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English abstract of Kuo Tsai Wang's's paper

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  • Jake Benson
    Apparently several of us are having problems opening Kuo Tsai Wang s papers. I was able to extract this abstract out of the garbled symbols. If anyone can
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 26, 2006
      Apparently several of us are having problems opening Kuo Tsai Wang's
      papers. I was able to extract this abstract out of the garbled
      symbols. If anyone can open these files correctly, please let me know.

      In thinking about Garrett's comments about xanthan gum, I understand
      that much like MC, there are different varieties. A new kind has been
      developed - "surface treated" if you will, that is apparently mixed up
      much more easily for industrial purposes. Perhaps this is what he used?

      Nevertheless, some of you will find this paper of interest.


      Characteristics of Natural Gums Used as Marbling Size


      A variety of vegetable and other materials such as starches, gum
      tragacanth, carrageenan, salep, and linseed have been recognized over
      the ages as providing substances for marbling size. The experience of
      most marblers has indicated that carrageenan size is probably the
      best medium for producing finely combed patterns. Besides carrageenan
      we examined the characteristics of several natural gums including
      sodium alginate, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, and guar gum serving
      as marbling size. The results suggest that the viscosity and flow
      characteristics are important factors in marbling, especially in
      making delicately combed patterns. Due to improper viscosity and flow
      characteristics, a gum solution might not meet the requirements of
      size by itself; then it is necessary to combine 2 gums with various
      viscosities and flow characteristics in a proper ratio to produce a
      more suitable marbling size. It is possible, if desired, to
      effectively modify the Newtonian flow characteristics of 0.6% sodium
      alginate and 0.5% carrageenan moss by combining a pseudoplastic
      xanthan gum with them. The combined size allows the most finely
      combed patterns to be created and prevents pigments from aggregating.
      The air permeability of gum-impregnated Chinese "shuan" papers
      indicates the film-forming ability of gum solutions. Good
      film-forming indicates that some problems in overmarbling may exist.
      Solutions of natural gums serve as food sources for the growth of
      common microorganisms. Bio-attack decreases the shelf life of gums.
      Where it is necessary to keep gum solutions for a longer time, for
      instance, more than 3 d for guar gum and 7 d for xanthan gum,
      preservatives may be added to inhibit bacterial growth. The addition
      of a sequestrant such as sodium hexametaphosphate at a rate of 2% to
      5% is recommended to achieve a good shielding effect. It can either
      prevent cations in the pigment dispersion from reacting with sodium
      alginate or can sequester the calcium inherent in the sodium alginate
      solution. Carrageenan moss and guar gum are more tolerant to cations
      than is sodium alginate. In other words, sodium alginate is more
      sensitive to cations either inherent in pigments or present due to
      extra addition. It is expected that a diversity of patterns can be
      created with solutions of sodium alginate due to its sensitive nature.

      Key words: marbled paper, sodium alginate, carrageenan, xanthan gum,
      guar gum.

      Wang, K. T.1998."Characteristics of natural gums used as
      marbling size. Taiwan Journal Forestry Science
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