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Re: [LINUX_Newbies] Re: grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistribution,I want to delete one distribution;gparted?

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  • highskywhy@yahoo.de
    Good afternoon Do M�r 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes * What is the difference between
    Message 1 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
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      Good afternoon
      Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
      Thank You for help.


      --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...>
      wrote:
      >
      >
      > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
      > Good morning
      > Thank You for email and help.

      <snip>

      > How can I check this?
      > Can I find in www
      > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

      Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

      >
      >
      > You can figure this out using the following method when
      > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
      >
      > df -h
      > *
      > OK
      >
      >
      >
      > 7p:~$ df -h
      > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
      > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
      > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
      > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
      > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
      > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
      > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
      > 7p:~$
      >
      >
      > Did I do it right?

      yes


      *
      What is the difference between SATA and PATA?

      >
      >
      > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
      > *
      > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
      >
      >
      > Now I am using
      > Xubuntu
      > maybe it is important to know.
      >
      > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
      > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
      > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
      > here is mine:
      >
      > $ df -h
      > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
      > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
      > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
      > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
      > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
      > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
      > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
      > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
      > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
      > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
      > *
      > Thank You.
      >
      > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
      > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
      > *
      > I did not understand this.

      I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
      "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
      case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
      means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
      *

      Sorry
      I cannot understand.
      So I did not deleted the lines above.



      Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
      Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder.
      *
      OK

      For
      example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
      /dev/fd1 etc.
      *
      OK

      fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
      would be the second.
      *
      OK

      /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
      This I dont understand.


      The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
      would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
      powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
      designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
      Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
      For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
      6 listed as /dev/sda6.
      *
      Is that the operatin system?


      <snip>
      > That means when I install a new OS on the
      > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
      > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
      > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
      >
      > *
      > So You could change vom
      > Debian to Fedora
      > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

      Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
      of each. In fact I do exactly this.
      *
      I understand.


      <snip>
      > Can I do this later?

      Absolutely you can do this later.*
      OK
      But thank You for Your long explanation.
      Because I want to learn Linux.


      I understand running
      before you walk.
      *
      YES

      I started out keeping everything Linux
      under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
      on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
      be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
      My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
      the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
      *
      What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?


      Regards
      Sophie
    • loyal_barber
      ... ... Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and replaces them
      Message 2 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
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        --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "Pascal" <pascal.bernhard@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        >
        > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@> wrote:
        >
        > [snip]
        <snip>
        > > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
        > > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
        > > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
        >
        > Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?
        >
        > Pascal
        >
        Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on
        each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and
        replaces them with symbolic links to the directories on my /data
        partition. No files lost, no problem.

        Loyal
      • loyal_barber
        ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and Parallel ATA
        Message 3 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
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          --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
          >
          >
          > Good afternoon
          > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
          > Thank You for help.
          >
          >
          > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@>
          > wrote:
          >
          > <snip>
          >
          > > How can I check this?
          > > Can I find in www
          > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

          Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
          by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
          Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
          PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers. It has a
          theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was communicating
          with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of interference
          between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
          a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the limitations
          of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
          come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
          wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
          the interference issue.

          A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
          of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
          SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
          SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
          SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

          Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
          eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
          things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a performance
          penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the specification
          for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The limit
          for eSATA cables is 2 meters.

          Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
          connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
          PATA connectors at all.
          <snip>

          > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
          > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
          > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
          > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
          > *
          >
          > Sorry
          > I cannot understand.
          > So I did not deleted the lines above.
          >

          OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
          the operating system. This is an oversimplification but will
          work for now. When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
          The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with / also known as
          the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
          All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
          partition (6) on that drive.


          <snip>
          >
          > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
          > This I dont understand.

          It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
          They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
          drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
          harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
          /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
          drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
          be /dev/hda3.

          <snip>
          > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
          > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
          > *
          > Is that the operatin system?
          >

          Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
          more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.

          > <snip>
          > I started out keeping everything Linux
          > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
          > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
          > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
          > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
          > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
          > *
          > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
          >

          Let me define three phrases here:
          Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
          installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
          Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
          running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10. When 13.04 comes out in April this year
          you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
          new version. Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
          means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
          without a complete reinstallation.
          Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
          modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
          installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.

          Regards,
          Loyal
        • highskywhy@yahoo.de
          Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. Hallo Sophie, I am answering in English so all users can understand. Yes I understand German. The
          Message 4 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
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            Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
            Good evening.
            Thank You for help.
            Hallo Sophie,


            I am answering in English
            so all users can understand.
            Yes
            I understand German.

            The computer is using German language.


            > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
            > Thank You for help
            >
            >
            >
            > $ mount | -column -t
            >
            > mount | -column -t
            > Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
            > Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
            > -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
            > ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$
            >
            > Sorry
            > there was a mistake
            > Sorry the reaction is German.

            Ich gehe jetzt mal davon aus, dass Du Deutsch sprichst. Mein
            Debian-System ist auch auf Deutsch, es gibt schlimmeres.
            *
            OK


            Gerade eben habe ich mal nachgesehen, ob ich auf meiner Maschine das
            Paket 'badmainutils' installiert habe:

            $ dpkg -l | grep [b]sdmainutils
            ii bsdmainutils 9.0.3
            i386 collection of more utilities
            from FreeBSD

            Yo, ist installiert. Die beiden ii am Anfang des Outputs bedeuten, dass
            das Paket installiert. Diese Information gibt aptitude auch aus, wenn
            ich nach einem Paket suche, apt-get tut dies hingegen nicht, dort
            funktioniert aber trotzdem dpkg -l | grep PACKET, dies zeigt ja explizit
            alle installierten Pakete an.
            *
            What does that mean?


            Is

            mount | -column -t


            wrong?



            Wieso ich den ersten Buchstaben in [eckigen Klammern] gesetzt habe? Dann
            wird die Suche mit grep nach bsdmainutils nicht auch in den Ergebnissen
            aufgeführt.

            Es lohnt sich bestimmt das Paket bsdmainutils zu installieren. Die
            Darstellungsoption column -t macht viel deutlich übersichtlicher, z.B.
            cat /etc/fstab | column -t

            What is the meaning of
            bsdmainutils?


            Vielleicht lassen meine Erläuterungen die eine oder andere eventuell
            Unklarheit verschwinden.

            Beste Grüße,

            Pascal


            Sorry
            no.


            Regards
            Sophie
          • highskywhy@yahoo.de
            Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short,
            Message 5 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
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              Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
              Good evening.
              Thank You for help.

              > > How can I check this?
              > > Can I find in www
              > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

              Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
              by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
              Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
              *
              OK


              PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers.
              *
              OK

              Can I see this with lspci?


              It has a
              theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was
              communicating
              with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of
              interference
              between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
              a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the
              limitations
              of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
              come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
              wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
              the interference issue.
              *
              Pata
              and sata
              are description of the hardware?



              A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
              of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
              SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
              SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
              SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

              Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
              eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
              things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a
              performance
              penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the
              specification
              for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The
              limit
              for eSATA cables is 2 meters.
              *
              OK

              Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
              connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
              PATA connectors at all.
              <snip>
              *

              Where is it important to know
              this pc is sata that pc is pata?


              > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
              > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
              > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
              > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
              > *
              >
              > Sorry
              > I cannot understand.
              > So I did not deleted the lines above.
              >

              OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
              the operating system.
              *
              OK

              This is an oversimplification but will
              work for now.
              *
              OK

              When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
              The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with /
              *

              Like a root?


              also known as
              the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
              All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
              partition (6) on that drive.
              *
              OK


              <snip>
              >
              > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
              > This I dont understand.

              It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
              They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
              drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
              harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
              /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
              drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
              be /dev/hda3.

              <snip>
              > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
              > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
              > *
              > Is that the operatin system?
              >

              Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
              more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.
              *
              OK



              > <snip>
              > I started out keeping everything Linux
              > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
              > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
              > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
              > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
              > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
              > *
              > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
              >

              Let me define three phrases here:
              Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
              installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
              *
              OK


              Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
              running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10.*
              I am using now 13.04
              and I do not know why
              I updated and there there is 13.04.

              It is my mistake.



              When 13.04 comes out in April this year
              you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
              new version.
              *
              Question.
              I was reading I have to upgrade.

              Why.

              There is an upgrade
              from Pangolin to Quantal

              but there is no update
              from Hardy to Pangolin
              because it is said
              only one step is possible.

              Is this wrong?



              Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
              means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
              without a complete reinstallation.
              *
              Is upgrade an new install?



              Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
              modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
              installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.
              *
              OK

              Thank You.



              Regards
              Sophie
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