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Re: grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistribution,I want to delete one distribution;gparted?

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  • Pascal
    ... [snip] ... You could also use $ mount | -column -t This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier
    Message 1 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
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      --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:

      [snip]

      > How can I check this?
      > Can I find in www
      > the difference between SATA abd PATA?
      >
      >
      > You can figure this out using the following method when
      > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
      >
      > df -h
      > *
      > OK
      >
      > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
      > *
      > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


      You could also use

      $ mount | -column -t

      This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.


      You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

      $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

      This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
      The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

      $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

      in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

      Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned above.


      [snip]


      > >
      > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
      > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
      > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.

      Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?

      Pascal
    • Paul
      ... I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any
      Message 2 of 24 , Mar 20, 2013
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        --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "westmi" <west.mi420@...> wrote:
        >
        > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
        > Darrin
        >

        I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any time.

        I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage
      • highskywhy@yahoo.de
        Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive.
        Message 3 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
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          Good afternoon
          Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
          Thank You for help.



          > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
          > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
          > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
          > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
          > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
          > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
          > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
          >
          > Loyal
          >
          I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
          external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
          time....good luck!
          Darrin
          *
          Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and all is fine.
          *
          Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and noting is ok then
          I can update all my private files by USB
          this is no problems.
          But it is a lot of work to install again
          Blender Chrome Chromium Opera
          or can I save also the programmes?

          Regards
          Sophie
        • highskywhy@yahoo.de
          Good afternoon Do M�r 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes * What is the difference between
          Message 4 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
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            Good afternoon
            Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
            Thank You for help.


            --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...>
            wrote:
            >
            >
            > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
            > Good morning
            > Thank You for email and help.

            <snip>

            > How can I check this?
            > Can I find in www
            > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

            Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

            >
            >
            > You can figure this out using the following method when
            > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
            >
            > df -h
            > *
            > OK
            >
            >
            >
            > 7p:~$ df -h
            > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
            > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
            > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
            > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
            > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
            > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
            > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
            > 7p:~$
            >
            >
            > Did I do it right?

            yes


            *
            What is the difference between SATA and PATA?

            >
            >
            > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
            > *
            > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
            >
            >
            > Now I am using
            > Xubuntu
            > maybe it is important to know.
            >
            > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
            > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
            > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
            > here is mine:
            >
            > $ df -h
            > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
            > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
            > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
            > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
            > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
            > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
            > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
            > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
            > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
            > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
            > *
            > Thank You.
            >
            > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
            > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
            > *
            > I did not understand this.

            I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
            "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
            case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
            means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
            *

            Sorry
            I cannot understand.
            So I did not deleted the lines above.



            Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
            Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder.
            *
            OK

            For
            example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
            /dev/fd1 etc.
            *
            OK

            fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
            would be the second.
            *
            OK

            /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
            This I dont understand.


            The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
            would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
            powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
            designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
            Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
            For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
            6 listed as /dev/sda6.
            *
            Is that the operatin system?


            <snip>
            > That means when I install a new OS on the
            > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
            > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
            > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
            >
            > *
            > So You could change vom
            > Debian to Fedora
            > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

            Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
            of each. In fact I do exactly this.
            *
            I understand.


            <snip>
            > Can I do this later?

            Absolutely you can do this later.*
            OK
            But thank You for Your long explanation.
            Because I want to learn Linux.


            I understand running
            before you walk.
            *
            YES

            I started out keeping everything Linux
            under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
            on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
            be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
            My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
            the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
            *
            What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?


            Regards
            Sophie
          • highskywhy@yahoo.de
            Message 5 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
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              Am 19.03.2013 15:24, schrieb westmi:
              > > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
              > > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
              > > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
              > > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
              > > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
              > > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
              > > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
              > >
              > > Loyal
              > >
              > > <snip>
              > >
              > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
              > external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
              > time....good luck!
              > Darrin
              >
              >
            • highskywhy@yahoo.de
              Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help $ mount | -column -t mount | -column -t Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie
              Message 6 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
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                Good afternoon
                Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                Thank You for help



                $ mount | -column -t

                mount | -column -t
                Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$

                Sorry
                there was a mistake
                Sorry the reaction is German.



                This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted
                nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.

                You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

                $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

                :~$ df -PhT | sort -nk6
                Dateisystem Typ Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                none tmpfs 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                none tmpfs 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                tmpfs tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                udev devtmpfs 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                none tmpfs 1,9G 26M 1,9G 2% /run/shm
                /dev/sda1 ext3 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                /dev/sda6 ext4 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                ~$


                I did.



                This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage
                the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does
                that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
                The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for
                each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

                $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

                df -Ph | sort -nk5
                Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                none 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                none 1,9G 27M 1,8G 2% /run/shm
                /dev/sda1 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                /dev/sda6 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                p:~$

                I did.




                in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

                Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned
                above.
                *
                Thank You.
                ]


                Regards
                Sophie
              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help ... external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! ... I take this
                Message 7 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
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                  Good afternoon
                  Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                  Thank You for help

                  > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                  external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                  time....good luck!
                  > Darrin
                  >

                  I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an
                  NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my
                  machines at any time.

                  What is the meaning of NFS?



                  I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage

                  *
                  Thank You
                  Regards
                  Sophie
                • loyal_barber
                  ... ... Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and replaces them
                  Message 8 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
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                    --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "Pascal" <pascal.bernhard@...> wrote:
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@> wrote:
                    >
                    > [snip]
                    <snip>
                    > > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                    > > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                    > > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
                    >
                    > Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?
                    >
                    > Pascal
                    >
                    Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on
                    each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and
                    replaces them with symbolic links to the directories on my /data
                    partition. No files lost, no problem.

                    Loyal
                  • loyal_barber
                    ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and Parallel ATA
                    Message 9 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
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                      --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                      >
                      >
                      > Good afternoon
                      > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                      > Thank You for help.
                      >
                      >
                      > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@>
                      > wrote:
                      >
                      > <snip>
                      >
                      > > How can I check this?
                      > > Can I find in www
                      > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                      Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                      by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                      Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                      PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers. It has a
                      theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was communicating
                      with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of interference
                      between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                      a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the limitations
                      of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                      come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                      wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                      the interference issue.

                      A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                      of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                      SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                      SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                      SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                      Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                      eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                      things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a performance
                      penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the specification
                      for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The limit
                      for eSATA cables is 2 meters.

                      Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                      connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                      PATA connectors at all.
                      <snip>

                      > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                      > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                      > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                      > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                      > *
                      >
                      > Sorry
                      > I cannot understand.
                      > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                      >

                      OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                      the operating system. This is an oversimplification but will
                      work for now. When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                      The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with / also known as
                      the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                      All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                      partition (6) on that drive.


                      <snip>
                      >
                      > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                      > This I dont understand.

                      It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                      They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                      drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                      harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                      /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                      drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                      be /dev/hda3.

                      <snip>
                      > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                      > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                      > *
                      > Is that the operatin system?
                      >

                      Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                      more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.

                      > <snip>
                      > I started out keeping everything Linux
                      > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                      > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                      > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                      > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                      > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                      > *
                      > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                      >

                      Let me define three phrases here:
                      Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                      installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                      Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                      running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10. When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                      you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                      new version. Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                      means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                      without a complete reinstallation.
                      Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                      modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                      installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.

                      Regards,
                      Loyal
                    • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                      Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. Hallo Sophie, I am answering in English so all users can understand. Yes I understand German. The
                      Message 10 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
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                        Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                        Good evening.
                        Thank You for help.
                        Hallo Sophie,


                        I am answering in English
                        so all users can understand.
                        Yes
                        I understand German.

                        The computer is using German language.


                        > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                        > Thank You for help
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > $ mount | -column -t
                        >
                        > mount | -column -t
                        > Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                        > Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                        > -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                        > ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$
                        >
                        > Sorry
                        > there was a mistake
                        > Sorry the reaction is German.

                        Ich gehe jetzt mal davon aus, dass Du Deutsch sprichst. Mein
                        Debian-System ist auch auf Deutsch, es gibt schlimmeres.
                        *
                        OK


                        Gerade eben habe ich mal nachgesehen, ob ich auf meiner Maschine das
                        Paket 'badmainutils' installiert habe:

                        $ dpkg -l | grep [b]sdmainutils
                        ii bsdmainutils 9.0.3
                        i386 collection of more utilities
                        from FreeBSD

                        Yo, ist installiert. Die beiden ii am Anfang des Outputs bedeuten, dass
                        das Paket installiert. Diese Information gibt aptitude auch aus, wenn
                        ich nach einem Paket suche, apt-get tut dies hingegen nicht, dort
                        funktioniert aber trotzdem dpkg -l | grep PACKET, dies zeigt ja explizit
                        alle installierten Pakete an.
                        *
                        What does that mean?


                        Is

                        mount | -column -t


                        wrong?



                        Wieso ich den ersten Buchstaben in [eckigen Klammern] gesetzt habe? Dann
                        wird die Suche mit grep nach bsdmainutils nicht auch in den Ergebnissen
                        aufgeführt.

                        Es lohnt sich bestimmt das Paket bsdmainutils zu installieren. Die
                        Darstellungsoption column -t macht viel deutlich übersichtlicher, z.B.
                        cat /etc/fstab | column -t

                        What is the meaning of
                        bsdmainutils?


                        Vielleicht lassen meine Erläuterungen die eine oder andere eventuell
                        Unklarheit verschwinden.

                        Beste Grüße,

                        Pascal


                        Sorry
                        no.


                        Regards
                        Sophie
                      • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                        Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short,
                        Message 11 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
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                          Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                          Good evening.
                          Thank You for help.

                          > > How can I check this?
                          > > Can I find in www
                          > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                          Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                          by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                          Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                          *
                          OK


                          PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers.
                          *
                          OK

                          Can I see this with lspci?


                          It has a
                          theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was
                          communicating
                          with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of
                          interference
                          between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                          a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the
                          limitations
                          of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                          come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                          wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                          the interference issue.
                          *
                          Pata
                          and sata
                          are description of the hardware?



                          A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                          of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                          SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                          SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                          SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                          Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                          eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                          things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a
                          performance
                          penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the
                          specification
                          for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The
                          limit
                          for eSATA cables is 2 meters.
                          *
                          OK

                          Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                          connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                          PATA connectors at all.
                          <snip>
                          *

                          Where is it important to know
                          this pc is sata that pc is pata?


                          > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                          > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                          > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                          > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                          > *
                          >
                          > Sorry
                          > I cannot understand.
                          > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                          >

                          OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                          the operating system.
                          *
                          OK

                          This is an oversimplification but will
                          work for now.
                          *
                          OK

                          When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                          The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with /
                          *

                          Like a root?


                          also known as
                          the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                          All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                          partition (6) on that drive.
                          *
                          OK


                          <snip>
                          >
                          > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                          > This I dont understand.

                          It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                          They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                          drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                          harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                          /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                          drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                          be /dev/hda3.

                          <snip>
                          > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                          > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                          > *
                          > Is that the operatin system?
                          >

                          Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                          more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.
                          *
                          OK



                          > <snip>
                          > I started out keeping everything Linux
                          > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                          > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                          > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                          > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                          > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                          > *
                          > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                          >

                          Let me define three phrases here:
                          Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                          installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                          *
                          OK


                          Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                          running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10.*
                          I am using now 13.04
                          and I do not know why
                          I updated and there there is 13.04.

                          It is my mistake.



                          When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                          you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                          new version.
                          *
                          Question.
                          I was reading I have to upgrade.

                          Why.

                          There is an upgrade
                          from Pangolin to Quantal

                          but there is no update
                          from Hardy to Pangolin
                          because it is said
                          only one step is possible.

                          Is this wrong?



                          Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                          means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                          without a complete reinstallation.
                          *
                          Is upgrade an new install?



                          Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                          modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                          installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.
                          *
                          OK

                          Thank You.



                          Regards
                          Sophie
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