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## Re: [MEG_builders] Experiments with a new A-potential theory

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• Hi David, Thanks for your most interesting post and especially the info on your experiment(s). For some reason though, the images did not come thru on my end
Message 1 of 3 , Sep 10, 2003
Hi David,

Thanks for your most interesting post and especially the info on your
experiment(s). For some reason though, the images did not come thru on my
end so I'm wondering if you could send them to me or post them on this
site's archive? I have done many experiments with the external A-Field on
MEG configurations but never used an external core material!

Looking forward to hearing more from you-

Regards,
Jon

----- Original Message -----

Experiments with a new A-potential theory.

In searching the internet for information on the interaction of the
magnetic
vector potential (A) and charged particles, the following information was
gleaned
from a lecture summary:

(Fig 1.)

Essentially what is being done is to use the moving charged particle as
the point of
reference and observing what it would see as it moves. This derivation
shows that as it
moves through a magnetic vector potential, the charged particle will
experience an electric
field, which will either accelerate or decelerate the particle depending on
whether the
gradient of the magnetic vector potential is decreasing or increasing. The
most important
part of this derivation, other than the fact that the magnetic vector
potential can be static
(as from a permanent magnet), is that the effect depends entirely on the
velocity of the
charged particle. For a copper wire at room temperature, the "drift"
velocity of the electrons
(the average velocity after collisions with the molecules of the copper
wire) within the wire
is approximately millimeters per second, which yields a very small electric
field when
moving through the potential. However, if the electrons can be brought to
the surface of the
wire, where there will be fewer collisions, the velocity will be much
higher, approaching the
"Fermi" velocity (motion in the empty space between the molecules of the
copper wire),
which can be millions of meters per second (and can approach the speed of
light,
300,000,000 meters/second). When numbers are plugged into the above
derivation for
what might be a typical device:
1. A neodymium permanent magnet with a magnetic field of 10,000 gauss
2. A magnetic core completely containing the magnetic field (such as a
nanocrystalline
core)
3. A main core thickness of about 25 millimeters
4. An external core which might be 12 millimeters above the surface of
the main core
5. Windings around the external core to carry electrons.

If we assume a velocity of 1,000 meters/second, moving away from the main
core surface,
the particle will see an effective electric field of about 100 volts/meter.
This is not
insignificant. Note that once the charged particle is in motion, the
particle gains kinetic
energy simply from moving through the gradient of the magnetic vector
potential. Of course, when the particle is moving toward the main core
surface it will lose kinetic energy.
A possible device that could exploit this is:

(Fig 2.)

The main core has a magnetic field that is parallel to its surface. The
direction of this
field can be in and out of the this page, or left to right across the page,
of the magnetic-vector-potential which forms this field, which is
perpendicular to the main
core surface, is important.

The external core has a primary winding, driven by voltage taken from a
coil wound
around the main core, and a secondary winding used to detect changes in the
external core's magnetic field.

Note that the electron moving away from the main core experience an
acceleration,
whereas the electron moving toward the core will experience a deceleration.
Assuming
nothing happens to tap the electron kinetic energy, one-time around the loop
and the
electron will end up with the same energy it had when starting. Michael
Berry
( http://www.phy.bris.ac.uk/staff/berry_mv.html ) says that even though
this is true, the
phase of the particle as determined by its wave equation will not be the
same. Thus
something has changed during the motion around the external core. In
will be synchrotron radiation because of the acceleration/deceleration of
the charged
particle, although the Larmor formula indicates that for the given
conditions this
radiation energy will be very small. It is my belief, and the direction of
my current
experiments, to determine that the faster motion of the charged particles
changes the
magnetic field in the external core, since to the external core this appears
to the core
to be a larger current. As long as this external core contains all the
induced magnetic
field, such as a toroid, this magnetic field will not produce a Lorentz
force ( velocity
times magnetic field) to deflect and interfere with the particle motion.

A build-up has been constructed, using a Honeywell amorphous
nanocrystalline core,
AMCC-320, a nedymium magnet, and a "bridge" MOSFET driver to induce voltage
into
a coil which drives electrons into the winding on the external core. The
coil driven by
the MOSFETs is 10 turns, the coil driving current through the winding on the
external
core is 60 turns. The winding on the external core is a bifilar winding of
24 turns, with
a secondary winding of 24 turns. The bifilar winding is to pursuade the
electrons in the
winding to move near the surface of the wire, hopefully increasing their
velocity. The
value of the load resistor is variable, typically enough to cause a current
40 mA, which is a good number of electrons in motion.

(Fig 3.)

Note that the winding on the external core is connected so that electron
flow will
be in the same direction on each of the wires of the bifilar winding to and
through the

To date, experiments to detect this effect have been inconclusive. This is
probably
because the charged particles must have a significant velocity relative to
the drift
velocity ( and hence travelling on the surface of the wire ), which is not
the normal
electron path at low frequencies in a wire, and the influence of the
voltages used in
providing a driving voltage on the external core's secondary winding which
what is a small effect in comparison (parasitic capacitance between the
bifilar core
and the oscilloscope 'sense' winding).
It may be that only by the use of several drive windings and external-core
windings
will there be a clear effect observed due to a multiplying effect of each
external
winding on the total voltage/current flow (a ping-pong as explained by
others).

I purchased an inexpensive gaussmeter and Neodymium magnets from
ForceField/WonderMagnet, http://www.wondermagnet.com
There are plans for an inexpensive gaussmeter at:
Dr. Bearden has mentioned some guidelines of MEG construction in
correspondence on his site:
http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/061603.htm
and some pitfalls of MEG operation in
http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/052003.htm
When you read this closely, and consider the A-interaction outlined
above, it
makes sense.

David J.
• Experiments with a new A-potential theory. In searching the internet for information on the interaction of the magnetic vector potential (A) and charged
Message 2 of 3 , Sep 10, 2003
Experiments with a new A-potential theory.

In searching the internet for information on the interaction of the magnetic
vector potential (A) and charged particles, the following information was gleaned
from a lecture summary:

Figure 1:   Derivation of how a static A-potential can influence a charged particle.
Go to "Files" then go to the folder "MESSAGE ATTACHMENTS", go to the folder
"Experiments with a new A-poten", and open "Experiments with a new A-potential
theory Fig1.bmp".

Essentially what is being done is to use the moving charged particle as the point of
reference and observing what it would see as it moves.  This derivation shows that as it
moves through a magnetic vector potential, the charged particle will experience an electric
field, which will either accelerate or decelerate the particle depending on whether the
gradient of the magnetic vector potential is decreasing or increasing.  The most important
part of this derivation, other than the fact that the magnetic vector potential can be static
(as from a permanent magnet), is that the effect depends entirely on the velocity of the
charged particle.  For a copper wire at room temperature, the "drift" velocity of the electrons
(the average velocity after collisions with the molecules of the copper wire) within the wire
is approximately millimeters per second, which yields a very small electric field when
moving through the potential.  However, if the electrons can be brought to the surface of the
wire, where there will be fewer collisions, the velocity will be much higher, approaching the
"Fermi" velocity (motion in the empty space between the molecules of the copper wire),
which can be millions of meters per second (and can approach the speed of light,
300,000,000 meters/second).  When numbers are plugged into the above derivation for
what might be a typical device:
1.  A neodymium permanent magnet with a magnetic field of 10,000 gauss
2.  A magnetic core completely containing the magnetic field (such as a nanocrystalline
core)
3.  A main core thickness of about 25 millimeters
4. An external core which might be 12 millimeters above the surface of the main core
5.  Windings around the external core to carry electrons.

If we assume a velocity of 1,000 meters/second, moving away from the main core surface,
the particle will see an effective electric field of about 100 volts/meter.  This is not
insignificant.  Note that once the charged particle is in motion, the particle gains kinetic
energy simply from moving through the gradient of the magnetic vector potential.  Of course, when the particle is moving toward the main core surface it will lose kinetic energy.

NOTE:  if the A-potential is also time-varying, there is the additional influence due to that
variation, but for the purpose of proving the influence of a static A-potential, that is not
part of the present discussion.

A possible device that could exploit this is:

Figure 2:   Physical arrangement of a device to test this theory
Go to "Files" then go to the folder "MESSAGE ATTACHMENTS", go to the folder
"Experiments with a new A-poten", and open "Experiments with a new A-potential
theory Fig2.bmp".

The main core has a magnetic field that is parallel to its surface.  The direction of this
field can be in and out of the this page, or left to right across the page,  only the gradient
of the magnetic-vector-potential which forms this field, which is perpendicular to the main
core surface, is important.

The external core has a primary winding, driven by voltage taken from a coil wound
around the main core, and a secondary winding used to detect changes in the
external core's magnetic field.

Note that the electron moving away from the main core experiences an acceleration,
whereas the electron moving toward the core will experience a deceleration.  Assuming
nothing happens to tap the electron kinetic energy, one-time around the loop and the
electron will end up with the same energy it had when starting.  Michael Berry
( http://www.phy.bris.ac.uk/staff/berry_mv.html ) says that even though this is true, the
phase of the particle as determined by its wave equation will not be the same.  Thus
something has changed during the motion around the external core.  In addition, there
will be synchrotron radiation because of the acceleration/deceleration of the charged
particle, although the Larmor formula indicates that for the given conditions this
radiation energy will be very small.  It is my belief, and the direction of my current
experiments, to determine that the faster motion of the charged particles changes the
magnetic field in the external core, since to the external core this appears to the core
to be a larger current.  As long as this external core contains all the induced magnetic
field, such as a toroid, this magnetic field will not produce a Lorentz force ( velocity
times magnetic field) to deflect and interfere with the particle motion.

A build-up has been constructed, using a Honeywell amorphous nanocrystalline core,
AMCC-320, a nedymium magnet, and a "bridge" MOSFET driver to induce voltage into
a coil which drives electrons into the winding on the external core.  The coil driven by
the MOSFETs is 10 turns, the coil driving current through the winding on the external
core is 60 turns.  The winding on the external core is a bifilar winding of 24 turns, with
a secondary winding of 24 turns.  The bifilar winding is to pursuade the electrons in the
winding to move near the surface of the wire, hopefully increasing their velocity.  The
value of the load resistor is variable, typically enough to cause a current flow of about
40 mA, which is a good number of electrons in motion.
NOTE: bifilar means two wires wound in parallel together, always side-by-side.

Figure 3:   A simple schematic of the current test set-up.
Go to "Files" then go to the folder "MESSAGE ATTACHMENTS", go to the folder
"Experiments with a new A-poten", and open "Experiments with a new A-potential
theory Fig3.bmp".

Note that the winding on the external core is connected so that electron flow will
be in the same direction on each of the wires of the bifilar winding to and through the

To date, experiments to detect this effect have been inconclusive. This is probably
because the charged particles must have a significant velocity relative to the drift
velocity ( and hence travelling on the surface of the wire ), which is not the normal
electron path at low frequencies in a wire, and the influence of the voltages used in
providing a driving voltage on the external core's secondary winding which masks
what is a small effect in comparison (parasitic capacitance between the bifilar core
and the oscilloscope 'sense' winding).
It may be that only by the use of several drive windings and external-core windings
will there be a clear effect observed due to a multiplying effect of each external
winding on the total voltage/current flow (a ping-pong as explained by others).

I purchased an inexpensive gaussmeter and Neodymium  magnets from ForceField/WonderMagnet, http://www.wondermagnet.com
There are plans for an inexpensive gaussmeter at:
Dr. Bearden has mentioned some guidelines of MEG construction in
and some pitfalls of MEG operation in
When you read this closely, and consider the A-interaction outlined above, it
makes sense.

David J.

• Hi David and all, Thanks for an interesting post. I have been investigating the convective derivative of the A field as it relates to an induced E field, and
Message 3 of 3 , Sep 11, 2003
Hi David and all,
Thanks for an interesting post. I have been investigating the
convective derivative of the A field as it relates to an induced E
theory that works completely with experiments. The A field predicts
the emf generated in a transformer- using the partial time
derivative,
in addition the convective derivative works for a coil moving w.r.t.
a
magnet or another coil.

However for the simple case of a crosspiece moving on 2 rails in a
uniform magnetic field, it gives an incorrect answer. There are
other examples. In addition, using an electron beam in a CRT with
velocities about 10E7 m/s, no effects of a force could be detected.
The CRT neck was placed in the hole of a toroidal coil which produced
the switched A field.
-Dave D.

--- In MEG_builders@yahoogroups.com, "David Jenkins" <djenkins@r...>
wrote:
> Experiments with a new A-potential theory.
>
> In searching the internet for information on the interaction of
the magnetic
> vector potential (A) and charged particles, the following
information was gleaned
> from a lecture summary:
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