Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

10 LexiLine 2009 Hebrew Astronomy : Kings & Dynasties : Patriarchs & Pharaohs

Expand Messages
  • Andis Kaulins
    Someone interested in my writings sent me the following question: Do I understand the subject correctly that in your book Kings and Dynasties you state that
    Message 1 of 5 , Jun 4, 2009
    • 0 Attachment
      Someone interested in my writings sent me the following question:

      "Do I understand the subject correctly that in your book "Kings and Dynasties" you state that the Bible authors, the Hebrews, were great astronomers  who observed and recorded the heliacal rising and setting of the stars /constellations yet they did not document it in any other texts, but instead they put it in only one text, the Bible, encoding their observations in a cryptic manner as a cipher in a form of the Patriarchs life span list,  so no one but they could know that the Bible has two levels:  one on the surface that is pseudo-historical narration , and the second level behind/under it that is a science of astronomy, and they accomplished theses calculations by 2340 BC or by 3761 BC ?"

      My answer was:

      1. Obviously, if the Hebrews have a calendar which they trace back to nearly 3800 BC, then they will have had an astronomy system at that early time.

      2. I am fairly sure that this calendar originated at Gobekli Tepe, near Ur(fa), birthplace of Abraham. Gobekli Tepe is north of Haran.

      3. The Hebrews brought the calendric system with them to Egypt, where, according to my decipherments, they were the pharaohs of Egypt (the tomb of Tutankhamun features the two enemies of Egypt on the prow of a ship - the native peoples of Africa and the Asiatics - but the Hebrews are not pictured, so they are identical with the Pharaohs). e.g. King Saul was Akhenaten, King David was Sethos and King Solomon was Ramses II, with Shishak as Ramses III. This is all quite clearly apparent.

      4. The Pharaonic dynasties are astronomically based and calculated, as I show in Kings and Dynasties. The oldest of these Pharaohs are the Biblical Patriarchs.

      5. In those ancient days, longer periods of time, such as the realms of kings, were measured by the stars , and that is the basic theory of Kings and Dynasties. This is not a "code" at all. It is just the way that time was calculated in ancient eras, in addition to using the Sun and the Moon - the "Sun" name of a Pharaoh was his RA name and the "Moon" name of a Pharaoh was his AMUN name.

      6. The Old Testament is an actual history of ca. 3800 BC to the year 0, but much of the Bible is nevertheless astronomically-based chronology, e.g. Chronicles, Kings.

      7. The Book of Enoch is in fact a very detailed ancient Hebrew astronomy, but it was not included in the modern Bible by laymen when put together in the modern era - the exclusion of the astronomical Book of Enoch from the modern Bible was an error. You have to have astronomy if you want chronology.

      In other words, there is in fact a LOT of astronomy in the Bible and the so-called apochryphal texts, such as the Book of Enoch, which has developed over thousands of years.

      Enjoy,

      Andis

      APPENDIX

      6 LexiLine 2008  Star Realms of the Patriarchs, Ur and Ebla 

      At Lexiline http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm, I present the ages of the Biblical partriarchs as reigns which were calculated and recorded by astronomy, what I call star realms.

      William Walker III calculated that the star data applies only at a location around 42.5�N, i.e. supporting the idea that the Biblical Patriarchs came from the Black Sea Flood submergence. Our cardinal date for that calculation was 3117 BC, using a location at 42.5�N.

      We have since recalculated the starting location of the Biblical Patriarch stellar data with the Starry Night Pro software and have discovered that the start of the data at the rising and setting of the star Arcturus, given the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar at 3761 B.C., would be in a geographic area at about 37� to 38� N, and we now think that to be the more accurate location for the astronomical start of the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs as calculated by astronomy.

      Our previous position was that the Biblical data related to a starting date of ca. 3117 B.C. In that era at ca. 3117 BC, according to Starry Night Pro, at the latitude 42�30" N, as one can see in the graphic below, Arcturus, at which the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs begin with Adam, is more or less right at the horizon and ready in a few years to lose its circumpolar status at that latitude.


      42�30" N 3117 BC


      Already one degree below that at 41�30" N in 3117 B.C., Arcturus is no longer a circumpolar star in that epoch and is definitely subject to description as a rising and setting star, as in our star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs.

      In terms of chronological time, Arcturus also reaches this same position at 42�30" N in ca. 2950 BC.

      We thought and still think Arcturus was used as the first star of this Biblical Patriarch series because at this time in history - at the right latitude (which still remains to be fixed) - Arcturus goes from being a circumpolar star to being a star that also dips below the horizon due to the 25920 year cycle of the wobble of the earth, which leads to precession and a change in the position of the celestial equator, which then of course changes the position of Arcturus in the sky. In this epoch, Arcturus was slowly dropping.


      41�30" N 3117 BC
      Arcturus at the horizon is also what one would see ca. 38�N to 37�N in 3761 B.C.


      Accordingly, what we wrote previously at LexiLine at http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm was in the general ball park of accuracy as far as the rising and setting of Arcturus is concerned for 3117 B.C., using the reference point of 42�30" N, which William Walker calculated.

      However, if our theory of the "star ages" or "star realms" of the Biblical Patriarchs is true, which we think it is, it only holds true if their reigns were recorded for posterity for a starting date of ca. 3117 BC, but using the positions of the stars at 42�30" N. But this is highly unlikely, since in 3117 BC the Black Sea was already submerged.

      Accordingly, a change in the point of reference in terms of time and location is necessary.

      We ourselves have never been happy with the 42�30" N latitude theory (but saw no choice but to adopt it due to the data given to us) and have always thought that the star eras of the Biblical Patriarchs must apply to a more southerly location, where the data was actually calculated and recorded by the Hebrew scholars in a later epoch.

      Accordingly, instead of the 3117 B.C. cardinal date, we recently took the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar for our astronomical calculations.

      We now assume that these star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs were in fact recorded taking a starting date as 3761 BC, which is the start of the Hebrew calendar.

      At what latitude in that epoch would Arcturus then start its non-circumpolar status? i.e. at what latitude does Arcturus start to dip minimally below the horizon during the daily rotation of the stars in 3761 B.C.?

      In the year 3761 B.C., according to Starry Night Pro, Arcturus begins its non-circumpolar status somewhere around latitude 38� N to 37�N. Above that latitude in that epoch it still remains circumpolar and would not and could not be used as a rising or setting star to calculate the star realms of the Biblical Pharaohs.

      This brings us new observations. A location of 38� N to 37�N as the location for calculating the data with a starting reference date of 3761 B.C. is very interesting indeed.

      According to the legends of the MIddle East, the city of Ur, the birthplace of Abraham, is not the Babylonian Ur, but the city of Urfa (ca. 37� N.), ancient Anatolia, in today's southeastern Turkey, just above the Syrian border.

      The Wikipedia  writes:

      "The city has been known by many names: Ուռհա, Urhai in Armenian, ܐܘܪܗܝ, Urhay in Syriac, Riha in Kurdish, الروها,Ar-Ruha in Arabic, Ορρα, Orrha in Greek (also Ορροα, Orrhoa). For awhile it was named Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Greek: �`ντιόχεια η επί Καλλιρρόης). During Byzantine rule it was named Justinopolis. Although it is often best known by the name given it by the Seleucids, Εδεσσα, Edessa.

      'Sanli' means great, glorious, dignified in Turkish and Urfa was officially re-named Sanliurfa (Urfa the Glorious) by the Turkish GrandNational Assembly in 1984....

      Urfa is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Sanliurfa Province. Urfa is situated on a plain under big open skies, about eighty kilometres east of the Euphrates River. The climate features extremely hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. The urban population of Urfa is mainly Kurdish while the outlying regions are mixed Turkish and to a lesser degree Arabian.... It was one of several cities in the Euphrates-Tigris basin, the cradle of the Mesopotamian civilization. According to Turkish Muslim traditions Urfa (its name since Byzantine days) is the biblical city of Ur, due to its proximity to the biblical village of Harran. However, the Iraqis also claim the city of Ur in southern Iraq, as do many historians and archaeologists. Urfa is also known as the birthplace of Abraham, commemorated by a mosque in the city and the birthplace of Job.
      "

      Burak Sansal  writes:

      "This is an Anatolian city which has figured in all the religions of the book. Old Testament prophets such as Jethro (Hz. Suayp), Job (Hz. Eyup), Elijah (Hz. Elyasa) and Abraham (Hz. Ibrahim) lived in this city, which in ancient times was known as Edessa, and Moses (Hz. Musa) lived in the region for seven years working as a shepherd before returning to Egypt with his staff. It was in Sanliurfa that early Christians were first permitted to worship freely, and where the first churches were constructed openly. Pagan temples were converted to synagogues, synagogues to churches and churches to mosques, resulting in a uniquely eclectic architecture."

      As can be read at the site of the Sanliurfa Museum, the region is marked by numerous tumuli, many now destro�ed by dams:

      "A testament to the rich past of the region of Sanliurfa is the large number of tumuli and old settlements. Harran, located 44 kilometers south of Sanliurfa, is one of the most notable of these settlements and was continuously inhabited from 3000 BC to the 13th century. It was especially noted for its peculiar civilian architecture.

      Salvage excavations are being conducted in the settlements threatened by the dams of Ataturk, Birecik and Kargamis. Starting from 1978, foreign teams conducted excavations in the Lidar and Hassek tumuli which were to be submerged under Ataturk Dam Lake, while the museum directorate was involved in the excavation of Cavi Field and Nevala Cori. Salvage excavations have been taking place since 1996 in Tilbes Tumulus which will disappear under the waters of Birecik Dam; Apamea, a Hellenistic city threatened by the same dam, has been excavated since 1998....

      In Sanliurfa museum, pieces obtained from Harran and other cultural assets recovered from other tumuli and ancient settlements are exhibited in different cases in alphabetical order. Pieces from the time of the Assyrians, Babylonians and the Hittites are exhibited in the entrance hall.

      The second and third halls of the archaeology section have cutting and piercing devices made of flintstone (8000-5000 BC), stone idols and vessels, plain and painted ceramics with geometric designs made of baked soil belonging to the period 5000-3000 BC, seals, pithoi, necklaces, pieces of imprinted cubes made of baked soil dating back to the Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC), animal figures, metal artifacts, and ornaments.
      "

      A good distance southwest of Urfa and Harran and 55 km SW of Aleppo in Syria we find the ancient city of Ebla (Tell Mardikh. In view of the name of Ebla's most illustrious king, Ebrium or Ibrium  (in my opinion this could be a reference to Abraham), Ebla most certainly was Ebra and the "land of the Hebrews" at that time. Ebla has become increasingly important in archaeological assessments of the Ancient Near East (text misspellings corrected in the following quotations):

      "c. 3.0 tya BCE :
      Semitic people called the Canaanites inhabit ancient Palestine and Phoenicia. "Phoenicia" is the Greek translation of "Canaan--the land of purple merchants" referring to the dye they used to color cloth. Indeed, it is from the time of Canaan that Bethlehem is believed to have derived its name, Bethlehem - 'BeitLahem' in Arabic ("The house of Lahman" - a Canaanite God). The term 'Semitic' is generally synonymous with 'Jewish' but is said to include the related group of people who spoke Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic and Amharic. These languages are all classified by linguists as a group of tongues constituting the Afro-Asiatic Language Family.

      More recent archaeological discoveries which tend to promote the importance of the civilization centered in the city of Ebla...(as opposed to Mesopotamia)... indicate that it may be useful to name some of the levantine discoveries as "Pre-Eblaic, Elbaic or Post-Eblaic", ... the cause of the decline of this culture is not yet well elucidated.
      "

      The Eblaites, because of their writings, might be considered the descendants of the Sumerians, who were the Indo-European people of the Black Sea Flood:

      "In 1964, Italian archaeologists from the University of Rome La Sapienza directed by Paolo Matthiae began excavating at Tell Mardikh. In 1968 they recovered a statue dedicated to the goddess Ishtar bearing the name of Ibbit-Lim, a king of Ebla [after whom Bethlehem was named?]. That identified the city, long known from Egyptian and Akkadian inscriptions. In the next decade the team discovered a palace dating approximately from 2500�2000 BC. About 15,000 well-preserved cuneiform tablets were discovered in the ruins. About 80% of the tablets are written in Sumerian, the others in a previously unknown Semitic language that is being called 'Eblaite.' Pettinato and Dahood believe the Eblaite language is West Semitic, however Gelb and others believe it is an East Semitic dialect, closer to Akkadian. Ebla's close link to southern Mesopotamia, where the script had developed, establishes further the links between the Sumerians and Semitic cultures that certainly already existed before the first texts appear in Sumer in 3000 BC. Vocabulary lists were found with the tablets, allowing them to be translated." [emphasis added]

      Clifford Wilson  writes about the many thousands of Ebla Tablets found at Ebla:

      "When the first tablets were found, it was soon realized that this city used a very ancient language in the North West Semitic group which was previously unknown. Professor Pettinato labeled this "Paleo-Canaanite." In layman's terms, this means "ancient Canaanite." At the close of this article in Biblical Archaeologist Professor Pettinato tells us,
      The pronominal and verbal systems, in particular, are so clearly defined that one can properly speak of a Paleo-Canaanite language closely akin to Hebrew and Phoenician.
      These Ebla tablets are written in a Sumerian script, with Sumerian logograms adapted to represent Akkadian words and syllables. About 1,000 words were recovered initially (hundreds more later) in vocabulary lists. The words are written out in both Sumerian logograms and Eblaic syllable-type writing. These offered an invaluable key to the interpretation of many of the Ebla texts. The vocabularies at Ebla were distinctively Semitic: the word "to write" is k-t-b (as in Hebrew), while that for "king" is "malikum," and that for "man" is "adamu." The closeness to Hebrew is surprising.""

      The Ebla tablets mention Ur (Urfa).

      Yes, and there is a Pharaonic connection as well:

      "Most of its trade seems to have been directed towards Mesopotamia (chiefly Kish), and contacts with Egypt are attested by gifts from pharaohs Khafra and Pepi I."

      Now, why would the Pharaohs be giving gifts to Ebla unless there was a close blood relationship between them?

      Enjoy,

      Andis

    • magnus_munn
      Hello, This is an area of intense interest and (from what I ve seen) seems to border closely with political agendas. The fabric of ancient history has been
      Message 2 of 5 , Jun 4, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        Hello,

        This is an area of intense interest and (from what I've seen) seems to border closely with political agendas. The fabric of ancient history has been written very hastily and with a great deal of emphasis on the notions of biblical authority ie: whoever wrote the oldest documents - the bible - must also be the oldest race. In my investigations into archaeological and anthropological discoveries both recent and established, I've found that quite the opposite is true.

        The Hebrews have the appearance of antiquity only because of their conquest of older races. They did not possess an advanced system of astronomy or writing, they inherited them; the original settlers of Canaan after the flood arrived by sea and migrated from Anatolia. Egypt was conquered and civilized by these sea same foreigners, as was Sumer and Harrappa - they all arrived by sea.

        At the time of Pre-Dynastic Egypt (5000-3300 BC) the indigenous tribesmen, including the Semites, were no match for these people at first, who had brought with them an already advanced language, military and seafaring skill and technology, system of astronomy, and monotheist spirituality.

        But as it can be seen in the Old Testament which is an account of far more recent times, the business of the Hebrew tribes was to utterly wipe out the Caananites, which they did. The thing is, not only did they wipe them out, but they immediately assumed the knowledge and antiquity of their victims for their own.

        If you do any amount of research into the history of the Phoenicians (Canaanites), it becomes obvious that Hebrew is not a root culture, nor is it even a root language. Hebrews were to the Canaanites as the Romans were to the Greeks.

        The ancient astronomy that the Hebrews took ownership of was never maintained, or advanced. In terms of its use, it actually devolved to a sidereal system where constellations were thought to never change position. Its earlier form was the more sophisticated tropical system which accounted for precession of equinoxes. The reason for this was that they simply had no use for it - the Semitic tribesmen were not seafarers by practice or by ancestry.

        My main point here is, there are vast, vast assumptions being made about who is who in ancient history and prehistory, and it deserves to be revisited without biblical spectacles on, so that things can be seen from a wider view.

        --- In LexiLine@yahoogroups.com, "Andis Kaulins" <a1ndiskaulins@...> wrote:
        >
        > Someone interested in my writings sent me the following question:
        >
        > "Do I understand the subject correctly that in your book "Kings and
        > Dynasties" you state that the Bible authors, the Hebrews, were great
        > astronomers who observed and recorded the heliacal rising and setting
        > of the stars /constellations yet they did not document it in any other
        > texts, but instead they put it in only one text, the Bible, encoding
        > their observations in a cryptic manner as a cipher in a form of the
        > Patriarchs life span list, so no one but they could know that the Bible
        > has two levels: one on the surface that is pseudo-historical narration
        > , and the second level behind/under it that is a science of astronomy,
        > and they accomplished theses calculations by 2340 BC or by 3761 BC ?"
        >
        > My answer was:
        >
        > 1. Obviously, if the Hebrews have a calendar which they trace back to
        > nearly 3800 BC, then they will have had an astronomy system at that
        > early time.
        >
        > 2. I am fairly sure that this calendar originated at Gobekli Tepe, near
        > Ur(fa), birthplace of Abraham. Gobekli Tepe is north of Haran.
        >
        > 3. The Hebrews brought the calendric system with them to Egypt, where,
        > according to my decipherments, they were the pharaohs of Egypt (the tomb
        > of Tutankhamun features the two enemies of Egypt on the prow of a ship -
        > the native peoples of Africa and the Asiatics - but the Hebrews are not
        > pictured, so they are identical with the Pharaohs). e.g. King Saul was
        > Akhenaten, King David was Sethos and King Solomon was Ramses II, with
        > Shishak as Ramses III. This is all quite clearly apparent.
        >
        > 4. The Pharaonic dynasties are astronomically based and calculated, as I
        > show in Kings and Dynasties
        > <http://www.andiskaulins.com/publications/kingsanddynasties/kingsanddyna\
        > sties.htm> . The oldest of these Pharaohs are the Biblical Patriarchs.
        >
        > 5. In those ancient days, longer periods of time, such as the realms of
        > kings, were measured by the stars
        > <http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm> , and that is the basic
        > theory of Kings and Dynasties. This is not a "code" at all. It is just
        > the way that time was calculated in ancient eras, in addition to using
        > the Sun and the Moon - the "Sun" name of a Pharaoh was his RA name and
        > the "Moon" name of a Pharaoh was his AMUN name.
        >
        > 6. The Old Testament is an actual history of ca. 3800 BC to the year 0,
        > but much of the Bible is nevertheless astronomically-based chronology,
        > e.g. Chronicles, Kings.
        >
        > 7. The Book of Enoch is in fact a very detailed ancient Hebrew
        > astronomy, but it was not included in the modern Bible by laymen when
        > put together in the modern era - the exclusion of the astronomical Book
        > of Enoch from the modern Bible was an error. You have to have astronomy
        > if you want chronology.
        >
        > In other words, there is in fact a LOT of astronomy in the Bible and the
        > so-called apochryphal texts, such as the Book of Enoch, which has
        > developed over thousands of years.
        >
        > Enjoy,
        >
        > Andis
        >
        > APPENDIX
        >
        > 6 LexiLine 2008 Star Realms of the Patriarchs, Ur and Ebla
        > <http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/message/1664>
        >
        > At Lexiline http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm
        > <http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm> , I present the ages of
        > the Biblical partriarchs as reigns which were calculated and recorded by
        > astronomy, what I call star realms.
        >
        > William Walker III <http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi157.htm>
        > calculated that the star data applies only at a location around
        > 42.5�N, i.e. supporting the idea that the Biblical Patriarchs came
        > from the Black Sea Flood submergence. Our cardinal date for that
        > calculation was 3117 BC, using a location at 42.5�N.
        >
        > We have since recalculated the starting location of the Biblical
        > Patriarch stellar data with the Starry Night Pro software and have
        > discovered that the start of the data at the rising and setting of the
        > star Arcturus, given the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar at 3761
        > B.C., would be in a geographic area at about 37� to 38� N, and
        > we now think that to be the more accurate location for the astronomical
        > start of the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs as calculated by
        > astronomy.
        >
        > Our previous position was that the Biblical data related to a starting
        > date of ca. 3117 B.C. In that era at ca. 3117 BC, according to Starry
        > Night Pro, at the latitude 42�30" N, as one can see in the graphic
        > below, Arcturus, at which the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs begin
        > with Adam, is more or less right at the horizon and ready in a few years
        > to lose its circumpolar status at that latitude.
        >
        >
        > 42�30" N 3117 BC
        >
        >
        > Already one degree below that at 41�30" N in 3117 B.C., Arcturus is
        > no longer a circumpolar star in that epoch and is definitely subject to
        > description as a rising and setting star, as in our star realms of the
        > Biblical Patriarchs <http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm> .
        >
        > In terms of chronological time, Arcturus also reaches this same position
        > at 42�30" N in ca. 2950 BC.
        >
        > We thought and still think Arcturus was used as the first star of this
        > Biblical Patriarch series because at this time in history - at the right
        > latitude (which still remains to be fixed) - Arcturus goes from being a
        > circumpolar star to being a star that also dips below the horizon due to
        > the 25920 year cycle of the wobble of the earth, which leads to
        > precession and a change in the position of the celestial equator, which
        > then of course changes the position of Arcturus in the sky. In this
        > epoch, Arcturus was slowly dropping.
        >
        >
        > 41�30" N 3117 BC
        > Arcturus at the horizon is also what one would see ca. 38�N to
        > 37�N in 3761 B.C.
        >
        > Accordingly, what we wrote previously at LexiLine at
        > http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm
        > <http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi154.htm> was in the general ball
        > park of accuracy as far as the rising and setting of Arcturus is
        > concerned for 3117 B.C., using the reference point of 42�30" N,
        > which William Walker calculated.
        >
        > However, if our theory of the "star ages" or "star realms" of the
        > Biblical Patriarchs is true, which we think it is, it only holds true if
        > their reigns were recorded for posterity for a starting date of ca. 3117
        > BC, but using the positions of the stars at 42�30" N. But this is
        > highly unlikely, since in 3117 BC the Black Sea was already submerged.
        >
        > Accordingly, a change in the point of reference in terms of time and
        > location is necessary.
        >
        > We ourselves have never been happy with the 42�30" N latitude
        > theory (but saw no choice but to adopt it due to the data given to us)
        > and have always thought that the star eras of the Biblical Patriarchs
        > must apply to a more southerly location, where the data was actually
        > calculated and recorded by the Hebrew scholars in a later epoch.
        >
        > Accordingly, instead of the 3117 B.C. cardinal date, we recently took
        > the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar for our astronomical
        > calculations.
        >
        > We now assume that these star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs were in
        > fact recorded taking a starting date as 3761 BC, which is the start of
        > the Hebrew calendar.
        >
        > At what latitude in that epoch would Arcturus then start its
        > non-circumpolar status? i.e. at what latitude does Arcturus start to dip
        > minimally below the horizon during the daily rotation of the stars in
        > 3761 B.C.?
        >
        > In the year 3761 B.C., according to Starry Night Pro, Arcturus begins
        > its non-circumpolar status somewhere around latitude 38� N to
        > 37�N. Above that latitude in that epoch it still remains
        > circumpolar and would not and could not be used as a rising or setting
        > star to calculate the star realms of the Biblical Pharaohs.
        >
        > This brings us new observations. A location of 38� N to 37�N
        > as the location for calculating the data with a starting reference date
        > of 3761 B.C. is very interesting indeed.
        >
        > According to the legends of the MIddle East, the city of Ur, the
        > birthplace of Abraham, is not the Babylonian Ur, but the city of Urfa
        > (ca. 37� N.), ancient Anatolia, in today's southeastern Turkey,
        > just above the Syrian border.
        >
        > The Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Eanl%C4%B1urfa>
        > writes:
        >
        > "The city has been known by many names: Ուռհա, Urhai in
        > Armenian, ܐܘܪܗܝ, Urhay in Syriac, Riha in Kurdish,
        > الروها,Ar-Ruha in Arabic, Ορρα, Orrha in Greek
        > (also Ορροα, Orrhoa). For awhile it was named Callirrhoe or
        > Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Greek: �`ντιόχεια η
        > επί Καλλιρρόης). During Byzantine rule it was
        > named Justinopolis. Although it is often best known by the name given it
        > by the Seleucids, Εδεσσα, Edessa.
        >
        > 'Sanli' means great, glorious, dignified in Turkish and Urfa was
        > officially re-named Sanliurfa (Urfa the Glorious) by the Turkish
        > GrandNational Assembly in 1984....
        >
        > Urfa is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Sanliurfa
        > Province. Urfa is situated on a plain under big open skies, about eighty
        > kilometres east of the Euphrates River. The climate features extremely
        > hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. The urban population of Urfa
        > is mainly Kurdish while the outlying regions are mixed Turkish and to a
        > lesser degree Arabian.... It was one of several cities in the
        > Euphrates-Tigris basin, the cradle of the Mesopotamian civilization.
        > According to Turkish Muslim traditions Urfa (its name since Byzantine
        > days) is the biblical city of Ur, due to its proximity to the biblical
        > village of Harran. However, the Iraqis also claim the city of Ur in
        > southern Iraq, as do many historians and archaeologists. Urfa is also
        > known as the birthplace of Abraham, commemorated by a mosque in the city
        > and the birthplace of Job."
        >
        > Burak Sansal <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/urfa.htm> writes:
        >
        > "This is an Anatolian <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/anatolia.htm> city
        > which has figured in all the religions of the book. Old Testament
        > <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/sozlukislam2.htm#oldtestament> prophets
        > <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/muhammed.htm#list> such as Jethro (Hz.
        > Suayp), Job (Hz. Eyup), Elijah (Hz. Elyasa) and Abraham (Hz. Ibrahim)
        > lived in this city, which in ancient times was known as Edessa, and
        > Moses (Hz. Musa) lived in the region
        > <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/southeast-anatolia.htm> for seven years
        > working as a shepherd before returning to Egypt with his staff. It was
        > in Sanliurfa that early Christians
        > <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/hristiyan.htm> were first permitted to
        > worship freely, and where the first churches were constructed openly.
        > Pagan temples were converted to synagogues, synagogues to churches and
        > churches to mosques <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/mosque.htm> ,
        > resulting in a uniquely eclectic architecture
        > <http://www.allaboutturkey.com/mimari.htm> ."
        >
        > As can be read at the site of the Sanliurfa Museum
        > <http://sailturkey.com/urfa_museum/> , the region is marked by numerous
        > tumuli, many now destro�ed by dams:
        >
        > "A testament to the rich past of the region of Sanliurfa is the large
        > number of tumuli and old settlements. Harran, located 44 kilometers
        > south of Sanliurfa, is one of the most notable of these settlements and
        > was continuously inhabited from 3000 BC to the 13th century. It was
        > especially noted for its peculiar civilian architecture.
        >
        > Salvage excavations are being conducted in the settlements threatened by
        > the dams of Ataturk, Birecik and Kargamis. Starting from 1978, foreign
        > teams conducted excavations in the Lidar and Hassek tumuli which were to
        > be submerged under Ataturk Dam Lake, while the museum directorate was
        > involved in the excavation of Cavi Field and Nevala Cori. Salvage
        > excavations have been taking place since 1996 in Tilbes Tumulus which
        > will disappear under the waters of Birecik Dam; Apamea, a Hellenistic
        > city threatened by the same dam, has been excavated since 1998....
        >
        > In Sanliurfa museum, pieces obtained from Harran and other cultural
        > assets recovered from other tumuli and ancient settlements are exhibited
        > in different cases in alphabetical order. Pieces from the time of the
        > Assyrians, Babylonians and the Hittites are exhibited in the entrance
        > hall.
        >
        > The second and third halls of the archaeology section have cutting and
        > piercing devices made of flintstone (8000-5000 BC), stone idols and
        > vessels, plain and painted ceramics with geometric designs made of baked
        > soil belonging to the period 5000-3000 BC, seals, pithoi, necklaces,
        > pieces of imprinted cubes made of baked soil dating back to the Early
        > Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC), animal figures, metal artifacts, and
        > ornaments."
        >
        > A good distance southwest of Urfa and Harran and 55 km SW of Aleppo in
        > Syria we find the ancient city of Ebla (Tell Mardikh
        > <http://www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/canaan.html> . In view
        > of the name of Ebla's most illustrious king, Ebrium or Ibrium
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibrium> (in my opinion this could be a
        > reference to Abraham), Ebla most certainly was Ebra and the "land of the
        > Hebrews" at that time. Ebla has become increasingly important in
        > archaeological assessments of the Ancient Near East
        > <http://hometown.aol.com/eilatlog/chronofile/timeBCE-07.html> (text
        > misspellings corrected in the following quotations):
        >
        > "c. 3.0 tya BCE :
        > Semitic people called the Canaanites inhabit ancient Palestine and
        > Phoenicia. "Phoenicia" is the Greek translation of "Canaan--the land of
        > purple merchants" referring to the dye they used to color cloth. Indeed,
        > it is from the time of Canaan that Bethlehem is believed to have derived
        > its name, Bethlehem - 'BeitLahem' in Arabic ("The house of Lahman" - a
        > Canaanite God). The term 'Semitic' is generally synonymous with 'Jewish'
        > but is said to include the related group of people who spoke Hebrew,
        > Aramaic, Arabic and Amharic. These languages are all classified by
        > linguists as a group of tongues constituting the Afro-Asiatic Language
        > Family.
        >
        > More recent archaeological discoveries which tend to promote the
        > importance of the civilization centered in the city of Ebla...(as
        > opposed to Mesopotamia)... indicate that it may be useful to name some
        > of the levantine discoveries as "Pre-Eblaic, Elbaic or Post-Eblaic", ...
        > the cause of the decline of this culture is not yet well elucidated."
        >
        > The Eblaites <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebla> , because of their
        > writings, might be considered the descendants of the Sumerians, who were
        > the Indo-European people of the Black Sea Flood:
        >
        > "In 1964 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964> , Italian archaeologists
        > from the University of Rome La Sapienza
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Rome_La_Sapienza> directed
        > by Paolo Matthiae <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paolo_Matthiae> began
        > excavating at Tell Mardikh. In 1968 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968>
        > they recovered a statue dedicated to the goddess Ishtar
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishtar> bearing the name of Ibbit-Lim
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibbit-Lim> , a king of Ebla [after whom
        > Bethlehem was named?]. That identified the city, long known from
        > Egyptian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt> and Akkadian
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkad> inscriptions. In the next decade
        > the team discovered a palace dating approximately from 2500
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2500_BC> �2000 BC
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000_BC> . About 15,000 well-preserved
        > cuneiform <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuneiform_%28script%29> tablets
        > were discovered in the ruins. About 80% of the tablets are written in
        > Sumerian, the others in a previously unknown Semitic
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semitic> language that is being called
        > 'Eblaite <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eblaite_language> .' Pettinato
        > and Dahood believe the Eblaite language is West Semitic, however Gelb
        > and others believe it is an East Semitic dialect, closer to Akkadian
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkadian_language> . Ebla's close link to
        > southern Mesopotamia, where the script had developed, establishes
        > further the links between the Sumerians and Semitic cultures that
        > certainly already existed before the first texts appear in Sumer in 3000
        > BC. Vocabulary lists were found with the tablets, allowing them to be
        > translated." [emphasis added]
        >
        > Clifford Wilson <http://www.icr.org/article/92/> writes about the many
        > thousands of Ebla Tablets found at Ebla:
        >
        > "When the first tablets were found, it was soon realized that this city
        > used a very ancient language in the North West Semitic group which was
        > previously unknown. Professor Pettinato labeled this "Paleo-Canaanite."
        > In layman's terms, this means "ancient Canaanite." At the close of this
        > article in Biblical Archaeologist Professor Pettinato tells us,The
        > pronominal and verbal systems, in particular, are so clearly defined
        > that one can properly speak of a Paleo-Canaanite language closely akin
        > to Hebrew and Phoenician.These Ebla tablets are written in a Sumerian
        > script, with Sumerian logograms adapted to represent Akkadian words and
        > syllables. About 1,000 words were recovered initially (hundreds more
        > later) in vocabulary lists. The words are written out in both Sumerian
        > logograms and Eblaic syllable-type writing. These offered an invaluable
        > key to the interpretation of many of the Ebla texts. The vocabularies at
        > Ebla were distinctively Semitic: the word "to write" is k-t-b (as in
        > Hebrew), while that for "king" is "malikum," and that for "man" is
        > "adamu." The closeness to Hebrew is surprising.""
        >
        > The Ebla tablets mention Ur (Urfa).
        >
        > Yes, and there is a Pharaonic connection
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebla> as well:
        >
        > "Most of its trade seems to have been directed towards Mesopotamia
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia> (chiefly Kish
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kish_%28Sumer%29> ), and contacts with
        > Egypt <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt> are attested by gifts from
        > pharaohs Khafra <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khafra> and Pepi I
        > <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepi_I> ."
        >
        > Now, why would the Pharaohs be giving gifts to Ebla unless there was a
        > close blood relationship between them?
        >
        > Enjoy,
        >
        > Andis
        >
      • Joseph Arechiga
        Dear Andis, It s unbelievable how knowledgeable you are about these things. Thanks for sharing your knowledge. Where does one begin in learning to master stars
        Message 3 of 5 , Jun 4, 2009
        • 0 Attachment
          Dear Andis,

          It's unbelievable how knowledgeable you are about these things.

          Thanks for sharing your knowledge.

          Where does one begin in learning to master stars and history?

          Joseph.

          --- On Thu, 6/4/09, Andis Kaulins <a1ndiskaulins@...> wrote:

          From: Andis Kaulins <a1ndiskaulins@...>
          Subject: [LexiLine] 10 LexiLine 2009 Hebrew Astronomy : Kings & Dynasties : Patriarchs & Pharaohs
          To: LexiLine@yahoogroups.com
          Date: Thursday, June 4, 2009, 5:47 AM

          Someone interested in my writings sent me the following question:

          "Do I understand the subject correctly that in your book "Kings and Dynasties" you state that the Bible authors, the Hebrews, were great astronomers  who observed and recorded the heliacal rising and setting of the stars /constellations yet they did not document it in any other texts, but instead they put it in only one text, the Bible, encoding their observations in a cryptic manner as a cipher in a form of the Patriarchs life span list,  so no one but they could know that the Bible has two levels:  one on the surface that is pseudo-historical narration , and the second level behind/under it that is a science of astronomy, and they accomplished theses calculations by 2340 BC or by 3761 BC ?"

          My answer was:

          1. Obviously, if the Hebrews have a calendar which they trace back to nearly 3800 BC, then they will have had an astronomy system at that early time.

          2. I am fairly sure that this calendar originated at Gobekli Tepe, near Ur(fa), birthplace of Abraham. Gobekli Tepe is north of Haran.

          3. The Hebrews brought the calendric system with them to Egypt, where, according to my decipherments, they were the pharaohs of Egypt (the tomb of Tutankhamun features the two enemies of Egypt on the prow of a ship - the native peoples of Africa and the Asiatics - but the Hebrews are not pictured, so they are identical with the Pharaohs). e.g. King Saul was Akhenaten, King David was Sethos and King Solomon was Ramses II, with Shishak as Ramses III. This is all quite clearly apparent.

          4. The Pharaonic dynasties are astronomically based and calculated, as I show in Kings and Dynasties. The oldest of these Pharaohs are the Biblical Patriarchs.

          5. In those ancient days, longer periods of time, such as the realms of kings, were measured by the stars , and that is the basic theory of Kings and Dynasties. This is not a "code" at all. It is just the way that time was calculated in ancient eras, in addition to using the Sun and the Moon - the "Sun" name of a Pharaoh was his RA name and the "Moon" name of a Pharaoh was his AMUN name.

          6. The Old Testament is an actual history of ca. 3800 BC to the year 0, but much of the Bible is nevertheless astronomically- based chronology, e.g. Chronicles, Kings.

          7. The Book of Enoch is in fact a very detailed ancient Hebrew astronomy, but it was not included in the modern Bible by laymen when put together in the modern era - the exclusion of the astronomical Book of Enoch from the modern Bible was an error. You have to have astronomy if you want chronology.

          In other words, there is in fact a LOT of astronomy in the Bible and the so-called apochryphal texts, such as the Book of Enoch, which has developed over thousands of years.

          Enjoy,

          Andis

          APPENDIX

          6 LexiLine 2008  Star Realms of the Patriarchs, Ur and Ebla 

          At Lexiline http://www.lexiline .com/lexiline/ lexi154.htm, I present the ages of the Biblical partriarchs as reigns which were calculated and recorded by astronomy, what I call star realms.

          William Walker III calculated that the star data applies only at a location around 42.5�N, i.e. supporting the idea that the Biblical Patriarchs came from the Black Sea Flood submergence. Our cardinal date for that calculation was 3117 BC, using a location at 42.5�N.

          We have since recalculated the starting location of the Biblical Patriarch stellar data with the Starry Night Pro software and have discovered that the start of the data at the rising and setting of the star Arcturus, given the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar at 3761 B.C., would be in a geographic area at about 37� to 38� N, and we now think that to be the more accurate location for the astronomical start of the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs as calculated by astronomy.

          Our previous position was that the Biblical data related to a starting date of ca. 3117 B.C. In that era at ca. 3117 BC, according to Starry Night Pro, at the latitude 42�30" N, as one can see in the graphic below, Arcturus, at which the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs begin with Adam, is more or less right at the horizon and ready in a few years to lose its circumpolar status at that latitude.


          42�30" N 3117 BC


          Already one degree below that at 41�30" N in 3117 B.C., Arcturus is no longer a circumpolar star in that epoch and is definitely subject to description as a rising and setting star, as in our star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs.

          In terms of chronological time, Arcturus also reaches this same position at 42�30" N in ca. 2950 BC.

          We thought and still think Arcturus was used as the first star of this Biblical Patriarch series because at this time in history - at the right latitude (which still remains to be fixed) - Arcturus goes from being a circumpolar star to being a star that also dips below the horizon due to the 25920 year cycle of the wobble of the earth, which leads to precession and a change in the position of the celestial equator, which then of course changes the position of Arcturus in the sky. In this epoch, Arcturus was slowly dropping.


          41�30" N 3117 BC
          Arcturus at the horizon is also what one would see ca. 38�N to 37�N in 3761 B.C.


          Accordingly, what we wrote previously at LexiLine at http://www.lexiline .com/lexiline/ lexi154.htm was in the general ball park of accuracy as far as the rising and setting of Arcturus is concerned for 3117 B.C., using the reference point of 42�30" N, which William Walker calculated.

          However, if our theory of the "star ages" or "star realms" of the Biblical Patriarchs is true, which we think it is, it only holds true if their reigns were recorded for posterity for a starting date of ca. 3117 BC, but using the positions of the stars at 42�30" N. But this is highly unlikely, since in 3117 BC the Black Sea was already submerged.

          Accordingly, a change in the point of reference in terms of time and location is necessary.

          We ourselves have never been happy with the 42�30" N latitude theory (but saw no choice but to adopt it due to the data given to us) and have always thought that the star eras of the Biblical Patriarchs must apply to a more southerly location, where the data was actually calculated and recorded by the Hebrew scholars in a later epoch.

          Accordingly, instead of the 3117 B.C. cardinal date, we recently took the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar for our astronomical calculations.

          We now assume that these star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs were in fact recorded taking a starting date as 3761 BC, which is the start of the Hebrew calendar.

          At what latitude in that epoch would Arcturus then start its non-circumpolar status? i.e. at what latitude does Arcturus start to dip minimally below the horizon during the daily rotation of the stars in 3761 B.C.?

          In the year 3761 B.C., according to Starry Night Pro, Arcturus begins its non-circumpolar status somewhere around latitude 38� N to 37�N. Above that latitude in that epoch it still remains circumpolar and would not and could not be used as a rising or setting star to calculate the star realms of the Biblical Pharaohs.

          This brings us new observations. A location of 38� N to 37�N as the location for calculating the data with a starting reference date of 3761 B.C. is very interesting indeed.

          According to the legends of the MIddle East, the city of Ur, the birthplace of Abraham, is not the Babylonian Ur, but the city of Urfa (ca. 37� N.), ancient Anatolia, in today's southeastern Turkey, just above the Syrian border.

          The Wikipedia  writes:

          "The city has been known by many names: Ուռհա, Urhai in Armenian, ܐܘܪܗܝ, Urhay in Syriac, Riha in Kurdish, الروها,Ar-Ruha in Arabic, Ορρα, Orrha in Greek (also Ορροα, Orrhoa). For awhile it was named Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Greek: �`ντιόχεια η επί Καλλιρρόης). During Byzantine rule it was named Justinopolis. Although it is often best known by the name given it by the Seleucids, Εδεσσα, Edessa.

          'Sanli' means great, glorious, dignified in Turkish and Urfa was officially re-named Sanliurfa (Urfa the Glorious) by the Turkish GrandNational Assembly in 1984....

          Urfa is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Sanliurfa Province. Urfa is situated on a plain under big open skies, about eighty kilometres east of the Euphrates River. The climate features extremely hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. The urban population of Urfa is mainly Kurdish while the outlying regions are mixed Turkish and to a lesser degree Arabian.... It was one of several cities in the Euphrates-Tigris basin, the cradle of the Mesopotamian civilization. According to Turkish Muslim traditions Urfa (its name since Byzantine days) is the biblical city of Ur, due to its proximity to the biblical village of Harran. However, the Iraqis also claim the city of Ur in southern Iraq, as do many historians and archaeologists. Urfa is also known as the birthplace of Abraham, commemorated by a mosque in the city and the birthplace of Job.
          "

          Burak Sansal  writes:

          "This is an Anatolian city which has figured in all the religions of the book. Old Testament prophets such as Jethro (Hz. Suayp), Job (Hz. Eyup), Elijah (Hz. Elyasa) and Abraham (Hz. Ibrahim) lived in this city, which in ancient times was known as Edessa, and Moses (Hz. Musa) lived in the region for seven years working as a shepherd before returning to Egypt with his staff. It was in Sanliurfa that early Christians were first permitted to worship freely, and where the first churches were constructed openly. Pagan temples were converted to synagogues, synagogues to churches and churches to mosques, resulting in a uniquely eclectic architecture."

          As can be read at the site of the Sanliurfa Museum, the region is marked by numerous tumuli, many now destro�ed by dams:

          "A testament to the rich past of the region of Sanliurfa is the large number of tumuli and old settlements. Harran, located 44 kilometers south of Sanliurfa, is one of the most notable of these settlements and was continuously inhabited from 3000 BC to the 13th century. It was especially noted for its peculiar civilian architecture.

          Salvage excavations are being conducted in the settlements threatened by the dams of Ataturk, Birecik and Kargamis. Starting from 1978, foreign teams conducted excavations in the Lidar and Hassek tumuli which were to be submerged under Ataturk Dam Lake, while the museum directorate was involved in the excavation of Cavi Field and Nevala Cori. Salvage excavations have been taking place since 1996 in Tilbes Tumulus which will disappear under the waters of Birecik Dam; Apamea, a Hellenistic city threatened by the same dam, has been excavated since 1998....

          In Sanliurfa museum, pieces obtained from Harran and other cultural assets recovered from other tumuli and ancient settlements are exhibited in different cases in alphabetical order. Pieces from the time of the Assyrians, Babylonians and the Hittites are exhibited in the entrance hall.

          The second and third halls of the archaeology section have cutting and piercing devices made of flintstone (8000-5000 BC), stone idols and vessels, plain and painted ceramics with geometric designs made of baked soil belonging to the period 5000-3000 BC, seals, pithoi, necklaces, pieces of imprinted cubes made of baked soil dating back to the Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC), animal figures, metal artifacts, and ornaments.
          "

          A good distance southwest of Urfa and Harran and 55 km SW of Aleppo in Syria we find the ancient city of Ebla (Tell Mardikh. In view of the name of Ebla's most illustrious king, Ebrium or Ibrium  (in my opinion this could be a reference to Abraham), Ebla most certainly was Ebra and the "land of the Hebrews" at that time. Ebla has become increasingly important in archaeological assessments of the Ancient Near East (text misspellings corrected in the following quotations):

          "c. 3.0 tya BCE :
          Semitic people called the Canaanites inhabit ancient Palestine and Phoenicia. "Phoenicia" is the Greek translation of "Canaan--the land of purple merchants" referring to the dye they used to color cloth. Indeed, it is from the time of Canaan that Bethlehem is believed to have derived its name, Bethlehem - 'BeitLahem' in Arabic ("The house of Lahman" - a Canaanite God). The term 'Semitic' is generally synonymous with 'Jewish' but is said to include the related group of people who spoke Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic and Amharic. These languages are all classified by linguists as a group of tongues constituting the Afro-Asiatic Language Family.

          More recent archaeological discoveries which tend to promote the importance of the civilization centered in the city of Ebla...(as opposed to Mesopotamia) ... indicate that it may be useful to name some of the levantine discoveries as "Pre-Eblaic, Elbaic or Post-Eblaic" , ... the cause of the decline of this culture is not yet well elucidated.
          "

          The Eblaites, because of their writings, might be considered the descendants of the Sumerians, who were the Indo-European people of the Black Sea Flood:

          "In 1964, Italian archaeologists from the University of Rome La Sapienza directed by Paolo Matthiae began excavating at Tell Mardikh. In 1968 they recovered a statue dedicated to the goddess Ishtar bearing the name of Ibbit-Lim, a king of Ebla [after whom Bethlehem was named?]. That identified the city, long known from Egyptian and Akkadian inscriptions. In the next decade the team discovered a palace dating approximately from 25002000 BC. About 15,000 well-preserved cuneiform tablets were discovered in the ruins. About 80% of the tablets are written in Sumerian, the others in a previously unknown Semitic language that is being called 'Eblaite.' Pettinato and Dahood believe the Eblaite language is West Semitic, however Gelb and others believe it is an East Semitic dialect, closer to Akkadian. Ebla's close link to southern Mesopotamia, where the script had developed, establishes further the links between the Sumerians and Semitic cultures that certainly already existed before the first texts appear in Sumer in 3000 BC. Vocabulary lists were found with the tablets, allowing them to be translated." [emphasis added]

          Clifford Wilson  writes about the many thousands of Ebla Tablets found at Ebla:

          "When the first tablets were found, it was soon realized that this city used a very ancient language in the North West Semitic group which was previously unknown. Professor Pettinato labeled this "Paleo-Canaanite. " In layman's terms, this means "ancient Canaanite." At the close of this article in Biblical Archaeologist Professor Pettinato tells us,
          The pronominal and verbal systems, in particular, are so clearly defined that one can properly speak of a Paleo-Canaanite language closely akin to Hebrew and Phoenician.
          These Ebla tablets are written in a Sumerian script, with Sumerian logograms adapted to represent Akkadian words and syllables. About 1,000 words were recovered initially (hundreds more later) in vocabulary lists. The words are written out in both Sumerian logograms and Eblaic syllable-type writing. These offered an invaluable key to the interpretation of many of the Ebla texts. The vocabularies at Ebla were distinctively Semitic: the word "to write" is k-t-b (as in Hebrew), while that for "king" is "malikum," and that for "man" is "adamu." The closeness to Hebrew is surprising.""

          The Ebla tablets mention Ur (Urfa).

          Yes, and there is a Pharaonic connection as well:

          "Most of its trade seems to have been directed towards Mesopotamia (chiefly Kish), and contacts with Egypt are attested by gifts from pharaohs Khafra and Pepi I."

          Now, why would the Pharaohs be giving gifts to Ebla unless there was a close blood relationship between them?

          Enjoy,

          Andis

        • Andis Kaulins
          Hi Joseph, Thank you for your kind words, but as you can see from my own comments about my book Kings & Dynasites, this entire area of research is fraught with
          Message 4 of 5 , Jun 6, 2009
          • 0 Attachment
            Hi Joseph,

            Thank you for your kind words, but as you can see from my own comments about my book Kings & Dynasites, this entire area of research is fraught with difficulty. One reason that most mainstream scholars detour around megalithic research, for example, is surely that it is too full of pitfalls. Too little is known, too much is unknown.

            Moreover, I am more traditional in my approach than you might suspect. As regards your question about learning astronomy and history, I would recommend to anyone wishing to master astronomy or history that they enroll in the corresponding courses at educational institutions of their choice. There they will learn the basics, from which they can then expand on their own, if they are willing - and able.

            It is for example the case in my theories that I am not trying to supplant our institutions or our learning. Rather, I am bombarding established academia with questions that they have have been ignoring and I am putting into doubt accepted theories that have no basis in probative fact. Someone has to do it and fate has somehow put me in this position. We all have our destiny.

            6 billion now and soon 7 billion human beings are like a giant swarm of bees or a massive ant hill. Or, as Pink Floyd sings, you are just another brick in the wall, even if your bank account says that you are worth billions or if you are the head of a country. It applies to all humanity - we are all just part of a gigantic human "project".

            I mean that positively.

            Andis


            --- In LexiLine@yahoogroups.com, Joseph Arechiga <arechj_1999@...> wrote:
            >
            > Dear Andis,
            >
            > It's unbelievable how knowledgeable you are about these things.
            >
            > Thanks for sharing your knowledge.
            >
            > Where does one begin in learning to master stars and history?
            >
            > Joseph.
            >
            > --- On Thu, 6/4/09, Andis Kaulins <a1ndiskaulins@...> wrote:
            >
            > From: Andis Kaulins <a1ndiskaulins@...>
            > Subject: [LexiLine] 10 LexiLine 2009 Hebrew Astronomy : Kings & Dynasties : Patriarchs & Pharaohs
            > To: LexiLine@yahoogroups.com
            > Date: Thursday, June 4, 2009, 5:47 AM
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > Someone interested in my writings sent me the following question:
            >
            > "Do I understand the subject correctly that in your book "Kings and Dynasties" you state that the Bible authors, the Hebrews, were great astronomers  who observed and recorded the heliacal rising and setting of the stars /constellations yet they did not document it in any other texts, but instead they put it in only one text, the Bible, encoding their observations in a cryptic manner as a cipher in a form of the Patriarchs life span list,  so no one but they could know that the Bible has two levels:  one on the surface that is pseudo-historical narration , and the second level behind/under it that is a science of astronomy, and they accomplished theses calculations by 2340 BC or by 3761 BC ?"
            >
            > My answer was:
            >
            > 1. Obviously, if the Hebrews have a calendar which they trace back to nearly 3800 BC, then they will have had an astronomy system at that early time.
            >
            > 2. I am fairly sure that this calendar originated at Gobekli Tepe, near Ur(fa), birthplace of Abraham. Gobekli Tepe is north of Haran.
            >
            > 3. The Hebrews brought the calendric system with them to Egypt, where, according to my decipherments, they were the pharaohs of Egypt (the tomb of Tutankhamun features the two enemies of Egypt on the prow of a ship - the native peoples of Africa and the Asiatics - but the Hebrews are not pictured, so they are identical with the Pharaohs). e.g. King Saul was Akhenaten, King David was Sethos and King Solomon was Ramses II, with Shishak as Ramses III. This is all quite clearly apparent.
            >
            > 4. The Pharaonic dynasties are astronomically based and calculated, as I show in Kings and Dynasties. The oldest of these Pharaohs are the Biblical Patriarchs.
            >
            > 5. In those ancient days, longer periods of time, such as the realms of kings, were measured by the stars , and that is the basic theory of Kings and Dynasties. This is not a "code" at all. It is just the way that time was calculated in ancient eras, in addition to using the Sun and the Moon - the "Sun" name of a Pharaoh was his RA name and the "Moon" name of a Pharaoh was his AMUN name.
            >
            > 6. The Old Testament is an actual history of ca. 3800 BC to the year 0, but much of the Bible is nevertheless astronomically- based chronology, e.g. Chronicles, Kings.
            >
            > 7. The Book of Enoch is in fact a very detailed ancient Hebrew astronomy, but it was not included in the modern Bible by laymen when put together in the modern era - the exclusion of the astronomical Book of Enoch from the modern Bible was an error. You have to have astronomy if you want chronology.
            >
            > In other words, there is in fact a LOT of astronomy in the Bible and the so-called apochryphal texts, such as the Book of Enoch, which has developed over thousands of years.
            >
            > Enjoy,
            >
            > Andis
            >
            > APPENDIX
            >
            > 6 LexiLine 2008  Star Realms of the Patriarchs, Ur and Ebla 
            >
            > At Lexiline http://www.lexiline .com/lexiline/ lexi154.htm,
            > I present the ages of the Biblical partriarchs as reigns which were
            > calculated and recorded by astronomy, what I call star realms.
            >
            > William Walker III
            > calculated that the star data applies only at a location around 42.5�N,
            > i.e. supporting the idea that the Biblical Patriarchs came from the
            > Black Sea Flood submergence. Our cardinal date for that calculation was 3117 BC, using a location at 42.5�N.
            >
            > We
            > have since recalculated the starting location of the Biblical Patriarch
            > stellar data with the Starry Night Pro software and have discovered
            > that the start of the data at the rising and setting of the star
            > Arcturus, given the starting date of the Hebrew Calendar at 3761 B.C.,
            > would be in a geographic area at about 37� to 38� N, and we now think
            > that to be the more accurate location for the astronomical start of the
            > reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs as calculated by astronomy.
            >
            > Our
            > previous position was that the Biblical data related to a starting date
            > of ca. 3117 B.C. In that era at ca. 3117 BC, according to Starry Night
            > Pro, at the latitude 42�30" N, as one can see in the graphic below,
            > Arcturus, at which the reigns of the Biblical Patriarchs begin with
            > Adam, is more or less right at the horizon and ready in a few years to
            > lose its circumpolar status at that latitude.
            >
            >
            > 42�30" N 3117 BC
            >
            >
            > Already
            > one degree below that at 41�30" N in 3117 B.C., Arcturus is no longer a
            > circumpolar star in that epoch and is definitely subject to description
            > as a rising and setting star, as in our star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs.
            >
            > In terms of chronological time, Arcturus also reaches this same position at 42�30" N in ca. 2950 BC.
            >
            > We
            > thought and still think Arcturus was used as the first star of this
            > Biblical Patriarch series because at this time in history - at the
            > right latitude (which still remains to be fixed) - Arcturus goes from
            > being a circumpolar star to being a star that also dips below the
            > horizon due to the 25920 year cycle of the wobble of the earth, which
            > leads to precession and a change in the position of the celestial
            > equator, which then of course changes the position of Arcturus in the
            > sky. In this epoch, Arcturus was slowly dropping.
            >
            >
            > 41�30" N 3117 BC
            > Arcturus at the horizon is also what one would see ca. 38�N to 37�N in 3761 B.C.
            >
            > Accordingly, what we wrote previously at LexiLine at http://www.lexiline .com/lexiline/ lexi154.htm
            > was in the general ball park of accuracy as far as the rising and
            > setting of Arcturus is concerned for 3117 B.C., using the reference
            > point of 42�30" N, which William Walker calculated.
            >
            > However, if
            > our theory of the "star ages" or "star realms" of the Biblical
            > Patriarchs is true, which we think it is, it only holds true if their
            > reigns were recorded for posterity for a starting date of ca. 3117 BC,
            > but using the positions of the stars at 42�30" N. But this is highly
            > unlikely, since in 3117 BC the Black Sea was already submerged.
            >
            > Accordingly, a change in the point of reference in terms of time and location is necessary.
            >
            > We
            > ourselves have never been happy with the 42�30" N latitude theory (but
            > saw no choice but to adopt it due to the data given to us) and have
            > always thought that the star eras of the Biblical Patriarchs must apply
            > to a more southerly location, where the data was actually calculated
            > and recorded by the Hebrew scholars in a later epoch.
            >
            > Accordingly,
            > instead of the 3117 B.C. cardinal date, we recently took the starting
            > date of the Hebrew Calendar for our astronomical calculations.
            >
            > We
            > now assume that these star realms of the Biblical Patriarchs were in
            > fact recorded taking a starting date as 3761 BC, which is the start of
            > the Hebrew calendar.
            >
            > At what latitude in that epoch would
            > Arcturus then start its non-circumpolar status? i.e. at what latitude
            > does Arcturus start to dip minimally below the horizon during the daily
            > rotation of the stars in 3761 B.C.?
            >
            > In the year 3761 B.C.,
            > according to Starry Night Pro, Arcturus begins its non-circumpolar
            > status somewhere around latitude 38� N to 37�N. Above that latitude in
            > that epoch it still remains circumpolar and would not and could not be
            > used as a rising or setting star to calculate the star realms of the
            > Biblical Pharaohs.
            >
            > This brings us new observations. A location
            > of 38� N to 37�N as the location for calculating the data with a
            > starting reference date of 3761 B.C. is very interesting indeed.
            >
            > According
            > to the legends of the MIddle East, the city of Ur, the birthplace of
            > Abraham, is not the Babylonian Ur, but the city of Urfa (ca. 37� N.),
            > ancient Anatolia, in today's southeastern Turkey, just above the Syrian
            > border.
            >
            > The Wikipedia  writes:
            >
            > "The
            > city has been known by many names: Ուռհա, Urhai in Armenian, ܐܘܪܗܝ,
            > Urhay in Syriac, Riha in Kurdish, الروها,Ar-Ruha in Arabic, Ορρα, Orrha
            > in Greek (also Ορροα, Orrhoa). For awhile it was named Callirrhoe or
            > Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Greek: �`ντιόχεια η επί Καλλιρρόης). During
            > Byzantine rule it was named Justinopolis. Although it is often best
            > known by the name given it by the Seleucids, Εδεσσα, Edessa.
            >
            > 'Sanli'
            > means great, glorious, dignified in Turkish and Urfa was officially
            > re-named Sanliurfa (Urfa the Glorious) by the Turkish GrandNational
            > Assembly in 1984....
            >
            > Urfa is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and
            > the capital of Sanliurfa Province. Urfa is situated on a plain under
            > big open skies, about eighty kilometres east of the Euphrates River.
            > The climate features extremely hot, dry summers and cool, moist
            > winters. The urban population of Urfa is mainly Kurdish while the
            > outlying regions are mixed Turkish and to a lesser degree Arabian....
            > It was one of several cities in the Euphrates-Tigris basin, the cradle
            > of the Mesopotamian civilization. According to Turkish Muslim
            > traditions Urfa (its name since Byzantine days) is the biblical city of
            > Ur, due to its proximity to the biblical village of Harran. However,
            > the Iraqis also claim the city of Ur in southern Iraq, as do many
            > historians and archaeologists. Urfa is also known as the birthplace of
            > Abraham, commemorated by a mosque in the city and the birthplace of Job."
            >
            > Burak Sansal  writes:
            >
            > "This is an Anatolian city which has figured in all the religions of the book. Old Testament prophets
            > such as Jethro (Hz. Suayp), Job (Hz. Eyup), Elijah (Hz. Elyasa) and
            > Abraham (Hz. Ibrahim) lived in this city, which in ancient times was
            > known as Edessa, and Moses (Hz. Musa) lived in the region for seven years working as a shepherd before returning to Egypt with his staff. It was in Sanliurfa that early Christians
            > were first permitted to worship freely, and where the first churches
            > were constructed openly. Pagan temples were converted to synagogues,
            > synagogues to churches and churches to mosques, resulting in a uniquely eclectic architecture."
            >
            > As can be read at the site of the Sanliurfa Museum, the region is marked by numerous tumuli, many now destro�ed by dams:
            >
            > "A
            > testament to the rich past of the region of Sanliurfa is the large
            > number of tumuli and old settlements. Harran, located 44 kilometers
            > south of Sanliurfa, is one of the most notable of these settlements and
            > was continuously inhabited from 3000 BC to the 13th century. It was
            > especially noted for its peculiar civilian architecture.
            >
            > Salvage
            > excavations are being conducted in the settlements threatened by the
            > dams of Ataturk, Birecik and Kargamis. Starting from 1978, foreign
            > teams conducted excavations in the Lidar and Hassek tumuli which were
            > to be submerged under Ataturk Dam Lake, while the museum directorate
            > was involved in the excavation of Cavi Field and Nevala Cori. Salvage
            > excavations have been taking place since 1996 in Tilbes Tumulus which
            > will disappear under the waters of Birecik Dam; Apamea, a Hellenistic
            > city threatened by the same dam, has been excavated since 1998....
            >
            > In
            > Sanliurfa museum, pieces obtained from Harran and other cultural assets
            > recovered from other tumuli and ancient settlements are exhibited in
            > different cases in alphabetical order. Pieces from the time of the
            > Assyrians, Babylonians and the Hittites are exhibited in the entrance
            > hall.
            >
            > The second and third halls of the archaeology section have
            > cutting and piercing devices made of flintstone (8000-5000 BC), stone
            > idols and vessels, plain and painted ceramics with geometric designs
            > made of baked soil belonging to the period 5000-3000 BC, seals, pithoi,
            > necklaces, pieces of imprinted cubes made of baked soil dating back to
            > the Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC), animal figures, metal artifacts,
            > and ornaments."
            >
            > A good distance southwest of Urfa and Harran and 55 km SW of Aleppo in Syria we find the ancient city of Ebla (Tell Mardikh. In view of the name of Ebla's most illustrious king, Ebrium or Ibrium 
            > (in my opinion this could be a reference to Abraham), Ebla most
            > certainly was Ebra and the "land of the Hebrews" at that time. Ebla has
            > become increasingly important in archaeological assessments of the Ancient Near East (text misspellings corrected in the following quotations):
            >
            > "c. 3.0 tya BCE :
            >
            > Semitic people called the Canaanites inhabit ancient Palestine and
            > Phoenicia. "Phoenicia" is the Greek translation of "Canaan--the land of
            > purple merchants" referring to the dye they used to color cloth.
            > Indeed, it is from the time of Canaan that Bethlehem is believed to
            > have derived its name, Bethlehem - 'BeitLahem' in Arabic ("The house of
            > Lahman" - a Canaanite God). The term 'Semitic' is generally synonymous
            > with 'Jewish' but is said to include the related group of people who
            > spoke Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic and Amharic. These languages are all
            > classified by linguists as a group of tongues constituting the
            > Afro-Asiatic Language Family.
            >
            > More recent archaeological
            > discoveries which tend to promote the importance of the civilization
            > centered in the city of Ebla...(as opposed to Mesopotamia) ... indicate
            > that it may be useful to name some of the levantine discoveries as
            > "Pre-Eblaic, Elbaic or Post-Eblaic" , ... the cause of the decline of
            > this culture is not yet well elucidated."
            >
            > The Eblaites,
            > because of their writings, might be considered the descendants of the
            > Sumerians, who were the Indo-European people of the Black Sea Flood:
            >
            > "In 1964, Italian archaeologists from the University of Rome La Sapienza directed by Paolo Matthiae began excavating at Tell Mardikh. In 1968 they recovered a statue dedicated to the goddess Ishtar bearing the name of Ibbit-Lim, a king of Ebla [after whom Bethlehem was named?]. That identified the city, long known from Egyptian and Akkadian inscriptions. In the next decade the team discovered a palace dating approximately from 2500�2000 BC. About 15,000 well-preserved cuneiform tablets were discovered in the ruins. About 80% of the tablets are written in Sumerian, the others in a previously unknown Semitic language that is being called 'Eblaite.'
            > Pettinato and Dahood believe the Eblaite language is West Semitic,
            > however Gelb and others believe it is an East Semitic dialect, closer
            > to Akkadian.
            > Ebla's close link to southern Mesopotamia, where the script had
            > developed, establishes further the links between the Sumerians and
            > Semitic cultures that certainly already existed before the first texts
            > appear in Sumer in 3000 BC. Vocabulary lists were found with the
            > tablets, allowing them to be translated." [emphasis added]
            >
            > Clifford Wilson  writes about the many thousands of Ebla Tablets found at Ebla:
            >
            > "When
            > the first tablets were found, it was soon realized that this city used
            > a very ancient language in the North West Semitic group which was
            > previously unknown. Professor Pettinato labeled this "Paleo-Canaanite. "
            > In layman's terms, this means "ancient Canaanite." At the close of this
            > article in Biblical Archaeologist Professor Pettinato tells us,The
            > pronominal and verbal systems, in particular, are so clearly defined
            > that one can properly speak of a Paleo-Canaanite language closely akin
            > to Hebrew and Phoenician.These
            > Ebla tablets are written in a Sumerian script, with Sumerian logograms
            > adapted to represent Akkadian words and syllables. About 1,000 words
            > were recovered initially (hundreds more later) in vocabulary lists. The
            > words are written out in both Sumerian logograms and Eblaic
            > syllable-type writing. These offered an invaluable key to the
            > interpretation of many of the Ebla texts. The vocabularies at Ebla were
            > distinctively Semitic: the word "to write" is k-t-b (as in Hebrew),
            > while that for "king" is "malikum," and that for "man" is "adamu." The
            > closeness to Hebrew is surprising.""
            >
            > The Ebla tablets mention Ur (Urfa).
            >
            > Yes, and there is a Pharaonic connection as well:
            >
            > "Most of its trade seems to have been directed towards Mesopotamia (chiefly Kish), and contacts with Egypt are attested by gifts from pharaohs Khafra and Pepi I."
            >
            > Now, why would the Pharaohs be giving gifts to Ebla unless there was a close blood relationship between them?
            >
            > Enjoy,
            >
            > Andis
            >
          • Andis Kaulins
            The terms Semite and Semitic were first coined by the German historian August Ludwig von Schlözer
            Message 5 of 5 , Jun 6, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              The terms Semite and Semitic were first coined by the German historian August Ludwig von Schlözer only in the modern era in the year 1781 to designate the progeny of Shem of the Bible, so that if we speak about Semites or talk about Semitic language, we are still quite "stuck" to the Bible in our conversation and our concepts, even if we try to avoid that Bible.

              In any case, I think that any serious researcher would agree that one has to be careful not to make too many assumptions in trying to find out the truth about man's ancient astronomy and history.

              On the other hand, you do have to make some assumptions in order to arrive at workable hypotheses - subject to rigorous testing of course. If they don't work, well, then you throw out your old theories, check your assumptions and then try to formulate new hypotheses. You continue to move forward.

              One thing that I do want to emphasize, however, is that my own research is definitely NOT poltiical or religiously oriented - at least not consciously. I look on ALL of the world's religions and political doings with a great deal of distrust.

              I myself am not Jewish, but I respect the Hebrew people, the Jewish tradition and the Christian heritage derived from the Judeo-Christian ethic which has played an integral part in the development of the modern Western world.

              Already in ancient times the Hebrews were called "the People of the Book".

              There are only about 14 million Jews on this planet - and yet they excel in nearly every field of modern human endeavor. We moderns know enough about genetics today to understand that this can not have occurred suddenly in our era - quite the contrary - those genes, and also the corresponding talents, will have been there a long time.

              One of the most interesting pieces in this entire puzzle is the matter of genetic evidence.

              We find the following written about Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 , the so-called "Phoenician gene", at the Wikipedia:

              "Haplogroup J2 is widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from the Mesopotamian regions of the Levant & Anatolia. The age of J2 has been estimated as 18,500 +/- 3,500 thousand years ago. Its distribution, centered in West Asia and Southeastern Europe, its association with the presence of Neolithic archaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery, and its association with annual precipitationhave been interpreted as evidence that J2, and in particular itsJ2a-M410 subclade belonged to the agricultural innovators who followedthe rainfall....

              Haplogroup J2 is found mainly in the Fertile Crescent, the Mediterranean (including Southern Europe and North Africa), the Iranian plateau, and Central Asia. More specifically it is found in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Israel, Palestine, Greece, Italy and the eastern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, and more frequently in Iraqis 29.7% ..., Lebanese 30% ..., Palestinians 16.8% ..., Syrians 29%, Sephardic Jews 29% .... According to Semino et al. and the National Geographic Genographic Project,the frequency of haplogroup J2 generally declines as one moves awayfrom the Northern fertile crescent. Haplogroup J2 is carried by 6% ofEuropeans and its frequency drops dramatically as one moves northwardaway from the Mediterranean.

              Another important fact about the distribution of Haplogroup J2 is that it appears to have dispersed from a Middle Easternhomeland to the west through a primarily maritime or littoral route, asit is found in high concentrations among the populations of the coastsof the Mediterranean Seain both Eurasia and Africa, and particularly along the coasts of theeastern Mediterranean in Europe. This distribution may be moreconsonant with a Neolithic or post-Neolithic maritime dispersal fromthe Middle East, such as through Greek colonization or Phoenician commercial and colonial activities.

              In Italy, J2 is found in about 19.3% of Italians [23]. Turkey is one of the countries with major J2 population. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J2 according to a recent study.... Haplogroup J2 is also common in neighboring Greece, withregional frequencies ranging between 11% and 46%.

              It has been proposed that haplogroup J2a-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%). populations from around early Neolithic sites

              Sephardic Jews have about 29% of haplogroup J2[1] and Ashkenazi Jews have 23%[1], or 19%[26]. It has been reported that a sample of Italian Cohensbelong to Network 1.2, a group of Y chromosomes characterized by avalue of the DYS413 marker less or equal to 18. This deletion has beenplaced in the J2a-M410 clade. However, other Jewish Cohens belong to haplogroup J1 (see Cohen modal haplotype).

              J2 subclades are also found in the South Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan), Iran, Central Asia, and South Asia.

              Haplogroup J2 has been shown to have a more northern distribution inthe Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in thesouthern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found whencompared to its brother haplogroup, J1, which has a high frequencysoutherly distribution. This suggests that, if the occurrence ofHaplogroup J among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, andSouth Asia does reflect Neolithic demic diffusion from the Middle East, the source population is more likely to have originated from Anatolia, the Levant or northern Mesopotamia than from regions further south.

              Haplogroup J2a-M410 in India is largely confined to the upper castes[27]with little occurrence in the middle and lower castes and is completelyabsent from south Indian tribes and middle and lower castes.

              J2b in most cases seems to be mostly limited to the Balkans/Eastern Europe and India."

              At Cohen Modal Haplotype  at the Wikipedia it is written:

              "Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as KohanimKohane). In the Hebrew Bible this ancestor is identified as Aaron, the brother of Moses. Research published in 1997 and thereafter has indicated that some contemporary Jewish Kohanim share Y-chromosomal Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA) with a set of genetic markers,known as the Cohen Modal Haplotype, which may well derive from a singlecommon ancestor. Later, in 2007, the same team announced that theyfound another common set of genetic marker related to present-day traditional Kohanim families in Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA). (singular "Kohen", "Cohen", or

              Although membership in the Jewish community has, since at least the second century CE, been passed maternally (see: Who is a Jew?), membership in the group that originally comprised the Jewish priesthood ("Cohen" or "Kohen"; plural: Kohanim), is patrilineal. Modern Kohens claim descent from a biblical person, Aaron, brother of Moses,in the direct lineage from Levi, the patriarch of the Tribe of Levi,greatgrandson of Abraham, according to the tradition codified in the Tanakh (שמות / Sh'mot/Exodus 6). DNAtesting is aiding scholars to trace the lineages found among modernJewish populations, including contemporary Cohen families, to decipherorigins of the people groups that were joined to the ancient Israelites and to identify genetic admixture and genetic drift."

              Khazaria.com points out that genetic studies have helped to draw the following conclusions:

              "Advanced genetic testing ... of modern Jewish communities around the world, has helped to determine which of the communities are likely to descend from the Israelites and which are not ....

              Key findings:

              The main ethnic element of ... most ... modern Jewish populations of the world is Israelite. The Israelite haplotypes fall into Y-DNA haplogroups J and E.Ashkenazim also descend, in a smaller way, from European peoples such as Slavs and Khazars. The non-Israelite Y-DNA haplogroups include Q (typically Central Asian) and R1a1 (typically Eastern European).Dutch Jews from the Netherlands also descend from northwestern Europeans.Sephardim also descend, in a smaller way, from various non-Israelite peoples.Georgian Jews (Gruzinim) are a mix of Georgians and Israelites.Yemenite Jews (Temanim) are a mix of Yemenite Arabs and Israelites.Moroccan Jews, Algerian Jews, and Tunisian Jews are mainly Israelites.Libyan Jews are mainly Israelites who may have mixed somewhat with Berbers.Ethiopian Jews are almost exclusively Ethiopian, with little or no Israelite ancestry.Bene Israel Jews and Cochin Jews of India have much Indian ancestry in their mtDNA.Palestinian Arabs are probably partly Israelite...

              Key findings:

              Samaritans are descended from Israelite men and Assyrian women.Those Lembas who possess the Cohen Modal Haplotype have Middle Eastern ancestry, possibly Jewish Cohen. The Buba clan is especially Middle Eastern in its paternal DNA.Many Spanish-speaking Latinos of the American Southwest are descended from Anusim (Spanish Jews who were forced to convert to Catholicism).The Mizo people of northeastern India, the self-styled "B'nei Menashe", have no proven genetic connection to the Israelites....

              Rabbi Harold M. Schulweis explains the nature of Judaism: "One of the unique aspects of Judaism is its rejection of Judaism as a biological entity, an inherited spiritual DNA, racial or ethnic. The point is that being a Jew is not a matter of genes and chromosomes. To the contrary,Judaism is the first religion to recognize the 'ger', the stranger who chooses to identify himself with Judaism. Judaism is not rooted in race or clan or in a genetic matter but a religious tradition of choice."

              The answer is that Jews are a religion and a civilization, but not a race or singular ethnic group (the latter two definitions marginalize proselytes). As Rabbi Rami Shapiro said: "There is only one response to Who is a Jew? that works: A Jew is one who takes Judaism seriously. One who takes Judaism seriously studies it, argues with it, and lives it."The proper name of the separate ethnic group that most Jews descend from is Israelite."

              Andis
            Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.