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Re: grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistribution,I want to delete one distribution;gparted?

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  • loyal_barber
    ... Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead it waits until you apply your
    Message 1 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
      --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
      > Good afternoon
      > Thank You for help.
      >
      >
      >
      >> I have done this sort of thing recently.
      > *
      > I saw
      > it is not installed
      > but I could see it in the software-center.
      > So I am sure
      > it is easy to install for me.
      >
      >> gparted should already be
      >> installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the
      >> command line) type:
      >>
      >> sudo apt-get install gparted
      > *
      > Thank You.
      >
      >
      >> Once that is installed, do the following:
      >> 1. Backup your Xubuntu partition just to be on the safe side
      > *
      > OK
      >
      >> 2. Run gparted from the menu. I do not know the specific location
      >> on xubuntu but it should be under something like "Administration"
      >> or "System" or "System Tools."
      >
      > *
      > OK
      >
      >> 3. Using gparted, delete ONLY the Ubuntu partition.
      >> *
      >> OK
      >
      > 4. Apply changes
      > *
      > What does this mean?

      Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like
      delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead
      it waits until you apply your changes. Now on Mint, the
      apply occurs as a button on the button bar at the top. In
      Mint that is a check mark.

      >
      > 5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
      > do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
      > here.
      > *
      > OK
      >
      > 6. Apply changes
      > *
      > How can I do this?

      See above.

      >
      > 7. From the command line type:
      >
      > sudo update-grub
      > *
      > I understand.
      >
      > This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
      > 8. From the command line type:
      >
      > sudo grub-install
      > *
      > This I dont understand.

      update-grub just gathers the current information. Since
      Ubuntu will be gone, it will build a grub menu with only
      Xubuntu on it. However, it does not install it on the
      disk until you tell it to. This is done through grub-install.
      I missed one thing. It should be:

      sudo grub-install /dev/sda

      This is assuming your boot drive is a SATA drive and it
      is the first drive in the system. If your boot drive is
      PATA (IDE) then it would be

      sudo grub-install /dev/hda

      You can figure this out using the following method when
      in Xubuntu. From the command line type:

      df -h

      This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
      There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
      which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
      get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
      here is mine:

      $ df -h
      Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
      /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
      udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
      tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
      none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
      none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
      none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
      /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
      /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
      //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare

      Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
      on which to install grub is /dev/sda.

      >
      > This will make the change in grub permanent.
      > *
      >
      > Why there is:
      > sudo update-grub
      > AND
      > sudo grub-install
      >

      Explained above

      >
      >> You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
      > *
      > Thank You.
      >
      >> One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
      > *
      > On my Linux Systems
      > I have a Desktop.
      > In this Desktop there is a directory
      > userfiles.
      > This directory contains:
      > dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
      > usefiles (files from other computers)
      > backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
      > computer is on another computer)
      > downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
      > So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
      > and once a week I burn it on CD.
      >
      > Is this a good way to save files?
      >

      It will work, however, the way I have it set up is that data is
      a separte partition. That means when I install a new OS on the
      system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
      /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
      without having to restore from backup to see my documents.

      >
      >
      >> I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
      > *
      > I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
      > computer.
      > Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
      > Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
      > directory dailyfiles.
      >

      That is certainly commendable and you should do that.

      >
      >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
      >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
      >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition. I
      >> would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
      >> to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
      >> me know.
      >
      > Thank You.
      > If I really would destroy my os
      > before I do dangerous things
      > I am copying dailyfiles
      > and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
      > from www.
      >
      >
      > Regards
      > Sophie
      >
      > Again Thank You.
      >


      Hope this helps!

      Regards
      Loyal
    • highskywhy@yahoo.de
      So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013 Good morning Thank You for email and help. ... Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like delete a partition, it does
      Message 2 of 24 , Mar 16, 2013
        So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
        Good morning
        Thank You for email and help.

        > 4. Apply changes
        > *
        > What does this mean?

        Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like
        delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead
        it waits until you apply your changes. Now on Mint, the
        apply occurs as a button on the button bar at the top. In
        Mint that is a check mark.
        *
        OK

        >
        > 5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
        > do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
        > here.
        > *
        > OK
        >
        > 6. Apply changes
        > *
        > How can I do this?

        See above.
        *
        Thank You.


        >
        > 7. From the command line type:
        >
        > sudo update-grub
        > *
        > I understand.
        >
        > This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
        > 8. From the command line type:
        >
        > sudo grub-install
        > *
        > This I dont understand.

        update-grub just gathers the current information.
        *
        OK

        Since
        Ubuntu will be gone, it will build a grub menu with only
        Xubuntu on it.
        *
        OK

        However, it does not install it on the
        disk until you tell it to.
        *
        OK

        This is done through grub-install.

        *
        OK

        I missed one thing. It should be:

        sudo grub-install /dev/sda
        *
        OK

        This is assuming your boot drive is a SATA drive and it
        is the first drive in the system. If your boot drive is
        PATA (IDE) then it would be

        sudo grub-install /dev/hda
        *
        How can I check this?
        Can I find in www
        the difference between SATA abd PATA?


        You can figure this out using the following method when
        in Xubuntu. From the command line type:

        df -h
        *
        OK



        7p:~$ df -h
        Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
        /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
        udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
        tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
        none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
        none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
        none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
        7p:~$


        Did I do it right?


        This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
        *
        A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


        Now I am using
        Xubuntu
        maybe it is important to know.

        There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
        which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
        get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
        here is mine:

        $ df -h
        Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
        /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
        udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
        tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
        none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
        none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
        none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
        /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
        /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
        //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
        *
        Thank You.

        Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
        on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
        *
        I did not understand this.

        >
        > This will make the change in grub permanent.
        > *
        >
        > Why there is:
        > sudo update-grub
        > AND
        > sudo grub-install
        >

        Explained above
        *
        Thank You.


        >
        >> You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
        > *
        > Thank You.
        >
        >> One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
        > *
        > On my Linux Systems
        > I have a Desktop.
        > In this Desktop there is a directory
        > userfiles.
        > This directory contains:
        > dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
        > usefiles (files from other computers)
        > backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
        > computer is on another computer)
        > downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
        > So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
        > and once a week I burn it on CD.
        >
        > Is this a good way to save files?
        >

        It will work, however, the way I have it set up is that data is
        a separte partition.
        *
        I understand.
        This is the same like
        C: windows and programmes
        d: all data files

        I did this this way on windows.

        That means when I install a new OS on the
        system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
        /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
        without having to restore from backup to see my documents.

        *
        So You could change vom
        Debian to Fedora
        and keep You partition with data files unchanged?


        >
        >
        >> I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
        > *
        > I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
        > computer.
        > Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
        > Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
        > directory dailyfiles.
        >

        That is certainly commendable and you should do that.
        *
        Thank You for reading it.
        But Your idea with the partition
        is a little bit more easy.


        >
        >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
        >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
        >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
        *
        OK
        Good idea.

        I
        >> would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
        >> to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
        >> me know.

        *
        Can I do this later?

        >
        > Thank You.
        > If I really would destroy my os
        > before I do dangerous things
        > I am copying dailyfiles
        > and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
        > from www.


        Regards
        Thank You
        Sophie
        +
      • loyal_barber
        ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes ... I take the line where Mounted on is /. That partition or Filesystem as in the
        Message 3 of 24 , Mar 18, 2013
          --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
          >
          >
          > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
          > Good morning
          > Thank You for email and help.

          <snip>

          > How can I check this?
          > Can I find in www
          > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

          Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

          >
          >
          > You can figure this out using the following method when
          > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
          >
          > df -h
          > *
          > OK
          >
          >
          >
          > 7p:~$ df -h
          > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
          > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
          > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
          > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
          > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
          > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
          > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
          > 7p:~$
          >
          >
          > Did I do it right?

          yes

          >
          >
          > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
          > *
          > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
          >
          >
          > Now I am using
          > Xubuntu
          > maybe it is important to know.
          >
          > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
          > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
          > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
          > here is mine:
          >
          > $ df -h
          > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
          > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
          > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
          > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
          > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
          > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
          > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
          > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
          > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
          > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
          > *
          > Thank You.
          >
          > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
          > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
          > *
          > I did not understand this.

          I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
          "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
          case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
          means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.

          Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
          Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder. For
          example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
          /dev/fd1 etc. fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
          would be the second. /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.
          The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
          would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
          powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
          designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
          Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
          For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
          6 listed as /dev/sda6.

          <snip>
          > That means when I install a new OS on the
          > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
          > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
          > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
          >
          > *
          > So You could change vom
          > Debian to Fedora
          > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

          Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
          of each. In fact I do exactly this.

          <snip>
          > Can I do this later?

          Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
          before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
          under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
          on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
          be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
          My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
          the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.

          Loyal

          <snip>
        • westmi
          ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! Darrin
          Message 4 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
            > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
            > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
            > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
            > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
            > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
            > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
            > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
            >
            > Loyal
            >
            > <snip>
            >
            I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
            Darrin
          • Pascal
            ... [snip] ... You could also use $ mount | -column -t This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier
            Message 5 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
              --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:

              [snip]

              > How can I check this?
              > Can I find in www
              > the difference between SATA abd PATA?
              >
              >
              > You can figure this out using the following method when
              > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
              >
              > df -h
              > *
              > OK
              >
              > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
              > *
              > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


              You could also use

              $ mount | -column -t

              This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.


              You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

              $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

              This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
              The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

              $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

              in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

              Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned above.


              [snip]


              > >
              > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
              > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
              > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.

              Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?

              Pascal
            • Paul
              ... I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any
              Message 6 of 24 , Mar 20, 2013
                --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "westmi" <west.mi420@...> wrote:
                >
                > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
                > Darrin
                >

                I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any time.

                I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage
              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive.
                Message 7 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                  Good afternoon
                  Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                  Thank You for help.



                  > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                  > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                  > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                  > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                  > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                  > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                  > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                  >
                  > Loyal
                  >
                  I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                  external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                  time....good luck!
                  Darrin
                  *
                  Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and all is fine.
                  *
                  Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and noting is ok then
                  I can update all my private files by USB
                  this is no problems.
                  But it is a lot of work to install again
                  Blender Chrome Chromium Opera
                  or can I save also the programmes?

                  Regards
                  Sophie
                • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                  Good afternoon Do M�r 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes * What is the difference between
                  Message 8 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                    Good afternoon
                    Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                    Thank You for help.


                    --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...>
                    wrote:
                    >
                    >
                    > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                    > Good morning
                    > Thank You for email and help.

                    <snip>

                    > How can I check this?
                    > Can I find in www
                    > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                    Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

                    >
                    >
                    > You can figure this out using the following method when
                    > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                    >
                    > df -h
                    > *
                    > OK
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > 7p:~$ df -h
                    > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                    > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                    > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                    > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                    > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                    > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                    > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                    > 7p:~$
                    >
                    >
                    > Did I do it right?

                    yes


                    *
                    What is the difference between SATA and PATA?

                    >
                    >
                    > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                    > *
                    > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
                    >
                    >
                    > Now I am using
                    > Xubuntu
                    > maybe it is important to know.
                    >
                    > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                    > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                    > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                    > here is mine:
                    >
                    > $ df -h
                    > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                    > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                    > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                    > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                    > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                    > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                    > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                    > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                    > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                    > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                    > *
                    > Thank You.
                    >
                    > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                    > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                    > *
                    > I did not understand this.

                    I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                    "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                    case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                    means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                    *

                    Sorry
                    I cannot understand.
                    So I did not deleted the lines above.



                    Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
                    Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder.
                    *
                    OK

                    For
                    example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
                    /dev/fd1 etc.
                    *
                    OK

                    fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
                    would be the second.
                    *
                    OK

                    /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                    This I dont understand.


                    The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
                    would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
                    powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
                    designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
                    Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
                    For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                    6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                    *
                    Is that the operatin system?


                    <snip>
                    > That means when I install a new OS on the
                    > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                    > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                    > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
                    >
                    > *
                    > So You could change vom
                    > Debian to Fedora
                    > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

                    Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
                    of each. In fact I do exactly this.
                    *
                    I understand.


                    <snip>
                    > Can I do this later?

                    Absolutely you can do this later.*
                    OK
                    But thank You for Your long explanation.
                    Because I want to learn Linux.


                    I understand running
                    before you walk.
                    *
                    YES

                    I started out keeping everything Linux
                    under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                    on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                    be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                    My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                    the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                    *
                    What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?


                    Regards
                    Sophie
                  • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                    Message 9 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                      Am 19.03.2013 15:24, schrieb westmi:
                      > > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                      > > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                      > > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                      > > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                      > > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                      > > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                      > > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                      > >
                      > > Loyal
                      > >
                      > > <snip>
                      > >
                      > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                      > external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                      > time....good luck!
                      > Darrin
                      >
                      >
                    • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                      Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help $ mount | -column -t mount | -column -t Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie
                      Message 10 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                        Good afternoon
                        Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                        Thank You for help



                        $ mount | -column -t

                        mount | -column -t
                        Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                        Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                        -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                        ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$

                        Sorry
                        there was a mistake
                        Sorry the reaction is German.



                        This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted
                        nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.

                        You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

                        $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

                        :~$ df -PhT | sort -nk6
                        Dateisystem Typ Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                        none tmpfs 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                        none tmpfs 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                        tmpfs tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                        udev devtmpfs 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                        none tmpfs 1,9G 26M 1,9G 2% /run/shm
                        /dev/sda1 ext3 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                        /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                        /dev/sda6 ext4 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                        ~$


                        I did.



                        This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage
                        the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does
                        that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
                        The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for
                        each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

                        $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

                        df -Ph | sort -nk5
                        Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                        none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                        none 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                        tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                        udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                        none 1,9G 27M 1,8G 2% /run/shm
                        /dev/sda1 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                        /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                        /dev/sda6 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                        p:~$

                        I did.




                        in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

                        Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned
                        above.
                        *
                        Thank You.
                        ]


                        Regards
                        Sophie
                      • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                        Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help ... external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! ... I take this
                        Message 11 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                          Good afternoon
                          Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                          Thank You for help

                          > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                          external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                          time....good luck!
                          > Darrin
                          >

                          I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an
                          NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my
                          machines at any time.

                          What is the meaning of NFS?



                          I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage

                          *
                          Thank You
                          Regards
                          Sophie
                        • loyal_barber
                          ... ... Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and replaces them
                          Message 12 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
                            --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "Pascal" <pascal.bernhard@...> wrote:
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@> wrote:
                            >
                            > [snip]
                            <snip>
                            > > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                            > > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                            > > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
                            >
                            > Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?
                            >
                            > Pascal
                            >
                            Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on
                            each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and
                            replaces them with symbolic links to the directories on my /data
                            partition. No files lost, no problem.

                            Loyal
                          • loyal_barber
                            ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and Parallel ATA
                            Message 13 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
                              --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                              >
                              >
                              > Good afternoon
                              > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                              > Thank You for help.
                              >
                              >
                              > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@>
                              > wrote:
                              >
                              > <snip>
                              >
                              > > How can I check this?
                              > > Can I find in www
                              > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                              Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                              by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                              Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                              PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers. It has a
                              theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was communicating
                              with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of interference
                              between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                              a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the limitations
                              of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                              come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                              wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                              the interference issue.

                              A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                              of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                              SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                              SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                              SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                              Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                              eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                              things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a performance
                              penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the specification
                              for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The limit
                              for eSATA cables is 2 meters.

                              Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                              connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                              PATA connectors at all.
                              <snip>

                              > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                              > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                              > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                              > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                              > *
                              >
                              > Sorry
                              > I cannot understand.
                              > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                              >

                              OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                              the operating system. This is an oversimplification but will
                              work for now. When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                              The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with / also known as
                              the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                              All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                              partition (6) on that drive.


                              <snip>
                              >
                              > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                              > This I dont understand.

                              It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                              They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                              drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                              harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                              /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                              drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                              be /dev/hda3.

                              <snip>
                              > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                              > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                              > *
                              > Is that the operatin system?
                              >

                              Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                              more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.

                              > <snip>
                              > I started out keeping everything Linux
                              > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                              > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                              > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                              > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                              > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                              > *
                              > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                              >

                              Let me define three phrases here:
                              Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                              installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                              Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                              running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10. When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                              you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                              new version. Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                              means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                              without a complete reinstallation.
                              Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                              modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                              installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.

                              Regards,
                              Loyal
                            • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                              Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. Hallo Sophie, I am answering in English so all users can understand. Yes I understand German. The
                              Message 14 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
                                Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                                Good evening.
                                Thank You for help.
                                Hallo Sophie,


                                I am answering in English
                                so all users can understand.
                                Yes
                                I understand German.

                                The computer is using German language.


                                > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                > Thank You for help
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > $ mount | -column -t
                                >
                                > mount | -column -t
                                > Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                                > Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                                > -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                                > ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$
                                >
                                > Sorry
                                > there was a mistake
                                > Sorry the reaction is German.

                                Ich gehe jetzt mal davon aus, dass Du Deutsch sprichst. Mein
                                Debian-System ist auch auf Deutsch, es gibt schlimmeres.
                                *
                                OK


                                Gerade eben habe ich mal nachgesehen, ob ich auf meiner Maschine das
                                Paket 'badmainutils' installiert habe:

                                $ dpkg -l | grep [b]sdmainutils
                                ii bsdmainutils 9.0.3
                                i386 collection of more utilities
                                from FreeBSD

                                Yo, ist installiert. Die beiden ii am Anfang des Outputs bedeuten, dass
                                das Paket installiert. Diese Information gibt aptitude auch aus, wenn
                                ich nach einem Paket suche, apt-get tut dies hingegen nicht, dort
                                funktioniert aber trotzdem dpkg -l | grep PACKET, dies zeigt ja explizit
                                alle installierten Pakete an.
                                *
                                What does that mean?


                                Is

                                mount | -column -t


                                wrong?



                                Wieso ich den ersten Buchstaben in [eckigen Klammern] gesetzt habe? Dann
                                wird die Suche mit grep nach bsdmainutils nicht auch in den Ergebnissen
                                aufgeführt.

                                Es lohnt sich bestimmt das Paket bsdmainutils zu installieren. Die
                                Darstellungsoption column -t macht viel deutlich übersichtlicher, z.B.
                                cat /etc/fstab | column -t

                                What is the meaning of
                                bsdmainutils?


                                Vielleicht lassen meine Erläuterungen die eine oder andere eventuell
                                Unklarheit verschwinden.

                                Beste Grüße,

                                Pascal


                                Sorry
                                no.


                                Regards
                                Sophie
                              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short,
                                Message 15 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
                                  Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                                  Good evening.
                                  Thank You for help.

                                  > > How can I check this?
                                  > > Can I find in www
                                  > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                                  Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                                  by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                                  Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                                  *
                                  OK


                                  PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  Can I see this with lspci?


                                  It has a
                                  theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was
                                  communicating
                                  with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of
                                  interference
                                  between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                                  a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the
                                  limitations
                                  of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                                  come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                                  wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                                  the interference issue.
                                  *
                                  Pata
                                  and sata
                                  are description of the hardware?



                                  A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                                  of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                                  SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                                  SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                                  SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                                  Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                                  eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                                  things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a
                                  performance
                                  penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the
                                  specification
                                  for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The
                                  limit
                                  for eSATA cables is 2 meters.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                                  connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                                  PATA connectors at all.
                                  <snip>
                                  *

                                  Where is it important to know
                                  this pc is sata that pc is pata?


                                  > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                                  > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                                  > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                                  > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                  > *
                                  >
                                  > Sorry
                                  > I cannot understand.
                                  > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                                  >

                                  OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                                  the operating system.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  This is an oversimplification but will
                                  work for now.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                                  The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with /
                                  *

                                  Like a root?


                                  also known as
                                  the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                                  All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                                  partition (6) on that drive.
                                  *
                                  OK


                                  <snip>
                                  >
                                  > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                                  > This I dont understand.

                                  It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                                  They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                                  drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                                  harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                                  /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                                  drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                                  be /dev/hda3.

                                  <snip>
                                  > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                                  > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                                  > *
                                  > Is that the operatin system?
                                  >

                                  Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                                  more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.
                                  *
                                  OK



                                  > <snip>
                                  > I started out keeping everything Linux
                                  > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                  > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                  > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                  > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                  > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                  > *
                                  > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                                  >

                                  Let me define three phrases here:
                                  Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                                  installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                                  *
                                  OK


                                  Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                                  running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10.*
                                  I am using now 13.04
                                  and I do not know why
                                  I updated and there there is 13.04.

                                  It is my mistake.



                                  When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                                  you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                                  new version.
                                  *
                                  Question.
                                  I was reading I have to upgrade.

                                  Why.

                                  There is an upgrade
                                  from Pangolin to Quantal

                                  but there is no update
                                  from Hardy to Pangolin
                                  because it is said
                                  only one step is possible.

                                  Is this wrong?



                                  Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                                  means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                                  without a complete reinstallation.
                                  *
                                  Is upgrade an new install?



                                  Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                                  modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                                  installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  Thank You.



                                  Regards
                                  Sophie
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