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Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.

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  • lokmantorun
    Hi Garrett, Could you please explain the formulas of the materials for Tiger eyes & Schroetel patterns and explanations how to create these patterns or provide
    Message 1 of 9 , Jan 6, 2008
    • 0 Attachment
      Hi Garrett,
      Could you please explain the formulas of the materials for Tiger
      eyes & Schroetel patterns and explanations how to create these
      patterns or provide the links for them?
      Thanks,
      Lokman


      --- In Marbling@yahoogroups.com, "G. Dixon" <gdixon@...> wrote:
      >
      > The term Potash refers to a number of potassium compounds. Common
      potash, or potassium carbonate [K2CO3] is what is most commonly
      known as "potash" and it is relatively non-toxic and safe to use.
      Caustic potash is potassium hydroxide [KOH], and I have found it to
      be the best potassium compound for making Tiger eye pattern (and
      Schroetel as well as some other 19th century patterns based on
      chemical additives). This chemical, however, is equivalent to lye
      in its potency and must be used with care. Soda is sodium
      carbonate, also known as sal soda or washing soda (and in slightly
      more concentrated form known as soda ash). This is commonly
      available, particularly from dye sources (used with Procion dyes),
      and it is moderately caustic. Lime water is a solution of calcium
      hydroxide in water. This can be made by making a solution of common
      garden lime (predominantly calcium hydroxide which is also
      moderately caustic) and water (it dissolves quite poorly so about a
      teaspoonful in 100 ml water will be adequate enough and most will
      still sit on the bottom of the jar). Red American Potash is
      potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6]. It sounds dangerous, but it is
      much safer to work with than potassium hydroxide. Fichtenberg
      recommends this as an alternative to KOH for Schroetel pattern. I
      have tried it, but have not yet worked out the measurements for
      making the pattern and have had better success with caustic potash
      [KOH]. I have not had success with it for Tiger Eye pattern. These
      are most of the chemicals used in making Tiger Eye. Creolin (a
      creosote-based soap) is also used in Hartmann's formula, but I don't
      recommend this. It is foul smelling (and hazardous to health), has
      to be boiled (which makes it more volatile), and is too potent a
      dispersant for easy use on carrageen size.
      > There are three problems in obtaining good Tiger eye patterns:
      the proper proportion of chemicals, creating sufficient surface
      tension on the size, and care of papers when lifted off the size. I
      have published on my website several formulas for Tiger eye, most
      using my own paints, but one that I have done using Windsor & Newton
      Lamp Black Gouache (www.marblersapprentice.com) which could serve as
      a starting point. Carrageen size has a low surface tension and this
      makes it difficult to control the pattern (Tiger eye was usually
      done on tragacanth or psyllium sizes which resist spread of paints
      much more than carrageen). Even a little extra gall in the paint
      can result in breaking up of the central eyes. You can increase the
      surface tension of the size or you can make sure enough other colors
      have been laid down first to resist the spread of the tiger eyes
      (but you have to test and adjust your eye mixture in the same way on
      the other thrown colors).
      > Finally, these patterns were originally made on the other sizes
      mentioned and it was not typical to rinse the papers. Rinsing will
      wash away the eyes. Just take the papers off the size and allow to
      dry.
      > As with most of the patterns that use chemical additives
      (Stormont, Shell, Schroetel, Broken and others), Tiger Eye requires
      a lot more patience, testing, and precision in mixing materials
      before throwing the paints down than other patterns, but it can be
      accomplished. I always had to laugh when after spending a year
      struggling to work out the formulae for Tiger Eye, I turned my
      attention to Schroetel pattern. Every time I threw the paints down
      these great tiger eyes would appear - they just weren't what I
      wanted!
      >
      > Garrett Dixon
      > ----- Original Message -----
      > From: sixshort
      > To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
      > Sent: Friday, June 17, 2005 9:47 AM
      > Subject: [Marbling] Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.
      >
      >
      > Please - can anyone who has knowledge of recognised chemical
      terms, or
      > better still, their chemical makeup such as KCO3 etc., let me
      know
      > what is meant by the following terms. I want to make "Tiger
      Eye" or
      > "Sunspot" patterns, but the Australian pharmacists just shake
      their
      > heads and produce long list of possibilities.
      >
      > Potash
      > Soda
      > Limewater
      > Red American Potash
      > Potassium Carbonate
      >
      > I have four recipes for Tiger Eye, but the directions for making
      and
      > using the solutions are vague, to put it mildly. Help! Help me
      > Rhonda . . or Jake, or Ruth, or John or . . . ..
      >
      > from a confused marbler, Joan Ajala
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > -------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------
      > Yahoo! Groups Links
      >
      > a.. To visit your group on the web, go to:
      > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Marbling/
      >
      > b.. To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
      > Marbling-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
      >
      > c.. Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms
      of Service.
      >
      >
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
    • GARRETT DIXON
      Dear Lokman, There is very little available information about Tiger eye and Schroetel patterns. Nedim Sonmez has listed three recipes for Tiger eye in his
      Message 2 of 9 , Jan 6, 2008
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        Dear Lokman,
        There is very little available information about Tiger eye and Schroetel patterns. Nedim Sonmez has listed three recipes for Tiger eye in his book Ebru, The Turkish Art of Marbling (1992) and his resource was A. Weichelt's Buntpapier Fabrication, Verlag der PapierZeitung (1927). I have tested two of these along with the recipe of Fichtenberg (1854), which is the method I prefer, and guidelines are on my webpage http://www.marblersapprentice.com/Formulapage.htm . A description of the necessary chemicals are listed on the Supplies page of my website. The recipes are very imprecise, but I think that that is because there are so many variables in marbling, particularly from one marbler to another. I view the recipes as starting points. The most important part of Tiger eye is that the potassium/alum compounds form the eyes and the rays; the gall or creolin (which I don't advise using because your house will smell for days afterwards) is for the expansion of the eyes, and this must be carefully adjusted. In addition, there must be sufficient resistance from the size and the other paints put on earlier to resist the gall in the tiger eye droplets - otherwise the eyes break up. The tension between the expansion of the gall and the resistance of the size is what makes the pattern. I think that this was less of a problem in 1850 because the size was tragacanth which resists the spread of paints much more than carragheenan. I have seen many examples of poorly executed Tiger eye from the later 19th century, but perhaps it is because of the change to carragheenan. Another point I have discovered is that the Tiger eye paint must be thick - almost a paste (as I explain on my web page).
        Karli Frigge makes a Tiger eye using Potash (potassium carbonate) and I have also been successful with this. Although these "eyes" tend to be a little pale, the recipe would be a good one to start with, since it is the least complicated, safest and uses liquid paint. She advises to take about 50 ml of marbling paint and add to this a small amount of potash (she says a "pea sized amount"), then adjust with gall (and additional potash depending upon the results). Once mixed, the paints do not last long - a day of two, so don't make up much at one time.

        Schroetel pattern is more of a problem. Although it seems to me to have been a more common pattern than Tiger eye, recipes are fewer. There seems to be two versions of Schroetel. In one, the last paint put on spreads widely and breaks up into fragments. This is Fichtenberg's style from 1854. I have been able to replicate this, but it is not an attractive pattern. The other, more typical pattern, seems to have many small droplets applied onto the completed spot pattern, none of which spread very much and create the multiple small eyes appearance. I have not been able to find a recipe for this, and am still trying to work this out. Again, I think that a concentrated paint is needed to give the dark, concentrated centers, and some potassium chemical to cause the clear space around the drop to develop, but not too much - otherwise a Tiger eye results. It is possible that Karli Frigge's recipe with less potash might work, but a dilute paint does not give the dark, concentrated centers.

        I hope this explanation is of some assistance. I'll be happy to answer any other questions, as I am able.
        Sincerely,
        Garrett

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: lokmantorun
        To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Sunday, January 06, 2008 5:41 AM
        Subject: [Marbling] Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.


        Hi Garrett,
        Could you please explain the formulas of the materials for Tiger
        eyes & Schroetel patterns and explanations how to create these
        patterns or provide the links for them?
        Thanks,
        Lokman

        --- In Marbling@yahoogroups.com, "G. Dixon" <gdixon@...> wrote:
        >
        > The term Potash refers to a number of potassium compounds. Common
        potash, or potassium carbonate [K2CO3] is what is most commonly
        known as "potash" and it is relatively non-toxic and safe to use.
        Caustic potash is potassium hydroxide [KOH], and I have found it to
        be the best potassium compound for making Tiger eye pattern (and
        Schroetel as well as some other 19th century patterns based on
        chemical additives). This chemical, however, is equivalent to lye
        in its potency and must be used with care. Soda is sodium
        carbonate, also known as sal soda or washing soda (and in slightly
        more concentrated form known as soda ash). This is commonly
        available, particularly from dye sources (used with Procion dyes),
        and it is moderately caustic. Lime water is a solution of calcium
        hydroxide in water. This can be made by making a solution of common
        garden lime (predominantly calcium hydroxide which is also
        moderately caustic) and water (it dissolves quite poorly so about a
        teaspoonful in 100 ml water will be adequate enough and most will
        still sit on the bottom of the jar). Red American Potash is
        potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6]. It sounds dangerous, but it is
        much safer to work with than potassium hydroxide. Fichtenberg
        recommends this as an alternative to KOH for Schroetel pattern. I
        have tried it, but have not yet worked out the measurements for
        making the pattern and have had better success with caustic potash
        [KOH]. I have not had success with it for Tiger Eye pattern. These
        are most of the chemicals used in making Tiger Eye. Creolin (a
        creosote-based soap) is also used in Hartmann's formula, but I don't
        recommend this. It is foul smelling (and hazardous to health), has
        to be boiled (which makes it more volatile), and is too potent a
        dispersant for easy use on carrageen size.
        > There are three problems in obtaining good Tiger eye patterns:
        the proper proportion of chemicals, creating sufficient surface
        tension on the size, and care of papers when lifted off the size. I
        have published on my website several formulas for Tiger eye, most
        using my own paints, but one that I have done using Windsor & Newton
        Lamp Black Gouache (www.marblersapprentice.com) which could serve as
        a starting point. Carrageen size has a low surface tension and this
        makes it difficult to control the pattern (Tiger eye was usually
        done on tragacanth or psyllium sizes which resist spread of paints
        much more than carrageen). Even a little extra gall in the paint
        can result in breaking up of the central eyes. You can increase the
        surface tension of the size or you can make sure enough other colors
        have been laid down first to resist the spread of the tiger eyes
        (but you have to test and adjust your eye mixture in the same way on
        the other thrown colors).
        > Finally, these patterns were originally made on the other sizes
        mentioned and it was not typical to rinse the papers. Rinsing will
        wash away the eyes. Just take the papers off the size and allow to
        dry.
        > As with most of the patterns that use chemical additives
        (Stormont, Shell, Schroetel, Broken and others), Tiger Eye requires
        a lot more patience, testing, and precision in mixing materials
        before throwing the paints down than other patterns, but it can be
        accomplished. I always had to laugh when after spending a year
        struggling to work out the formulae for Tiger Eye, I turned my
        attention to Schroetel pattern. Every time I threw the paints down
        these great tiger eyes would appear - they just weren't what I
        wanted!
        >
        > Garrett Dixon
        > ----- Original Message -----
        > From: sixshort
        > To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Friday, June 17, 2005 9:47 AM
        > Subject: [Marbling] Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.
        >
        >
        > Please - can anyone who has knowledge of recognised chemical
        terms, or
        > better still, their chemical makeup such as KCO3 etc., let me
        know
        > what is meant by the following terms. I want to make "Tiger
        Eye" or
        > "Sunspot" patterns, but the Australian pharmacists just shake
        their
        > heads and produce long list of possibilities.
        >
        > Potash
        > Soda
        > Limewater
        > Red American Potash
        > Potassium Carbonate
        >
        > I have four recipes for Tiger Eye, but the directions for making
        and
        > using the solutions are vague, to put it mildly. Help! Help me
        > Rhonda . . or Jake, or Ruth, or John or . . . ..
        >
        > from a confused marbler, Joan Ajala
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > ----------------------------------------------------------
        -----------
        > Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        > a.. To visit your group on the web, go to:
        > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Marbling/
        >
        > b.. To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
        > Marbling-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        >
        > c.. Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms
        of Service.
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >





        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Lokman Torun
        Thank Garrett for the explanations. Have you tried making tiger eye using dyes/pigments other than Lamp Black? Lokman ... From: GARRETT DIXON
        Message 3 of 9 , Jan 10, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          Thank Garrett for the explanations. Have you tried making tiger eye using dyes/pigments other than Lamp Black?

          Lokman


          ----- Original Message ----
          From: GARRETT DIXON <dixong@...>
          To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Monday, January 7, 2008 5:04:09 AM
          Subject: Re: [Marbling] Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.

          Dear Lokman,
          There is very little available information about Tiger eye and Schroetel patterns. Nedim Sonmez has listed three recipes for Tiger eye in his book Ebru, The Turkish Art of Marbling (1992) and his resource was A. Weichelt's Buntpapier Fabrication, Verlag der PapierZeitung (1927). I have tested two of these along with the recipe of Fichtenberg (1854), which is the method I prefer, and guidelines are on my webpage http://www.marblers apprentice. com/Formulapage. htm . A description of the necessary chemicals are listed on the Supplies page of my website. The recipes are very imprecise, but I think that that is because there are so many variables in marbling, particularly from one marbler to another. I view the recipes as starting points. The most important part of Tiger eye is that the potassium/alum compounds form the eyes and the rays; the gall or creolin (which I don't advise using because your house will smell for days afterwards) is for the expansion
          of the eyes, and this must be carefully adjusted. In addition, there must be sufficient resistance from the size and the other paints put on earlier to resist the gall in the tiger eye droplets - otherwise the eyes break up. The tension between the expansion of the gall and the resistance of the size is what makes the pattern. I think that this was less of a problem in 1850 because the size was tragacanth which resists the spread of paints much more than carragheenan. I have seen many examples of poorly executed Tiger eye from the later 19th century, but perhaps it is because of the change to carragheenan. Another point I have discovered is that the Tiger eye paint must be thick - almost a paste (as I explain on my web page).
          Karli Frigge makes a Tiger eye using Potash (potassium carbonate) and I have also been successful with this. Although these "eyes" tend to be a little pale, the recipe would be a good one to start with, since it is the least complicated, safest and uses liquid paint. She advises to take about 50 ml of marbling paint and add to this a small amount of potash (she says a "pea sized amount"), then adjust with gall (and additional potash depending upon the results). Once mixed, the paints do not last long - a day of two, so don't make up much at one time.

          Schroetel pattern is more of a problem. Although it seems to me to have been a more common pattern than Tiger eye, recipes are fewer. There seems to be two versions of Schroetel. In one, the last paint put on spreads widely and breaks up into fragments. This is Fichtenberg' s style from 1854. I have been able to replicate this, but it is not an attractive pattern. The other, more typical pattern, seems to have many small droplets applied onto the completed spot pattern, none of which spread very much and create the multiple small eyes appearance. I have not been able to find a recipe for this, and am still trying to work this out. Again, I think that a concentrated paint is needed to give the dark, concentrated centers, and some potassium chemical to cause the clear space around the drop to develop, but not too much - otherwise a Tiger eye results. It is possible that Karli Frigge's recipe with less potash might work, but a dilute paint does not give the
          dark, concentrated centers.

          I hope this explanation is of some assistance. I'll be happy to answer any other questions, as I am able.
          Sincerely,
          Garrett

          ----- Original Message -----
          From: lokmantorun
          To: Marbling@yahoogroup s.com
          Sent: Sunday, January 06, 2008 5:41 AM
          Subject: [Marbling] Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.

          Hi Garrett,
          Could you please explain the formulas of the materials for Tiger
          eyes & Schroetel patterns and explanations how to create these
          patterns or provide the links for them?
          Thanks,
          Lokman

          --- In Marbling@yahoogroup s.com, "G. Dixon" <gdixon@...> wrote:
          >
          > The term Potash refers to a number of potassium compounds. Common
          potash, or potassium carbonate [K2CO3] is what is most commonly
          known as "potash" and it is relatively non-toxic and safe to use.
          Caustic potash is potassium hydroxide [KOH], and I have found it to
          be the best potassium compound for making Tiger eye pattern (and
          Schroetel as well as some other 19th century patterns based on
          chemical additives). This chemical, however, is equivalent to lye
          in its potency and must be used with care. Soda is sodium
          carbonate, also known as sal soda or washing soda (and in slightly
          more concentrated form known as soda ash). This is commonly
          available, particularly from dye sources (used with Procion dyes),
          and it is moderately caustic. Lime water is a solution of calcium
          hydroxide in water. This can be made by making a solution of common
          garden lime (predominantly calcium hydroxide which is also
          moderately caustic) and water (it dissolves quite poorly so about a
          teaspoonful in 100 ml water will be adequate enough and most will
          still sit on the bottom of the jar). Red American Potash is
          potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6]. It sounds dangerous, but it is
          much safer to work with than potassium hydroxide. Fichtenberg
          recommends this as an alternative to KOH for Schroetel pattern. I
          have tried it, but have not yet worked out the measurements for
          making the pattern and have had better success with caustic potash
          [KOH]. I have not had success with it for Tiger Eye pattern. These
          are most of the chemicals used in making Tiger Eye. Creolin (a
          creosote-based soap) is also used in Hartmann's formula, but I don't
          recommend this. It is foul smelling (and hazardous to health), has
          to be boiled (which makes it more volatile), and is too potent a
          dispersant for easy use on carrageen size.
          > There are three problems in obtaining good Tiger eye patterns:
          the proper proportion of chemicals, creating sufficient surface
          tension on the size, and care of papers when lifted off the size. I
          have published on my website several formulas for Tiger eye, most
          using my own paints, but one that I have done using Windsor & Newton
          Lamp Black Gouache (www.marblersappren tice.com) which could serve as
          a starting point. Carrageen size has a low surface tension and this
          makes it difficult to control the pattern (Tiger eye was usually
          done on tragacanth or psyllium sizes which resist spread of paints
          much more than carrageen). Even a little extra gall in the paint
          can result in breaking up of the central eyes. You can increase the
          surface tension of the size or you can make sure enough other colors
          have been laid down first to resist the spread of the tiger eyes
          (but you have to test and adjust your eye mixture in the same way on
          the other thrown colors).
          > Finally, these patterns were originally made on the other sizes
          mentioned and it was not typical to rinse the papers. Rinsing will
          wash away the eyes. Just take the papers off the size and allow to
          dry.
          > As with most of the patterns that use chemical additives
          (Stormont, Shell, Schroetel, Broken and others), Tiger Eye requires
          a lot more patience, testing, and precision in mixing materials
          before throwing the paints down than other patterns, but it can be
          accomplished. I always had to laugh when after spending a year
          struggling to work out the formulae for Tiger Eye, I turned my
          attention to Schroetel pattern. Every time I threw the paints down
          these great tiger eyes would appear - they just weren't what I
          wanted!
          >
          > Garrett Dixon
          > ----- Original Message -----
          > From: sixshort
          > To: Marbling@yahoogroup s.com
          > Sent: Friday, June 17, 2005 9:47 AM
          > Subject: [Marbling] Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.
          >
          >
          > Please - can anyone who has knowledge of recognised chemical
          terms, or
          > better still, their chemical makeup such as KCO3 etc., let me
          know
          > what is meant by the following terms. I want to make "Tiger
          Eye" or
          > "Sunspot" patterns, but the Australian pharmacists just shake
          their
          > heads and produce long list of possibilities.
          >
          > Potash
          > Soda
          > Limewater
          > Red American Potash
          > Potassium Carbonate
          >
          > I have four recipes for Tiger Eye, but the directions for making
          and
          > using the solutions are vague, to put it mildly. Help! Help me
          > Rhonda . . or Jake, or Ruth, or John or . . . ..
          >
          > from a confused marbler, Joan Ajala
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > ------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- -
          -----------
          > Yahoo! Groups Links
          >
          > a.. To visit your group on the web, go to:
          > http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Marbling/
          >
          > b.. To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
          > Marbling-unsubscrib e@yahoogroups. com
          >
          > c.. Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms
          of Service.
          >
          >
          >
          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]





          ____________________________________________________________________________________
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          know-it-all with Yahoo! Mobile. Try it now. http://mobile.yahoo.com/;_ylt=Ahu06i62sR8HDtDypao8Wcj9tAcJ


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        • GARRETT DIXON
          Lamp black seems to work the best, and gives the best ray formation. Indigo also works well. I have seen both blue and green that Karli Frigge has done, but
          Message 4 of 9 , Jan 10, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            Lamp black seems to work the best, and gives the best ray formation. Indigo also works well. I have seen both blue and green that Karli Frigge has done, but don't know what pigments she uses. From my testing of the various formulas, each gives a little different variation to the central eye and the rays, so some pigments may work more successfully with different formulas. I use potassium hydroxide and other than with indigo do not find that I get pleasing ray formation with other pigments - more often a central eye with a granular or clear surround. I think that the finer pigment probably gives better rays, so earth pigments will not do well, but the newer pigments such as phthalo blue and green might work. With most pigments you will get a result, but it may not give you the classic look of the original tiger eye.

            Garrett
            ----- Original Message -----
            From: Lokman Torun
            To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Thursday, January 10, 2008 9:07 AM
            Subject: Re: [Marbling] Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.


            Thank Garrett for the explanations. Have you tried making tiger eye using dyes/pigments other than Lamp Black?

            Lokman

            ----- Original Message ----
            From: GARRETT DIXON <dixong@...>
            To: Marbling@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Monday, January 7, 2008 5:04:09 AM
            Subject: Re: [Marbling] Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.

            Dear Lokman,
            There is very little available information about Tiger eye and Schroetel patterns. Nedim Sonmez has listed three recipes for Tiger eye in his book Ebru, The Turkish Art of Marbling (1992) and his resource was A. Weichelt's Buntpapier Fabrication, Verlag der PapierZeitung (1927). I have tested two of these along with the recipe of Fichtenberg (1854), which is the method I prefer, and guidelines are on my webpage http://www.marblers apprentice. com/Formulapage. htm . A description of the necessary chemicals are listed on the Supplies page of my website. The recipes are very imprecise, but I think that that is because there are so many variables in marbling, particularly from one marbler to another. I view the recipes as starting points. The most important part of Tiger eye is that the potassium/alum compounds form the eyes and the rays; the gall or creolin (which I don't advise using because your house will smell for days afterwards) is for the expansion
            of the eyes, and this must be carefully adjusted. In addition, there must be sufficient resistance from the size and the other paints put on earlier to resist the gall in the tiger eye droplets - otherwise the eyes break up. The tension between the expansion of the gall and the resistance of the size is what makes the pattern. I think that this was less of a problem in 1850 because the size was tragacanth which resists the spread of paints much more than carragheenan. I have seen many examples of poorly executed Tiger eye from the later 19th century, but perhaps it is because of the change to carragheenan. Another point I have discovered is that the Tiger eye paint must be thick - almost a paste (as I explain on my web page).
            Karli Frigge makes a Tiger eye using Potash (potassium carbonate) and I have also been successful with this. Although these "eyes" tend to be a little pale, the recipe would be a good one to start with, since it is the least complicated, safest and uses liquid paint. She advises to take about 50 ml of marbling paint and add to this a small amount of potash (she says a "pea sized amount"), then adjust with gall (and additional potash depending upon the results). Once mixed, the paints do not last long - a day of two, so don't make up much at one time.

            Schroetel pattern is more of a problem. Although it seems to me to have been a more common pattern than Tiger eye, recipes are fewer. There seems to be two versions of Schroetel. In one, the last paint put on spreads widely and breaks up into fragments. This is Fichtenberg' s style from 1854. I have been able to replicate this, but it is not an attractive pattern. The other, more typical pattern, seems to have many small droplets applied onto the completed spot pattern, none of which spread very much and create the multiple small eyes appearance. I have not been able to find a recipe for this, and am still trying to work this out. Again, I think that a concentrated paint is needed to give the dark, concentrated centers, and some potassium chemical to cause the clear space around the drop to develop, but not too much - otherwise a Tiger eye results. It is possible that Karli Frigge's recipe with less potash might work, but a dilute paint does not give the
            dark, concentrated centers.

            I hope this explanation is of some assistance. I'll be happy to answer any other questions, as I am able.
            Sincerely,
            Garrett

            ----- Original Message -----
            From: lokmantorun
            To: Marbling@yahoogroup s.com
            Sent: Sunday, January 06, 2008 5:41 AM
            Subject: [Marbling] Re: Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.

            Hi Garrett,
            Could you please explain the formulas of the materials for Tiger
            eyes & Schroetel patterns and explanations how to create these
            patterns or provide the links for them?
            Thanks,
            Lokman

            --- In Marbling@yahoogroup s.com, "G. Dixon" <gdixon@...> wrote:
            >
            > The term Potash refers to a number of potassium compounds. Common
            potash, or potassium carbonate [K2CO3] is what is most commonly
            known as "potash" and it is relatively non-toxic and safe to use.
            Caustic potash is potassium hydroxide [KOH], and I have found it to
            be the best potassium compound for making Tiger eye pattern (and
            Schroetel as well as some other 19th century patterns based on
            chemical additives). This chemical, however, is equivalent to lye
            in its potency and must be used with care. Soda is sodium
            carbonate, also known as sal soda or washing soda (and in slightly
            more concentrated form known as soda ash). This is commonly
            available, particularly from dye sources (used with Procion dyes),
            and it is moderately caustic. Lime water is a solution of calcium
            hydroxide in water. This can be made by making a solution of common
            garden lime (predominantly calcium hydroxide which is also
            moderately caustic) and water (it dissolves quite poorly so about a
            teaspoonful in 100 ml water will be adequate enough and most will
            still sit on the bottom of the jar). Red American Potash is
            potassium ferricyanide [K3Fe(CN)6]. It sounds dangerous, but it is
            much safer to work with than potassium hydroxide. Fichtenberg
            recommends this as an alternative to KOH for Schroetel pattern. I
            have tried it, but have not yet worked out the measurements for
            making the pattern and have had better success with caustic potash
            [KOH]. I have not had success with it for Tiger Eye pattern. These
            are most of the chemicals used in making Tiger Eye. Creolin (a
            creosote-based soap) is also used in Hartmann's formula, but I don't
            recommend this. It is foul smelling (and hazardous to health), has
            to be boiled (which makes it more volatile), and is too potent a
            dispersant for easy use on carrageen size.
            > There are three problems in obtaining good Tiger eye patterns:
            the proper proportion of chemicals, creating sufficient surface
            tension on the size, and care of papers when lifted off the size. I
            have published on my website several formulas for Tiger eye, most
            using my own paints, but one that I have done using Windsor & Newton
            Lamp Black Gouache (www.marblersappren tice.com) which could serve as
            a starting point. Carrageen size has a low surface tension and this
            makes it difficult to control the pattern (Tiger eye was usually
            done on tragacanth or psyllium sizes which resist spread of paints
            much more than carrageen). Even a little extra gall in the paint
            can result in breaking up of the central eyes. You can increase the
            surface tension of the size or you can make sure enough other colors
            have been laid down first to resist the spread of the tiger eyes
            (but you have to test and adjust your eye mixture in the same way on
            the other thrown colors).
            > Finally, these patterns were originally made on the other sizes
            mentioned and it was not typical to rinse the papers. Rinsing will
            wash away the eyes. Just take the papers off the size and allow to
            dry.
            > As with most of the patterns that use chemical additives
            (Stormont, Shell, Schroetel, Broken and others), Tiger Eye requires
            a lot more patience, testing, and precision in mixing materials
            before throwing the paints down than other patterns, but it can be
            accomplished. I always had to laugh when after spending a year
            struggling to work out the formulae for Tiger Eye, I turned my
            attention to Schroetel pattern. Every time I threw the paints down
            these great tiger eyes would appear - they just weren't what I
            wanted!
            >
            > Garrett Dixon
            > ----- Original Message -----
            > From: sixshort
            > To: Marbling@yahoogroup s.com
            > Sent: Friday, June 17, 2005 9:47 AM
            > Subject: [Marbling] Chemical names for Tiger Eye ingredients.
            >
            >
            > Please - can anyone who has knowledge of recognised chemical
            terms, or
            > better still, their chemical makeup such as KCO3 etc., let me
            know
            > what is meant by the following terms. I want to make "Tiger
            Eye" or
            > "Sunspot" patterns, but the Australian pharmacists just shake
            their
            > heads and produce long list of possibilities.
            >
            > Potash
            > Soda
            > Limewater
            > Red American Potash
            > Potassium Carbonate
            >
            > I have four recipes for Tiger Eye, but the directions for making
            and
            > using the solutions are vague, to put it mildly. Help! Help me
            > Rhonda . . or Jake, or Ruth, or John or . . . ..
            >
            > from a confused marbler, Joan Ajala
            >
            >
            >
            >
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