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Alum

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  • Peter Baumgartner
    Alum fixes the watercolors on the paper. Does anyone on the list know, how alum will do this? Is it a chemical process - Alum reacts with the color or with the
    Message 1 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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      Alum fixes the watercolors on the paper. Does anyone on the list know,
      how alum will do this? Is it a chemical process - Alum reacts with the
      color or with the paper or with both? Or is there a mechanical process
      like the alum enlarges the surface of the paper and gives more area for
      the color to adhesive at the paper?

      Peter
      --
      Peter Baumgartner
      Atelier f�r Papierdesign
      Freiburg/Germany
      http://www.papierdesign.de
    • J Dolphin
      Ah!! A little mystery! Indeed--I have often wondered this myself..............I will add to your question--does anyone here know of a substance similar to alum
      Message 2 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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        Ah!! A little mystery! Indeed--I have often wondered this
        myself..............I will add to your question--does anyone here know of a
        substance similar to alum that could be used?
        Jill
        -----Original Message-----
        From: Peter Baumgartner <baumgartner.papierdesign@...>
        To: Marbling@onelist.com <Marbling@onelist.com>
        Date: Tuesday, February 01, 2000 7:47 AM
        Subject: [Marbling] Alum


        >From: baumgartner.papierdesign@... (Peter Baumgartner)
        >
        >Alum fixes the watercolors on the paper. Does anyone on the list know,
        >how alum will do this? Is it a chemical process - Alum reacts with the
        >color or with the paper or with both? Or is there a mechanical process
        >like the alum enlarges the surface of the paper and gives more area for
        >the color to adhesive at the paper?
        >
        >Peter
        >--
        >Peter Baumgartner
        >Atelier f�r Papierdesign
        >Freiburg/Germany
        >http://www.papierdesign.de
        >
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      • IrisNevins
        The similar substances...ranging from other kinds of alum (only aluminum sulphate or aluminum potassium sulphate are recommended for marbling) to vinegar, will
        Message 3 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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          The similar substances...ranging from other kinds of alum (only aluminum
          sulphate or aluminum potassium sulphate are recommended for marbling) to
          vinegar, will work a little, but why drive yourself crazy with only so-so
          results, a lot of waste of paints, paper and time?

          A lot of us have tried these things, tore our hair out, went back to the
          right alum....

          The alum chemically binds pigment to the paper.

          I.Nevins
        • IrisNevins
          The similar substances...ranging from other kinds of alum (only aluminum sulphate or aluminum potassium sulphate are recommended for marbling) to vinegar, will
          Message 4 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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            The similar substances...ranging from other kinds of alum (only aluminum
            sulphate or aluminum potassium sulphate are recommended for marbling) to
            vinegar, will work a little, but why drive yourself crazy with only so-so
            results, a lot of waste of paints, paper and time?

            A lot of us have tried these things, tore our hair out, went back to the
            right alum....

            The alum chemically binds pigment to the paper.

            I.Nevins
          • David Sandow
            MORDANT PONDERINGS Mordant comes from a latin word which means to bite . The ideal mordant is attracted to both the fiber molecules and those of the
            Message 5 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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              MORDANT PONDERINGS
              Mordant comes from a latin word which means 'to bite'. The ideal
              mordant is attracted to both the fiber molecules and those of the
              pigment, however, the degree of attraction is dependant on the specific
              mordant, its' strength, the characteristics of the individual piece of
              cloth or paper and the properties of the compound which makes up the
              pigment. Acrylics often give more consistent results than materials
              with an organic base.
              The purposes of the mordant are to influence the characteristics of
              the color (depth, tint, grayness), the colorfastness, i.e. its ability
              to be washed away by water, and to a lesser extent, lightfastness, e.g.
              indigo, an organic dye used to produce denim, will always fade in
              sunlight regardless of mordant.
              The mordant functions at the chemical
              level, the molecules of mordant attach themselves to the molecules of
              fiber and then when you dye or marble, these fiber/mordant molecules
              combine with the pigment molcules precipitating a new compound which is
              insoluble in water.
              Many different chemicals functions as mordants and all of them are
              toxic.. Alum is probably the most popular because it is the least
              toxic. Alum is toxic enough to warrant the wearing of gloves while you
              are applying the mordant. The alum or aluminum is aborbed through the
              skin and its effect is cumulative. Dialysis patients used to be given
              alumunum compounds as part of their therapy and it resulted in a
              syndrome known as 'dialysis dementia'. The autopsied brains of
              Alzheimer's patients contain an abnormall structure called 'neural fiber
              tangles or bundles' at the center of which are molecules of aluminum;
              they don't belong there. If all this isn't enough to get you to wear
              gloves, bear in mind that the ancient Celts derived their alum from
              stale urine. So Jill, urine is probably the least toxic of all.
              I have no direct knowledge of this so let me know, if you dare to try
              it.
              In a lighter vein, the dyemasters of India practised a technique
              called 'Kalimkari'. A pen or brush was used to apply a mordant
              discreetly to fabric or paper to which dye was applied. Sort of a
              reverse resist technique. After the material dried the process could be
              repeated building up layers of color and pattern. Wonder how this would
              work as a marbling technique. Any thoughts?
              divinghorse

              http://community.webtv.net/divinghorse/THEDIVINGHORSESTUDIO
            • IrisNevins
              Oh...that s one I haven t tried...urine....think I ll skip it. And some of us who have been marbling for decades wonder if dialysis dementia is something like
              Message 6 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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                Oh...that's one I haven't tried...urine....think I'll skip it.

                And some of us who have been marbling for decades wonder if dialysis
                dementia is something like what some of us have referred to as "marbler's
                dementia".....many of us started long ago, without gloves! I have been
                wearing them for at least 10 years now.....I started mainly because the
                alum made my skin crawl after a while.

                Really.....I think it's marbler's "burnout" from doing too many small press
                orders! But seriously, I recommend wearing gloves for the whole process,
                aluming AND marbling. Cadmiums are lead based and you wouldn't want them
                absorbed into your skin either. However, the most danger from pigments
                comes in if you gring your own pigments and breathe the dust. If you make
                paint, masks are recommended. The dusts of some collect in your lungs and
                stay there.
              • fontpro@usa.net
                ... In Alternative Photography Alum used to harden gelatin. I m guessing it hardens the Gum Arabic in the watercolor sealing it on the paper. Mac
                Message 7 of 18 , Feb 1, 2000
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                  >Alum fixes the watercolors on the paper. Does anyone on the list know,
                  >how alum will do this? Is it a chemical process - Alum reacts with the
                  >color or with the paper or with both? Or is there a mechanical process
                  >like the alum enlarges the surface of the paper and gives more area for
                  >the color to adhesive at the paper?
                  >
                  >Peter
                  >--
                  >Peter Baumgartner
                  >Atelier f�r Papierdesign
                  >Freiburg/Germany
                  >http://www.papierdesign.de


                  In Alternative Photography Alum used to harden gelatin. I'm guessing it
                  hardens the Gum Arabic in the watercolor sealing it on the paper.

                  Mac
                • Susanne Krause
                  Hello all, it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely dependant on
                  Message 8 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                    Hello all,

                    it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and
                    such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely
                    dependant on the temperature of the water, meaning: boiling water
                    solves and holds more alum than luke warm water than water at room's
                    temperature than cold water. One degree more or less can make a huge
                    difference. In any case, the superfluous alum will sink down as soon
                    as the water cools down again.

                    Alum solves comparatively easy but, as it is heavier than water, the
                    cristals sink down to the bottom of the bottle when the solution is
                    over saturated. If you wait an hour or so, i.e. until the solution on
                    top of the crystals is totally clear, you can pour it off and what you
                    have then is the saturated solution. So you can start easily at 100%
                    and thin it down for tests, and sooner or later you will know how
                    strong a solution will be needed for which result.

                    Susanne Krause
                  • irisnevins
                    Along those lines, I used to save alum for other days, sometimes for weeks, before I worked as a marbler. One morning I woke up and found about a 1/2
                    Message 9 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                      Along those lines, I used to save alum for other days, sometimes for weeks, before I 'worked" as a marbler. One morning I woke up and found about a 1/2" crystal at the bottom of the glass bottle. I still have it SOMEWHERE!! If I find it, I will take a picture of it and post it.
                      Iris Nevins
                      www.marblingpaper.com<http://www.marblingpaper.com/>
                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: Susanne Krause<mailto:studio@...>
                      To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>
                      Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 7:29 AM
                      Subject: [Marbling] Alum


                      Hello all,

                      it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and
                      such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely
                      dependant on the temperature of the water, meaning: boiling water
                      solves and holds more alum than luke warm water than water at room's
                      temperature than cold water. One degree more or less can make a huge
                      difference. In any case, the superfluous alum will sink down as soon
                      as the water cools down again.

                      Alum solves comparatively easy but, as it is heavier than water, the
                      cristals sink down to the bottom of the bottle when the solution is
                      over saturated. If you wait an hour or so, i.e. until the solution on
                      top of the crystals is totally clear, you can pour it off and what you
                      have then is the saturated solution. So you can start easily at 100%
                      and thin it down for tests, and sooner or later you will know how
                      strong a solution will be needed for which result.

                      Susanne Krause


                      ------------------------------------

                      Yahoo! Groups Links





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • onemarbler
                      I had the same experience, Iris. One day suddenly there was a magnificent pyramid shaped crystal in my alum container. It was beautiful! Now I ll have to look
                      Message 10 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                        I had the same experience, Iris. One day suddenly there was a
                        magnificent pyramid shaped crystal in my alum container. It was
                        beautiful! Now I'll have to look around for it. I know I didn't discard
                        it.

                        Lavinia

                        --- In Marbling@yahoogroups.com, "irisnevins" <irisnevins@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > ... One morning I woke up and found about a 1/2" crystal at the
                        bottom of the glass bottle.
                      • irisnevins
                        It s amazing, they look like a big diamond! If only! I could have retired on that crystal if it were one! So clear too, and I have tried to make it happen
                        Message 11 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                          It's amazing, they look like a big diamond! If only! I could have retired on that crystal if it were one! So clear too, and I have tried to make it happen again and it never did. a gift from "the Marbling Gods" I figured! I know I put it in a safe place so not to lose it... and can't remember where!!! Silly!
                          Iris Nevins
                          www.marblingpaper.com<http://www.marblingpaper.com/>
                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: onemarbler<mailto:laviniaa@...>
                          To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 10:15 AM
                          Subject: [Marbling] Re: Alum [crystal]


                          I had the same experience, Iris. One day suddenly there was a
                          magnificent pyramid shaped crystal in my alum container. It was
                          beautiful! Now I'll have to look around for it. I know I didn't discard
                          it.

                          Lavinia

                          --- In Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>, "irisnevins" <irisnevins@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > ... One morning I woke up and found about a 1/2" crystal at the
                          bottom of the glass bottle.


                          ------------------------------------

                          Yahoo! Groups Links





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • D or Jer Guffey
                          Hello, Years ago I took a marbling class from Don Guyot and I recall him saying that heat can destroy alum so he advised against using hot water in which to
                          Message 12 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                            Hello,

                            Years ago I took a marbling class from Don Guyot and I recall him saying that heat can destroy alum so he advised against using hot water in which to desolve it. I've always used regular cold tap water and have had no problems. The water can only absorb so much alum, adding more results in the crytals settling on the bottom. If you use distilled water (which I recall he recommended) then it will keep for a long period of time. Has anyone else heard of not using hot (or boiling) water?

                            d. guffey


                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: Susanne Krause
                            To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
                            Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 4:29 AM
                            Subject: [Marbling] Alum


                            Hello all,

                            it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and
                            such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely
                            dependant on the temperature of the water, meaning: boiling water
                            solves and holds more alum than luke warm water than water at room's
                            temperature than cold water. One degree more or less can make a huge
                            difference. In any case, the superfluous alum will sink down as soon
                            as the water cools down again.

                            Alum solves comparatively easy but, as it is heavier than water, the
                            cristals sink down to the bottom of the bottle when the solution is
                            over saturated. If you wait an hour or so, i.e. until the solution on
                            top of the crystals is totally clear, you can pour it off and what you
                            have then is the saturated solution. So you can start easily at 100%
                            and thin it down for tests, and sooner or later you will know how
                            strong a solution will be needed for which result.

                            Susanne Krause






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                          • gretchen vansant
                            Yep I was alittle surprised..I use warm water to desolve and then cold . I heard about/ experience the heat issue. I never iron alumed fabric that also
                            Message 13 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                              Yep I was alittle surprised..I use warm water to desolve and then cold . I heard about/ experience the heat issue. I never iron alumed fabric that also comprimises the fabric, I try not to leave it out in the real hot sun after its dried. It is a salt compound/mordum correct,isn't it logical that once dried it crystalizes?

                              --- On Sun, 8/31/08, D or Jer Guffey <dguff@...> wrote:

                              From: D or Jer Guffey <dguff@...>
                              Subject: Re: [Marbling] Alum
                              To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
                              Date: Sunday, August 31, 2008, 9:41 AM






                              Hello,

                              Years ago I took a marbling class from Don Guyot and I recall him saying that heat can destroy alum so he advised against using hot water in which to desolve it. I've always used regular cold tap water and have had no problems. The water can only absorb so much alum, adding more results in the crytals settling on the bottom. If you use distilled water (which I recall he recommended) then it will keep for a long period of time. Has anyone else heard of not using hot (or boiling) water?

                              d. guffey

                              ----- Original Message -----
                              From: Susanne Krause
                              To: Marbling@yahoogroup s.com
                              Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 4:29 AM
                              Subject: [Marbling] Alum

                              Hello all,

                              it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and
                              such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely
                              dependant on the temperature of the water, meaning: boiling water
                              solves and holds more alum than luke warm water than water at room's
                              temperature than cold water. One degree more or less can make a huge
                              difference. In any case, the superfluous alum will sink down as soon
                              as the water cools down again.

                              Alum solves comparatively easy but, as it is heavier than water, the
                              cristals sink down to the bottom of the bottle when the solution is
                              over saturated. If you wait an hour or so, i.e. until the solution on
                              top of the crystals is totally clear, you can pour it off and what you
                              have then is the saturated solution. So you can start easily at 100%
                              and thin it down for tests, and sooner or later you will know how
                              strong a solution will be needed for which result.

                              Susanne Krause

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                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]















                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • David Graham
                              At any given temperature (above freezing and at or below boiling) there is but a given concentration that alum can achieve before the soution is saturated.
                              Message 14 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                                At any given temperature (above freezing and at or below boiling)
                                there is but a given concentration that alum can achieve before the
                                soution is saturated. Addition of more alum will result no more
                                entering the solution. As the temperature falls, more alum will
                                precipate out of the solution. Raise the temperature and more alum
                                can enter solution. At sea level water boils at 212 degrees
                                fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius). Any solution of any heat stable
                                chemical (including alum) will achieve its maximal solublized
                                concentration under
                                those conditions. The solution is, at 100 Celsius, "saturated" but
                                must be considered "supersaturated" if the intent is to keep the
                                solution at "room temperature" at which temperature the concentration
                                of alum capable of remaining in solution will decrease, resulting in
                                precipitaion of the excess. Thus the "saturated solution" at room
                                temperature contains a lower concentration of alum than does a
                                saturated solution thereof at a higher temperature.

                                At high altitudes water boils at a temperature lower than 100 Celsius.
                                Thus a saturated solution at the point of boiling in Denver,CO is
                                lower than that at the boiling point in Atlantic City, NJ.

                                Again; this ain't rocket science. If you want to compare the efficacy
                                of different concentrations of alum in your
                                own studio, use distilled water to make it and always add enough alum
                                to your stock solution so that some remains undissolved at the bottom.
                                At a given temperature the clear fluid above the undissolved alum
                                will be of constant concentation which you can then dilute to various
                                degrees for testing purposes.

                                Dave in the Couteau of East River, SD

                                On Sun, Aug 31, 2008 at 11:41 AM, D or Jer Guffey <dguff@...> wrote:
                                > Hello,
                                >
                                > Years ago I took a marbling class from Don Guyot and I recall him saying
                                > that heat can destroy alum so he advised against using hot water in which to
                                > desolve it. I've always used regular cold tap water and have had no
                                > problems. The water can only absorb so much alum, adding more results in the
                                > crytals settling on the bottom. If you use distilled water (which I recall
                                > he recommended) then it will keep for a long period of time. Has anyone else
                                > heard of not using hot (or boiling) water?
                                >
                                > d. guffey
                                >
                                > ----- Original Message -----
                                > From: Susanne Krause
                                > To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
                                > Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 4:29 AM
                                > Subject: [Marbling] Alum
                                >
                                > Hello all,
                                >
                                > it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and
                                > such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely
                                > dependant on the temperature of the water, meaning: boiling water
                                > solves and holds more alum than luke warm water than water at room's
                                > temperature than cold water. One degree more or less can make a huge
                                > difference. In any case, the superfluous alum will sink down as soon
                                > as the water cools down again.
                                >
                                > Alum solves comparatively easy but, as it is heavier than water, the
                                > cristals sink down to the bottom of the bottle when the solution is
                                > over saturated. If you wait an hour or so, i.e. until the solution on
                                > top of the crystals is totally clear, you can pour it off and what you
                                > have then is the saturated solution. So you can start easily at 100%
                                > and thin it down for tests, and sooner or later you will know how
                                > strong a solution will be needed for which result.
                                >
                                > Susanne Krause
                              • irisnevins
                                The longer I hand around marbling and marblers, there are so many different right and wrong ways for everything, and even those constantly change. It is really
                                Message 15 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                                  The longer I hand around marbling and marblers, there are so many different right and wrong ways for everything, and even those constantly change. It is really the big challenge in marbling, changes. If things always stayed the same many more people would marble, and personally I would have even MORE hair than I do now...luckily I was given tons of hair at birth because otherwise I'd be bald now for tearing it out over trying to figure marbling out for so many years!

                                  My crystal, too, it came in winter. I may try to grow one again.
                                  Iris Nevins
                                  www.marblingpaper.com<http://www.marblingpaper.com/>
                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                  From: D or Jer Guffey<mailto:dguff@...>
                                  To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>
                                  Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 12:41 PM
                                  Subject: Re: [Marbling] Alum


                                  Hello,

                                  Years ago I took a marbling class from Don Guyot and I recall him saying that heat can destroy alum so he advised against using hot water in which to desolve it. I've always used regular cold tap water and have had no problems. The water can only absorb so much alum, adding more results in the crytals settling on the bottom. If you use distilled water (which I recall he recommended) then it will keep for a long period of time. Has anyone else heard of not using hot (or boiling) water?

                                  d. guffey


                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                  From: Susanne Krause
                                  To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>
                                  Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 4:29 AM
                                  Subject: [Marbling] Alum


                                  Hello all,

                                  it is very difficult to say: alum solution is saturated at such and
                                  such a ratio. The ability of the water to solve alum is extremely
                                  dependant on the temperature of the water, meaning: boiling water
                                  solves and holds more alum than luke warm water than water at room's
                                  temperature than cold water. One degree more or less can make a huge
                                  difference. In any case, the superfluous alum will sink down as soon
                                  as the water cools down again.

                                  Alum solves comparatively easy but, as it is heavier than water, the
                                  cristals sink down to the bottom of the bottle when the solution is
                                  over saturated. If you wait an hour or so, i.e. until the solution on
                                  top of the crystals is totally clear, you can pour it off and what you
                                  have then is the saturated solution. So you can start easily at 100%
                                  and thin it down for tests, and sooner or later you will know how
                                  strong a solution will be needed for which result.

                                  Susanne Krause






                                  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                  No virus found in this incoming message.
                                  Checked by AVG.
                                  Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 270.6.14/1643 - Release Date: 8/30/2008 5:18 PM


                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


                                  ------------------------------------

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                                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                • Marmolados.com.ar
                                  Hi! jaj It´s happens to me a couple of times too, but one crystal was awesome... And I read once that you can make it on purpose taking one little cristal of
                                  Message 16 of 18 , Aug 31, 2008
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                                    Hi! jaj It´s happens to me a couple of times too, but one crystal was awesome... And I read once that you can make it on purpose taking one little cristal of alum, and hanging up with a thread of cotton or similar into an oversaturated solution of alum (that is called seeding) and this little cristal will grow wired... I never do it this but I gonna make it some day =)

                                    David Maisterra
                                    http://www.marmolados.com.ar/


                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    From: irisnevins
                                    To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
                                    Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 11:24 AM
                                    Subject: Re: [Marbling] Re: Alum [crystal]


                                    It's amazing, they look like a big diamond! If only! I could have retired on that crystal if it were one! So clear too, and I have tried to make it happen again and it never did. a gift from "the Marbling Gods" I figured! I know I put it in a safe place so not to lose it... and can't remember where!!! Silly!
                                    Iris Nevins
                                    www.marblingpaper.com<http://www.marblingpaper.com/>
                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    From: onemarbler<mailto:laviniaa@...>
                                    To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>
                                    Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2008 10:15 AM
                                    Subject: [Marbling] Re: Alum [crystal]

                                    I had the same experience, Iris. One day suddenly there was a
                                    magnificent pyramid shaped crystal in my alum container. It was
                                    beautiful! Now I'll have to look around for it. I know I didn't discard
                                    it.

                                    Lavinia

                                    --- In Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>, "irisnevins" <irisnevins@...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > ... One morning I woke up and found about a 1/2" crystal at the
                                    bottom of the glass bottle.

                                    ------------------------------------

                                    Yahoo! Groups Links

                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  • teaweave
                                    Hi I am new to the group and new to marbling. In fact I haven t done any yet at all. I just mixed some Alum according to the directions which came with it -
                                    Message 17 of 18 , Sep 11, 2011
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                                      Hi I am new to the group and new to marbling. In fact I haven't done any yet at all. I just mixed some Alum according to the directions which came with it - which was 1 1/4 tsp to 1 cup of water. Then I decided to search on this list and I find amounts up to 2 or 3 TBL. being recommended. What should I start with? I have a variety of papers I planned to experiment with. I am using acrylics.
                                      Forest
                                    • irisnevins
                                      Sometimes that amount of alum works. I find you can get away with less sometimes in cold weather. I use a TBS. per cup as do most people. Iris Nevins
                                      Message 18 of 18 , Sep 11, 2011
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                                        Sometimes that amount of alum works. I find you can get away with less sometimes in cold weather. I use a TBS. per cup as do most people.
                                        Iris Nevins
                                        www.marblingpaper.com<http://www.marblingpaper.com/>
                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: teaweave<mailto:weaver@...>
                                        To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Marbling@yahoogroups.com>
                                        Sent: Sunday, September 11, 2011 7:32 PM
                                        Subject: [Marbling] Alum


                                        Hi I am new to the group and new to marbling. In fact I haven't done any yet at all. I just mixed some Alum according to the directions which came with it - which was 1 1/4 tsp to 1 cup of water. Then I decided to search on this list and I find amounts up to 2 or 3 TBL. being recommended. What should I start with? I have a variety of papers I planned to experiment with. I am using acrylics.
                                        Forest



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