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baby birds inside eggs need to hear their parents calling

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  • Kate Marianchild
    This article, just sent to me byTrudy Jensen, gives evidence for the hypothesis that baby birds need to know that their parents are there before they will peck
    Message 1 of 6 , May 2, 2005
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      This article, just sent to me byTrudy Jensen, gives evidence for the
      hypothesis that baby birds need to know that their parents are there
      before they will peck their way out of their eggs. They know that by
      hearing their parents calling to them. In the case of bald eaglets it
      is a 30-hour process. These eaglet eggs were in incubators and a
      recording of calling parents was played to them. The technique was
      successful.

      Monday, April 25, 2005
      By CAROL BENFELL
      THE PRESS DEMOCRAT

      Three baby bald eagles now nestling under their mothers' wings at San
      Francisco Zoo bear the unlikely names of Sister Sparkle Plenty, Sister
      Barbi Mitzvah and Sister Carmelita Cheesecake.

      The eaglets were named for members of the Russian River Sisters of
      Perpetual Indulgence, a group of men and women who dress in outrageous
      female costumes to raise money for charitable causes.

      The Sisters donated $350 for a first-of-its-kind sound system that
      enhances eaglet survival by piping the cries of parent eagles to eggs
      in incubators at the zoo's captive-breeding program, which raises
      eaglets and releases them to the wild.

      Their modest donation provided what the zoo's faltering budget could
      not: It allowed animal keepers to test a technique that has worked well
      with other bird species, but had never been tried with bald eagles. The
      zoo is now poised to send copies of its eagle CD to other
      captive-breeding programs.

      "I'm very happy about it," said animal keeper Kathy Hobson, who manages
      the zoo's bald eagle program. "It's definitely making it better for the
      chicks. I haven't lost anyone in the process of hatching this year."

      The Sisters seem almost as happy as Hobson and have put a video and
      pictures of the tiny, fluffy, big-footed eaglets on their Web site.

      "You look at this little piece of life that's been given a chance and
      it feels great," said a Freestone resident who would identify himself
      only as Sister Sparkle Plenty. "We feel like we're making a
      difference."

      San Francisco Zoo, with seven pairs of bald eagles, houses the nation's
      largest captive bald eagle breeding program. The program began in 1985
      to halt the decline of wild bald eagles, whose young could not survive
      in DDT-weakened eggshells.

      The state bald eagle population had plummeted to 30 breeding pairs by
      the late 1970s, down from the estimated historic level of 400 breeding
      pairs. The birds are recovering and now number nearly 200 breeding
      pairs, according to the state Department of Fish and Game. The are
      federally protected as a threatened species.

      San Francisco's bald eagles are housed in the Avian Conservation
      Center, where Hobson and volunteers remove the eggs from the parental
      nests as soon as they are laid.

      The eggs are placed in incubators, where the heartbeat of the
      developing embryos is continuously monitored and temperature and
      humidity are held constant. Volunteers turn the eggs several times
      every day.

      The aim is a higher rate of hatching than would occur naturally in the
      parental nest. "In the eagle's nest, it's very hard to know and help if
      something is not going OK," Hobson said.

      But last year, the first year the zoo had used an incubator instead of
      mother hens, many of the chicks didn't hatch. Hobson and the volunteers
      worried, but weren't sure what had happened.

      "You'd open the shell and there were these perfectly formed babies,"
      said volunteer Susan Magrino, president of a Burlingame software
      company. "I wondered why they didn't have the oomph to come out of the
      shell."

      The answer came to Magrino in what she calls "a magical moment" as she
      watched Hobson whistle to an egg and heard the egg chirp back. The
      hatching eaglets wanted to hear their mother's voice.

      "If you were a baby eagle and you heard your mother, you'd want to come
      out of the shell," Magrino said. "Why would you come out if there's no
      one there to feed you?"

      Hobson worked on the incubator, and Magrino - on the advice of a Monte
      Rio friend - applied for a grant from the Sisters of Perpetual
      Indulgence.

      Last year, Magrino's vice president, Priscilla Joyce, and her husband,
      Jerry Joyce, recorded the chirps of babies and the raucous screams of
      the adults at an eagle's nest at the zoo.

      Earlier this year, as nesting time rolled around, Jerry Joyce wired the
      incubators so a CD of the nesting eagles could be played directly to
      the eggs.

      The technique has worked well with other species but apparently has
      never been used with bald eagles, Hobson said.

      The results were immediate.

      Eaglets still in their shells began chirping in response to the
      recorded parental cries. Twelve eaglets pecked and slept and pecked and
      slept until they made it out of the shell - typically a 30-hour
      process, Hobson said. Three more eggs are expected to hatch next week.

      One of the babies was named "Little Jerry" in recognition of Joyce's
      help.

      "You can see the difference," Hobson said. "They're alert, they're
      calm, they know their parents are there. They know they're not going
      out into nothing."

      Hobson said she'll be sharing the eagles' CD with other bald eagle
      breeding programs around the country. "If I'd had this last year when
      my chicks were dying, we might have saved more of them," she said.

      The Sisters have started a trust fund for the eaglets on their Web
      site, www.rrsisters.org, and are considering a special fund-raiser for
      the breeding program in the coming year.

      "We realized it was a wonderful opportunity to do something for our
      environment and a vanishing species," Plenty said.

      The 12 members of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence raised $70,000
      last year and donated it to 52 charities. Working as volunteers at
      other charitable events, they helped raise an additional $212,000,
      Plenty said.
    • Kate Marianchild
      Well, it seems there s only one hawklet, not two. Probably the adult clean-up behavior that I thought indicated a second hatching was continuing clean-up
      Message 2 of 6 , May 4, 2005
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        Well, it seems there's only one hawklet, not two. Probably the adult
        "clean-up" behavior that I thought indicated a second hatching was
        continuing clean-up after the first hatching.

        After the hatching day (Wednesday, April 27) I had to leave home for
        four days. I came home late Sunday. On Monday morning (May 2) I raced
        out to see what was happening. My vantage point is about 50 feet from
        the nest, on the ground, looking slightly up. One adult was sitting
        pretty high in the nest, looking down into the nest every once in a
        while. Then it began tearing at some food and obviously feeding it to
        young I couldn't see.

        I ran to my ladder and climbed onto the roof of my yurt, which is flat,
        from which I have a level view of the nest. The roof-top is twice as
        far away as the ground-based viewing point, but it affords a better
        view into the nest. There I saw one hawklet eagerly devouring raw red
        meat as fast as the parent could supply it. Its head was a very fuzzy
        off-white. The adult was indefatigable in supplying food, delicately
        tipping her head to the side with each offering, which apparently made
        it easier for the hawklet to take the meat from her. The feeding
        continued at an unrelenting pace for perhaps 8 minutes, at which point
        the baby lost interest.

        The adult swallowed a few morsels herself, and then tried to interest
        the baby in more. She would hold a piece in her mouth, tip her head to
        the side and proffer it to the hawklet. When it was ignored she would
        tip her head the other way, nudge the young one with it, and finally
        swallow the meat herself. After looking around a bit she'd tear off
        another piece, and again offer it the uninterested youngling. This
        process lasted for several minutes, with the hawklet occasionally
        accepting a piece, but mostly ignoring it's parent. Finally the parent
        gave up.

        Later that day I was able to see just a little of the baby's head from
        the lower viewing point, and watched as an adult flew in carrying a
        rodent. Both adults stood on the edge of the nest while one ate. So far
        these birds mainly seem to be catching mouse-sized rodents. I don't
        know my rodents well enough to be sure exactly what they are bringing
        in, but yesterday I might have seen a small gopher. The tail was short.
        Once I saw an adult flying about 40 feet from the nest with a bird
        clutched in its talons but the bird must have gotten away, because
        shortly afterward both adults were at the nest with no bird. [It says
        in the Birder's Handbook that Red-shouldered Hawks eat small mammals,
        birds, and snakes, but I suspect they actually don't take many birds
        (anyone?). I learned from Alida Morzenti (raptor expert par excellence)
        that there is a correlation between sexual dimorphism and mobility of
        prey: the more mobile the prey, the greater the sexual dimorphism.
        Birds are the most mobile prey, of course, and because the RSHA female
        doesn't appear to be significantly larger than the male, that would
        indicate that these birds don't prey on birds very much. I can't find
        my notes, but I think Alida taught us that sharp-shinned hawks have the
        greatest size difference. The male is so little he can't incubate the
        eggs because he can't cover them. There's more to this theory - e.g.
        why that correlation - but that's too much to go into here).

        On Monday I also saw an adult pick up a sprig of oak leaves and drag it
        to the edge of the nest.

        Yesterday (Tuesday) the baby was so much bigger (or perhaps stronger)
        that its entire head was popping up over the edge of the nest and was
        visible from the spot on the ground. My friend Larry and I held our
        business meeting at the viewing spot so we wouldn't miss anything. We
        again observed diligent provision of prey and feeding of baby. At one
        point after the baby was finished feeding the adult walked over to the
        right side of the nest and dragged a sprig of half dead oak leaves into
        the nest. It pushed and tucked until it was in just the right spot, and
        then flew away, leaving the hawklet alone in the nest. We speculated
        that perhaps the sprig was intended to hide the baby, and/or act as a
        physical barrier to predation. But it was put on the other side of the
        nest from where the baby was, so wouldn't have been very effective.

        The adults frequently leave the baby alone fairly frequently, but for
        very short periods - less than a minute, I'd say. They do this perhaps
        as often as every hour. I'm not sure why - perhaps to relieve
        themselves away from the nest. That bear investigation.

        I've gotten no response about a webcam. Would it need to be sheltered
        from rain? If so, I could provide a shelter quite easily.

        Kate

        Kate Marianchild
        Publicity Chair
        Peregrine Audubon Society
        katem@...
        707-463-0839




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      • Kate Marianchild
        On Saturday, after the Peregrine field trip, I asked Roger to show me the Blue Gray Gnatcatcher nest he had found in Low Gap Park. We went up there, and when
        Message 3 of 6 , May 8, 2005
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          On Saturday, after the Peregrine field trip, I asked Roger to show me
          the Blue Gray Gnatcatcher nest he had found in Low Gap Park. We went up
          there, and when he found it he was shocked to find it in a shambles.
          But as we tried to figure out what had happened, a gnatcatcher flew to
          it, then left rapidly. That happened again. We speculated that the bird
          was removing nest material.

          So Roger kept watching the disheveled nest while I ventured forth to
          find out where the birds were taking the nest material. While watching
          the gnatcatchers zipping around I got distracted by a couple of Anna's
          Hummingbirds. As I watched one of them landed, and close inspection
          revealed that she had landed on a nest (the first one I've found!).

          Shortly after that Roger and I simultaneously found the new gnatcatcher
          nest nestled in the crotch formed by two or three branches about 12
          feet up in a small blue? oak (the abandoned one was in a similar spot).
          I think there are no eggs yet.. The male and female were taking turns
          flying in and doing "settling-in shivers" - wriggling and rapidly
          shaking their bodies as if to try the nest out for size and see if they
          were comfortable or if they needed to make improvements.

          Roger set up his digiscope equipment and took both still and moving
          pictures.

          We walked further up and found other gnatcatchers zipping around and
          speculated that there must be another nest in the vicinity. There were
          also house wrens clearly nesting somewhere near.

          The red-shouldered hawklet is growing by flights and bounds. Now I can
          see to the middle of its breast from the lower vantage point, and it is
          spreading its wings occasionally. Today some friends and I watched for
          about an hour while it was raining (we were safely under a large picnic
          umbrella) and never saw an adult bring food, nor did we see the baby.
          That was the longest interval with no feeding and no sight of the baby
          yet. I speculate that it's harder to catch rodents when it's raining,
          and that the adult wasn't getting up and changing position because she
          was trying to keep the baby dry and warm.

          We left, and when I came back 30 minutes later the adult was almost
          finished with a feeding. When s/he finished s/he flew off and came back
          within a couple of minutes. I have now seen intervals of 2 minutes with
          no adult at the nest.

          Kate


          Kate Marianchild
          Publicity Chair
          Peregrine Audubon Society
          katem@...
          707-463-0839
        • Kate Marianchild
          I will be holding an Open Nest on Saturday, May 14, from 9 a.m to noon. Anyone interested in nest-watching should email me, and I will email back directions.
          Message 4 of 6 , May 11, 2005
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            I will be holding an Open Nest on Saturday, May 14, from 9 a.m to noon.
            Anyone interested in nest-watching should email me, and I will email
            back directions. Scopes welcome. Digiscopes particularly welcome!

            Who can tell me if raptor babies are fed whole, unregurgitated meat
            from the moment of birth. I missed the first few days of this young
            'uns life.

            Diary

            5/8,9 Rain. During the rain the feeding intervals may have been less
            frequent (harder to hunt?). I think the baby was left alone less,
            perhaps to prevent hypothermia. The adult on the nest seemed very
            conscientious about keeping the baby warm and as dry as possible. I
            worried that the baby might not survive, as I saw a red shouldered hawk
            nest fail two years ago, when we had eight inches of rain in April. But
            maybe that was an incubation failure. I couldn't see that nest well
            enough to know what was going on.

            5/10 (a.m.) Sunny day. Saw a parent bring a lizard to the nest. I now
            hear peeping when a parent arrives, even without food. Baby appears
            vigorous and has a good appetite. It's funny to see a sharply aquiline
            profile on such a fuzzy head and body. The bird overall appears to be
            about the size and shape of a small crookneck squash.

            The baby was left alone in nest for almost 3 minutes. That's the
            longest yet. During that time the baby was quite active, spreading its
            wings, looking around. It gazed straight at me for a while. The upper
            mandible is starting to turn yellowish - a light yellowish-green.
            Overall the baby is still grey-white, but I might be seeing a little
            bit of reddish fuzz appearing.

            (p.m.) Watched with Kayla. An adult brought in a large
            rodent, and transferred it to the sitting bird. Sitting bird became
            standing bird and fed her/himself, and the baby. Saw long-worm-like
            bits of meat. Intestines? Kayla and I both thought we saw something
            white fly out of the nest. Projectile pooping? Or was it a moth flying
            by? Baby left alone in nest for a couple of minutes. Was it trying to
            tear food on its own? Don't think so, but maybe. I suppose the adults
            will soon cut back on the tearing and proffering of food so the baby
            will have to learn to feed itself.
            This baby has to grow so much and learn so much in a mere 39-45 days.
            When fledging time comes I hope I can watch around the clock.

            5/11 (a.m.) Sunny day. Definitely saw something white ejected from
            inside the nest, vicinity of baby. Must have been projectile pooping.
            Quite a talent. Big rodent brought in. These parents are so competent!
            Why have I never seen a red-shouldered hawk catch anything? I've never
            even been aware that one was hunting. Mostly I see them sitting on
            branches or flying around and calling. I'll have to watch longer.

            To be continued..


            Kate Marianchild
            Publicity Chair
            Peregrine Audubon Society
            katem@...
            707-463-0839




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          • Kate Marianchild
            These pictures (below) were taken by Jon Klein yesterday. He climbed an oak to get closer to the nest, and has set up a blind with green sheets and camo
            Message 5 of 6 , May 12, 2005
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              These pictures (below) were taken by Jon Klein yesterday. He climbed an
              oak to get closer to the nest, and has set up a blind with green sheets
              and camo netting way out on a mossy horizontal limb. Pretty ingenious.
              I have pictures of him climbing the tree, and pictures of the blind,
              but on 35 mm. He came back today for more pictures, and is up in the
              tree right now. The light is more diffuse today, so the shadows won't
              be such a problem. He's hoping for some feeding pictures. I'm working
              on my laptop at the landlubbers' viewing point, so I get to watch it
              all.

              The absent adult is crying in the distance right now, so maybe it won't
              be long. (Jon is a young professional wildlife photographer, so please
              don't do anything commercial with these pictures and credit him if you
              send them on or use them in any way. And if you'd like to see more of
              his work, and/or buy something from him, please contact him at
              jon3klein@... or 937-0067.

              The hawklet is too big to fit under the mother today, so it is sitting
              and clambering around beside her. Sometimes quite close to the edge.
              Chastity, a Round Mountain denizen, I both started wondering about the
              likelihood of it falling out today. I can't imagine how a second baby
              would have fit in the nest. The baby is definitely chirping. I think
              it's hungry right now. It appears to be about a third again larger than
              it was yesterday!

              Oh, here we go! A rodent was just dropped off. The adult is ignoring
              it. Baby is cheeping away. Parent looks around as if wondering what all
              the commotion's about. My guess is that she's hoping the baby will
              start feeding itself....more waiting. Finally the parent gives in and
              starts delicately proffering food. It's sunny again, so the light might
              not be ideal for the pictures, but the birds are shifting positions
              quite a bit during this feeding, so I bet Jon's getting some good
              angles.

              Now both adults are on the nest, with the baby between them, oriented
              toward Jon. I hope he's getting some "proud parent" pictures. I laugh
              out loud because they look so beautiful through my binoculars, and the
              second adult flies off. Darn! Generally they seem pretty oblivious to
              noise, but I'm pretty sure I startled him. Sorry Jon!

              Jon came down and told me the male has the grayer head, is a little
              smaller, and is definitely the one hunting. Or at least that was the
              case today. It's good to have that question answered.


              __________________________________________________

              ----------



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            • Kate Marianchild
              Hi All. This hawk diary business has become very time consuming! Between watching and writing and orienting friends to the nest, and entertaining friends who
              Message 6 of 6 , May 24, 2005
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                Hi All. This hawk diary business has become very time consuming!
                Between watching and writing and orienting friends to the nest, and
                entertaining friends who come to watch I'm finding it hard to get
                anything else done! Eeek! But it's a labor of love and this opportunity
                may never come again. Now my diaries are being printed in the Ukiah
                Daily Journal, with Jon's incredible pictures, so I am working more on
                the quality of the writing than I did on the installments I sent out
                before. (You'll notice a little early repetition in this installment,
                which is what I just sent to the Journal).

                Unfortunately the Journal all of a sudden printed the first unedited
                draft I had sent to them as a teaser at a point when I thought we were
                still in the negotiation phase. So I've learned never to send anything
                that I don't consider print-ready. But Richard, at the Journal, and I,
                are developing a good working relationship.

                Jon Klein has driven here from the coast three times now, and has spent
                4.5 - 5.5 hours in the blind at a time. Again, please don't send his
                photos on, or use them in any way without giving him credit. BTW, the
                Journal is going to do a full story on him, with pix. Richard
                interviewed him yesterday.

                For those of you on Mendobirds, for some reasons the pictures don't
                come through, but George Chaniot is posting them on the Peregrine
                Audubon website.


                ----------



                HAWK DIARIES (2ND INSTALLMENT FOR THE UKIAH DAILY JOURNAL)

                Special to the Journal by Kate Marianchild

                (This is the second installment of my diary about a red-shouldered hawk
                family that lives near my home. I live in oak woodland northwest of
                Ukiah. The nest is high in an oak tree, and is about 60 feet from my
                viewpoint. The sex of the hawk baby is not known, but I have decided to
                refer to her as a female in order to make the writing easier).

                Sunday, May 8
                Rain. The red-shouldered hawklet is growing by flights and bounds. She
                spreads her grey-white wings and the breath catches in my throat. She�s
                so young, and so new to her wings. One of the parents is keeping her
                warm. I�ve learned that only half of bird babies survive until it�s
                time to fledge, but I hope the numbers are a little higher among
                raptors. I hope this baby will fly.

                May 10
                She survived the rain. She is 13 days old today.

                Morning � A parent brought a lizard to the nest. I now hear peeping
                when a parent arrives, even without food. The baby (my goddaughter!)
                appears vigorous and has a good appetite. It's funny to see a sharply
                aquiline profile on such a fuzzy head and body. Overall she appears to
                be about the size and shape of a small crookneck squash.

                The hawklet was left alone in nest for almost 3 minutes. She gazed
                straight at me. The fleshy part at the top of her upper bill, the cere,
                is starting to turn a light yellowish-green. Overall she is still
                grey-white. She has about 30 more days to grow into her full size and
                plumage before she fledges.

                Late afternoon: Watched with Kayla. Kayla and I both thought we saw
                something white fly out from the center of the nest. Projectile
                pooping?

                May 11
                Sunny. Definitely saw something white ejected from inside the nest,
                vicinity of baby. Projectile poop. What a talent. Big rodent arrived.
                These parents are so competent! Jon Klein came and took pictures today.
                He climbed an oak to get closer to the nest, and set up a blind of
                green sheets and camo netting. Inside the blind is a structure of
                lashed 2x4�s that he sits and leans on. It�s way out on a mossy
                horizontal limb 25 feet off the ground. Ingenious. He figured out that
                the adult who spends the most time at the nest and feeds the baby is
                definitely the female. The male is smaller and has a greyer head.

                May 12
                Jon came back today for more pictures, and is up in the tree right now.
                He's hoping for feeding pictures. I'm working on my laptop at the
                landlubbers' viewing point.

                The hawklet is too big to fit under her mother today, so she is sitting
                and clambering around beside her. She appears to be about a third again
                larger than she was yesterday! What if she falls out?

                I hope something interesting happens so Jon can get good pictures.

                Oh, here we go! Dad arrives, huge wings spread for landing, carrying a
                baby rabbit. Rabbit transferred to Mom, who puts it down. Dad leaves
                the nest immediately. Baby chirp-chirps. Mom looks around as if
                pretending she doesn�t know the rabbit is there. Is she hoping the baby
                will start feeding herself? More waiting. Finally Mom gives in and
                tears off a chunk. She tips her head and delicately offers a morsel to
                her baby. The next bite is way too big for baby so she gulps it down
                herself. Mom has an absent-minded moment and drops a chunk of flesh on
                her baby�s head.


                May 12, 2005
                I heard a commotion and came out of my house. High overhead a
                red-shouldered hawk was screaming at a circling red-tailed hawk. He
                screamed and screamed until the red tail nonchalantly drifted out of
                �our� territory. I ran over to the nest. The baby was alone but OK. Had
                Mom participated in the defense of the baby?

                The little hawk was not very active today. I am worried that she is
                sick. I couldn�t help but think how helpless the parents would be if
                faced with a sick youngster. At around 6:30 p.m. the mother kept
                tucking and pushing a big sprig of oak leaves around in the nest. Maybe
                she�s trying to raise the floor, which must be pretty gunky by now.
                Baby has started scratching and preening. The tips of her wing feathers
                are turning black. They look like black fringe. The intervals when no
                adult is at the nest are getting longer - maybe 8-10 minutes.

                I have a burning question: where does the dad spend the night?

                May 14, 2005
                The mom is working at arranging lichen (old man�s beard). Does it help
                control mites and vermin? The baby falls over a couple of times while
                trying to move around in the nest. I wonder if she has a bad leg. Both
                parents are away for 50 minutes � the longest absence yet. I hope they
                haven�t abandoned the baby because she�s gimpy. I�ve become a very
                anxious godmother!

                Mother comes back carrying a branch with trailing lichen. Puts it on
                the floor of the nest. Oh, I get it! When the baby falls over it�s
                probably because she�s tripping on branches and twigs and lichen.

                It�s after noon and the baby hasn�t eaten since 9:30. Mama�s clearly
                wondering when Dad is going to come with food. She finds a dried up old
                carcass lying around in the nest and tugs hard to get a few ratty
                strands off of it. Baby chirps. Receives a skimpy morsel. Mom flies off
                with the old carcass clutched in one talon. She calls from nearby, but
                gets no response from Dad. She flies back and lands on a branch near
                the nest, still carrying the carcass. She keeps looking around and
                calling for her mate. I wonder if something has happened to him. She
                flies back to the nest, still clutching carcass. More than an hour
                later, at 1:21, Dad finally arrives with a rodent. A foodless interval
                of almost 4 hours.

                May 19
                Baby much bigger. Her wingspan might be 24 inches! She survived the
                latest unseasonable torrential downpours. She�s preening a lot, and
                walking more confidently on edge of nest. But she looks like hell -
                like a wad of cotton that got rolled around in dirty sand. It�s because
                her dark colors are coming in. Mama appears to be eating lichen.

                May 21
                Jon in tree. It looks like Mama is eating mites off the baby. How? Does
                she spear them with the hook on her bill? Dark banding is showing on
                baby�s tail. No sign of baby feeding herself yet.

                Jon comes down. He says my goddaughter is spoiled! Years ago he watched
                another red-shouldered hawklet, and by this age both parents were away
                from the nest most of the time. They would just drop off food and leave
                the baby to feed itself. Once he saw them drop off a live snake. The
                baby tried to swallow it live. The baby would get the snake halfway
                down and then it would wriggle back out! Gross. Jim Armstrong is
                watching a red-shouldered hawk nest right now, and �his� baby is alone
                most of the day. My goddaughter has her mom with her most of the time,
                and is still being fed.

                May 22
                I�ve been pondering the� spoiled baby� question. I have four theories:
                1) the baby is delicate in some way and needs extra care; 2) she is a
                slow learner; 3) there isn�t a lot of canopy above this nest, and one
                parent has to be there most of the time for protection; 4) the dad is
                such a good provider and the hunting is so good that this family can
                afford to have a Stay-at-Home Mom. I lean toward the latter theory.




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