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907Re: [MexicoDNAProject] Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europe

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    Dec 29, 2013
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      No specific tribes are described. Cherokee are Iroquoian by language and a confederation with the Mohawk etc..  

      Asymmetric Male and Female Genetic Histories among Native Americans from Eastern North America

      1. Deborah A. Bolnick*,
      2. Daniel I. Bolnick and
      3. David Glenn Smith§
      + Author Affiliations
      1. *Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin
      2. Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin
      3. National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis
      4. §Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis
      1. E-mail: deborah.bolnick@....
      • Accepted August 14, 2006.


      Previous studies have investigated the human population history of eastern North America by examining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation among Native Americans, but these studies could only reconstruct maternal population history. To evaluate similarities and differences in the maternal and paternal population histories of this region, we obtained DNA samples from 605 individuals, representing 16 indigenous populations. After amplifying the amelogenin locus to identify males, we genotyped 8 binary polymorphisms and 10 microsatellites in the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. This analysis identified 6 haplogroups and 175 haplotypes. We found that sociocultural factors have played a more important role than language or geography in shaping the patterns of Y chromosome variation in eastern North America. Comparisons with previous mtDNA studies of the same samples demonstrate that male and female demographic histories differ substantially in this region. Postmarital residence patterns have strongly influenced genetic structure, with patrilocal and matrilocal populations showing different patterns of male and female gene flow. European contact also had a significant but sex-specific impact due to a high level of male-mediated European admixture. Finally, this study addresses long-standing questions about the history of Iroquoian populations by suggesting that the ancestral Iroquoian population lived in southeastern North America.

      Key words

        Joel K. Harris, Sr., Ph.D.
        From: "garyf@..." <garyf@...>
        To: MexicoDNAProject@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Sunday, December 29, 2013 9:59 PM
        Subject: [MexicoDNAProject] Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europe


        Analysis of ancient DNA can reveal historical events that are difficult to discern through study of present-day individuals. To investigate European population history around the time of the agricultural transition, we sequenced complete genomes from a ~7,500 year old early farmer from the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture from Stuttgart in Germany and an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg. We also generated data from seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Motala in Sweden. We compared these genomes and published ancient DNA to new data from 2,196 samples from 185 diverse populations to show that at least three ancestral groups contributed to present-day Europeans. The first are Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who are more closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians than to any present-day population. The second are West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), related to the Loschbour individual, who contributed to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners. The third are Early European Farmers (EEF), related to the Stuttgart individual, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model the deep relationships of these populations and show that about ~44% of the ancestry of EEF derived from a basal Eurasian lineage that split prior to the separation of other non-Africans.

        Figure 1b shows that the current population that is closest to Ancient European Hunter Gatherers are the Basque and Southern French.

        I suspect the genetic distance away from these ancient Hunter Gatherers reflects selection and adaptation to a new life style and new consequences due to this lifestyle change.

        Here is an interesting video from National Geographic on the LBK culture in Germany.

        One conclusion is that the victims were Hunter Gatherers from the mountains a couple of hundred miles away. 

        Mexico DNA Project Admin.

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