixture of European and Native American and much of our genetics are from our Native American ancestors like Diabetes which runs highest in the Native American population. Different genes in these different populations can have the same results.

                        Here is an example:

                        Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture.

                        Abstract

                        The T(-13910) variant located in the enhancer element of the lactase (LCT) gene correlates perfectly with lactase persistence (LP) in Eurasian populations whereas the variant is almost nonexistent among Sub-Saharan African populations, showing high prevalence of LP. Here, we report identification of two new mutations among Saudis, also known for the high prevalence of LP. We confirmed the absence of the European T(-13910) and established two new mutations found as a compound allele: T/G(-13915) within the -13910 enhancer region and a synonymous SNP in the exon 17 of the MCM6 gene T/C(-3712), -3712 bp from the LCT gene. The compound allele is driven to a high prevalence among Middle East population(s). Our functional analyses in vitro showed that both SNPs of the compound allele, located 10 kb apart, are required for the enhancer effect, most probably mediated through the binding of the hepatic nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1 alpha). High selection coefficient (s) approximately 0.04 for LP phenotype was found for both T(-13910) and the compound allele. The European T(-13910) and the earlier identified East African G(-13907) LP allele share the same ancestral background and most likely the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption. These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture.


                        Gary

                        Mexico DNA Project Admin.


                        --- In MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com, Peggy Deras wrote:
                        >
                        > Since we are discussing the medical side of DNA testing, I have a
                        > question for Gary, Joel & Robert:
                        >
                        > Prior to receiving my 23 and Me results I ran through their entire
                        > battery of questionnaires.
                        > Some questions were about any illnesses I may have.
                        > I told them I was Type 2 diabetic and had essential tremor, a common
                        > movement disorder (my hands and head shake).
                        > Essential tremor is definitely a genetic illness.
                        > My mother, myself, a brother, and my daughter all have it.
                        > Yet, my results say I have "typical" risk of having these disorders,
                        > not "elevated".
                        > I said "huh?"
                        >
                        > Does this simply mean that the science is not yet there to read the
                        > genetic basis for my versions of these disorders?
                        >
                        > Peggy
                        >
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