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Re: [LINUX_Newbies] grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistribution,I want to delete one distribution;gparted?

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  • highskywhy@yahoo.de
    Do Mär 07 17:59:40 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. It is best to set the desired partition size at the time of installation. * Yes I know Thank You.
    Message 1 of 24 , Mar 7, 2013
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      Do Mär 07 17:59:40 2013
      Good afternoon
      Thank You for help.


      It is best to set the desired partition size at the time of
      installation.
      *
      Yes
      I know
      Thank You.
      But I did it to try
      what Ubuntu is better: Ubuntu or Xubuntu.
      So I like Xubuntu more and so I want to delete Ubuntu.

      If I understand you correctly, you currently have two
      partitions, one for Ubuntu, and One for Xubuntu.
      *
      Yes
      both 40 gb.

      hd=80 gb



      Gparted should be included in the Live CD/disc of UBUNTU (unless that
      has changed significantly since Version10.04). You could use that
      program to delete the Xubuntu partition and change the size of the
      Ubuntu partition.
      *
      I want to delete Ubuntu so I can see with
      gparted
      where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu?
      When I would delete Ubuntu, what will happen with grub and booting?



      My reccomendation though, is it would be better to have a separate
      partion for Ubuntu where you can store files.
      *
      I do not understand.
      I only want to use now Xubuntu.

      Many users have one
      partition for the system ( ~ 20-25 GB would be a good size these
      days?), and then allocate the rest of the hard drive to a seprate
      partition.
      *
      What did I install:
      First Ubuntu with 80 gb.
      Then I installed one month later Xubuntu.
      And during install Xubuntu
      PC splitted hd to 49 gb Xubuntu and 40 gb Ubuntu.
      In the morning when the PC is booting
      it is offering to me Ubuntu or Xubuntu.
      Last three months I always booted Xubuntu
      this is the reason I want to delete Ubuntu.


      On this partition, the "/home" userspace folders are
      mounted. In this manner, most all setting files as well as any
      downloads and created documents stay safe there. Now you can
      completely uninstall and reinstall the OS without loosing all of your
      data and configuration settings (of course you would still need to
      back up /home just in case).
      *
      OK


      So I guess I am recommending either leaving the partitions as is or
      shrinking one by about half and increasing the other, then migrate
      /home to mount on the separate partition.
      *
      I think
      40 gb are enough for Xubuntu.
      But how can I use 40 gb more for files without destroying Xubuntu?


      Here are two guides (one more gui friendly) if you decide you want to
      go that route.
      https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Partitioning/Home/Moving
      *
      OK
      Thank You.

      http://www.howtogeek.com/116742/how-to-create-a-separate-home-partition-after-installing-ubuntu/
      *
      OK
      Thank You.

      And here is a similar howtogeek link that should give you whatever
      info you need if you just want to delete Xubuntu and have a big single
      partition (like you indicated).
      http://www.howtogeek.com/114503/how-to-resize-your-ubuntu-partitions/
      *
      OK
      As far as I understood
      is this the best way for a clean hd?


      Regards
      Sophie
    • highskywhy@yahoo.de
      Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. ... The program gparted should already be included in your Xubuntu installation. Check via: $
      Message 2 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
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        Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
        Good afternoon
        Thank You for help.


        > grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistributions,I want to delete
        > one distribution;gparted?
        >
        > Di Mär 05 08:38:01 2013
        > Good morning
        >
        > I did install
        > Ubuntu
        > 40gb
        > and
        > Xubuntu
        > 40 gb
        > on one hd.
        > How can I delete Ubuntu now?
        > Should I use gparted?
        > How can I download gparted?

        The program 'gparted' should already be included in your Xubuntu
        installation.
        Check via:
        $ dpkg -l | grep gparted
        *
        I found gparted in the software-center.
        So it is easy to install for me.
        Thank You.


        This command (dpkg -l) lists all installed packages and grep filters it
        for the term 'gparted' which is what we are interested in
        *
        So if gparted is in the software-center:
        Can I do sudo apt-get install gparted
        or install it with the gui-software-center?

        In case it is not installed:
        apt-cache search gparted (You don't need root permissions to search for
        packages)
        sudo apt-get install PACKAGE (Put the exact package of gparted name here)
        *
        Thank You.


        Then you could start gparted, you will be asked your root password.
        *
        OK

        When the Ubuntu partition is no mounted, you can delete it and than add
        the freed up disk space to your Xubuntu partition(s).
        *
        OK

        Depending on the filesystem you chose for Xubuntu can do that online
        (That is the Xubuntu partitions (Do you have separate ROOT- and
        HOME-partitions?)*
        I think so.
        Why?
        Because I installed Ubuntu Hardy and Xubuntu Pangolin independent.
        First Ubuntu
        later Xubuntu.

        are mounted while running Xubuntu (EXT4) or use a live-system to do
        that while they are not mounted (necessary when they are formatted
        EXT3)). Probably you will only be able to extend the HOME-partition (In
        case you have not set up Logical Volumes).
        *
        I do not understand.
        Sorry.

        You could unmount your HOME-partition (You would have to leave the
        graphical environment via CTRL+ALT+F2 and login as root) and then extend
        it.*
        Can gparted unmount?
        Can gparted lead the grub or the booting process?

        If possible, you could also resize your ROOT-partition on a running
        system (EXT4 only, maybe some other file systems too, have a look at
        Wikipedia). Please search for some online tutorials before you proceed,
        you can totally break your system and corrupt your data!! Backup first
        and then do fsck to verify that the file system in the enlarged new
        partition(s) is in order (Partition has to be unmounted!!!)
        *
        Yes
        Thank You.


        Resizing partitions while in a running system should only be done on the
        commandline, no gparted here.
        *
        OK

        Maybe easiest to use a live-CD to have the GUI available. These are
        just brief hints on how to do what you want. You will definitively have
        to look for more information!
        *
        So it is difficult
        to boot with the hd-Xubuntu
        and then
        start gparted and then clean Ubuntu?


        Regards
        Sophie
      • highskywhy@yahoo.de
        Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. I have done this sort of thing recently. * I saw it is not installed but I could see it in the
        Message 3 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
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          Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
          Good afternoon
          Thank You for help.



          I have done this sort of thing recently.
          *
          I saw
          it is not installed
          but I could see it in the software-center.
          So I am sure
          it is easy to install for me.

          gparted should already be
          installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the
          command line) type:

          sudo apt-get install gparted
          *
          Thank You.


          Once that is installed, do the following:
          1. Backup your Xubuntu partition just to be on the safe side
          *
          OK

          2. Run gparted from the menu. I do not know the specific location
          on xubuntu but it should be under something like "Administration"
          or "System" or "System Tools."

          *
          OK

          3. Using gparted, delete ONLY the Ubuntu partition.
          *
          OK

          4. Apply changes
          *
          What does this mean?

          5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
          do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
          here.
          *
          OK

          6. Apply changes
          *
          How can I do this?

          7. From the command line type:

          sudo update-grub
          *
          I understand.

          This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
          8. From the command line type:

          sudo grub-install
          *
          This I dont understand.



          This will make the change in grub permanent.
          *

          Why there is:
          sudo update-grub
          AND
          sudo grub-install


          You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
          *
          Thank You.

          One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
          *
          On my Linux Systems
          I have a Desktop.
          In this Desktop there is a directory
          userfiles.
          This directory contains:
          dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
          usefiles (files from other computers)
          backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
          computer is on another computer)
          downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
          So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
          and once a week I burn it on CD.

          Is this a good way to save files?



          I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
          *
          I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
          computer.
          Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
          Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
          directory dailyfiles.


          I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
          with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
          settings then save all of my information on my /data partition. I
          would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
          to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
          me know.

          Thank You.
          If I really would destroy my os
          before I do dangerous things
          I am copying dailyfiles
          and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
          from www.


          Regards
          Sophie

          Again Thank You.
        • highskywhy@yahoo.de
          Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. ... Ah, that is an important question. You would first need to figure out where grub is at to know
          Message 4 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
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            Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
            Good afternoon
            Thank You for help.


            > I want to delete Ubuntu so I can see with
            > gparted
            > where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu?
            > When I would delete Ubuntu, what will happen with grub and booting?

            Ah, that is an important question. You would first need to figure out
            where grub is at to know if you are going to have an issue..
            *
            OK
            I only
            know how to do this on Grub Legacy, and you should be using Grub2 if
            you installed from a disk version of ubuntu 9.10 or higher. *
            I did install
            first Ubuntu Hardy and no update.
            Then I installed
            Xubuntu Pangolin
            and now with updates there is
            Xubuntu 13.04.

            Hopefully
            someone can help you. I can tell you that it is not too complicated
            to reinstall Grub or another bootloader from a live CD if you destroy
            it.
            *
            OK

            But it would be a better option to get it installed and booting
            from the MBR and the partition you want to keep I think. If you know
            that you use Grub-Legacy, just let me know and I will try to provide
            some details.
            *
            Is this more easy then to use gparted?


            > My reccomendation though, is it would be better to have a separate
            > partion for Ubuntu where you can store files.
            > *
            > I do not understand.
            > I only want to use now Xubuntu.

            Sorry I got confused and thought you wanted to get rid of Xubuntu, not
            Ubuntu.
            *
            No
            I like more Xubuntu then Ubuntu.
            So I want to delete Ubuntu because the last three months I only used
            Xutuntu.

            Should still be the same, just switch those two words in
            everything I wrote! Essentially, you have the root directory of
            Xubuntu on one smaller partition. This is where system files live and
            where programs are installed. A separate larger partition can be used
            to mount "/home". All of the user files and most
            setting/configuration files live here (for example, browser bookmarks,
            your theme GUI, font preferences, etc.).
            *
            Is this more easy then to use gparted?

            With this setup, it is
            possible to upgrade, or even uninstall your operating system without
            touching all of the documents and settings you currently use.
            *
            Ubuntu is empty
            does mean there is only os and Firefox and so on
            but no data files created by me.
            So I can "destroy" the whole Ubuntu distribution means all 40 gb can be
            cleaned.


            This is easiest to set up during a new installation, but it is
            possible for you to do the following:

            1) delete your ubuntu partition
            *
            With gparted?
            2) shrink your existing Xubuntu partition to ~18 GB
            *
            Ok

            3) Create a new 62 GB partition
            *
            OK

            4) Migrate the /home directory of your Xubuntu partition to your new
            60 GB partition.
            *
            OK

            Now the 60 GB partition is used exclusively for your file storage.
            *
            OK.

            What does a Linux System need?

            5 gb for Linux itself?
            5 gb for tmp?
            And
            the rest is for private files, isnt it?


            As
            you guess, this is not the most efficient use of space, because the 20
            GB partition will not be completely full (to save space for upgrades,
            extra kernels, and programs that will be installed in the future.
            *
            OK.

            On
            the other hand, it does give you less to worry about setting up next
            time you upgrade your operating system or installing a new one. The
            migration of /home is a little involved, but you can find current
            instruction on the internet that support Grub2.
            *
            OK
            Question:
            If I install a Linux on an empty PC
            and alway look
            there are 5 gb free
            should I have a problem with upgrades?

            > Many users have one
            > partition for the system ( ~ 20-25 GB would be a good size these
            > days?), and then allocate the rest of the hard drive to a seprate
            > partition.
            > *
            > What did I install:
            > First Ubuntu with 80 gb.
            > Then I installed one month later Xubuntu.
            > And during install Xubuntu
            > PC splitted hd to 40 gb Xubuntu and 40 gb Ubuntu.
            > In the morning when the PC is booting
            > it is offering to me Ubuntu or Xubuntu.
            > Last three months I always booted Xubuntu
            > this is the reason I want to delete Ubuntu.


            I can only tell you how the system would behave with Grub_legacy,
            which won't help you much.
            *
            How about:

            gparted.


            Then
            sudo update-grub
            AND
            sudo grub-install


            but I would guess that most of the
            important grub files reside on your ubuntu partition since you
            installed that first.
            *
            OK

            You should be able to install grub2 to your
            current Xubuntu partition, then boot with it first to make sure it is
            working, then get rid of Ubuntu. Maybe check the first explanation on
            this link if you don't get help here...:

            <http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1014708>


            This is sounding a little bit difficult.


            > And here is a similar howtogeek link that should give you whatever
            > info you need if you just want to delete Xubuntu and have a big single
            > partition (like you indicated).
            > http://www.howtogeek.com/114503/how-to-resize-your-ubuntu-partitions/
            > *
            > OK
            > As far as I understood
            > is this the best way for a clean hd?

            I think of "clean" as freshly formatted and without any data.
            *
            Sorry
            this was wrong:
            is this the best way for a clean 40 gb Ubuntu-hd?

            The
            guide linked above will attempt to allow you to resize your existing
            partitions without destroying any of the data on that partition.
            *
            Is there still the Ubuntu and the Xutuntu.
            Why not.
            If I could have:
            40 gb Xubuntu
            10 GB Ubuntu without private files.
            and then 30 GB hd I am adding to the Xubuntu-os
            is this possible?





            It
            will typically destroy MS windows booting process though (if Windows
            is installed on the same hard disk).
            *
            There is no windows.
            Is to clean windows different then to clean a Linux-os?

            The best way for "clean" is to
            delete and format, followed by a scrub program if you are concerned
            about data recovery.
            *
            Does this mean:
            A new pc with a new os?


            Regards

            Sophie
          • highskywhy@yahoo.de
            Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. ... * OK ... * OK ... * OK Now I do in Xubuntu: mount ~$ mount /dev/sda6 on / type ext4
            Message 5 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
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              Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
              Good afternoon
              Thank You for help.


              >> I want to delete Ubuntu so I can see with
              >> gparted
              >> where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu?
              >
              > I forgot to respond to this. I don't think so with gparted. To see
              > where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu, first boot into Ubuntu. open a
              > terminal and type:
              >
              >>> mount
              > (the ">>" is my prompt, don't type that part)
              *
              OK

              >
              > The response would be something like
              > /dev/hda2 on / type ext4 (options)
              > proc on /proc (info and options
              > /dev/hda3 on /mnt/media (option)
              > and so on.
              *
              OK


              > you will look for what is mounted on "/", in the example, /dev/hda2 is
              > that one and that is where your ubuntu operating system is at. You
              > can repeat in Xubuntu.
              *
              OK
              Now I do in Xubuntu:

              mount




              ~$ mount
              /dev/sda6 on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
              proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
              sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
              none on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
              none on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw)
              none on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw)
              udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
              devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=0620)
              tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,size=10%,mode=0755)
              none on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=5242880)
              none on /run/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
              none on /run/user type tmpfs
              (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=104857600,mode=0755)
              gvfsd-fuse on /run/user/ah/gvfs type fuse.gvfsd-fuse
              (rw,nosuid,nodev,user=ah)
              :~$


              >
              > As with a lot in Linux, there are many ways to accomplish the same
              > thing. Another option would be to use the terminal and concatenate
              > the file that contains the relevant information to display on your
              > screen:
              >
              >>> cat /etc/fstab
              *
              I do not understand.
              Sorry.
              >
              > The line that had a single foward slash "/" under <mount point> will
              > be the partition Ubuntu is installed to. It will be something like
              > /dev/hda2. Note, the table columns are separated with <tabs>. listing
              > of long options and ids can cause some weird word wrapping in the
              > terminal. If you find it hard to read, you could redirect the
              > information to a text file instead of standard out:

              >>> mkdir temporary
              >>> cat /etc/fstab > temporary/mnt.txt
              >
              > Then read that text file
              >
              >>> gedit temporary/mnt.txt
              >
              > This will then open a text file with the information in it where you
              > can turn off word wrapping to better read your info. replace "gedit"
              > with the name of your text editor of choice if you use something
              > different. XFCE/Xubuntu maybe uses "leaf" or "nano" I think...
              >
              > Then delete those files and directory if you no longer need them.
              >
              >>> rm temporary/mnt.txt && rmdir temporary
              *
              OK

              >
              > There is probably aless confusing way to do this,
              *
              Yes
              I am printing this email and then I am reading it again.


              but those are the
              > two ways I can currently remember that would let you find out which is
              > which in GParted.
              >

              Regards
              Sophie
              Thank You.
            • loyal_barber
              ... Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead it waits until you apply your
              Message 6 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
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                --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                >
                >
                > Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
                > Good afternoon
                > Thank You for help.
                >
                >
                >
                >> I have done this sort of thing recently.
                > *
                > I saw
                > it is not installed
                > but I could see it in the software-center.
                > So I am sure
                > it is easy to install for me.
                >
                >> gparted should already be
                >> installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the
                >> command line) type:
                >>
                >> sudo apt-get install gparted
                > *
                > Thank You.
                >
                >
                >> Once that is installed, do the following:
                >> 1. Backup your Xubuntu partition just to be on the safe side
                > *
                > OK
                >
                >> 2. Run gparted from the menu. I do not know the specific location
                >> on xubuntu but it should be under something like "Administration"
                >> or "System" or "System Tools."
                >
                > *
                > OK
                >
                >> 3. Using gparted, delete ONLY the Ubuntu partition.
                >> *
                >> OK
                >
                > 4. Apply changes
                > *
                > What does this mean?

                Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like
                delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead
                it waits until you apply your changes. Now on Mint, the
                apply occurs as a button on the button bar at the top. In
                Mint that is a check mark.

                >
                > 5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
                > do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
                > here.
                > *
                > OK
                >
                > 6. Apply changes
                > *
                > How can I do this?

                See above.

                >
                > 7. From the command line type:
                >
                > sudo update-grub
                > *
                > I understand.
                >
                > This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
                > 8. From the command line type:
                >
                > sudo grub-install
                > *
                > This I dont understand.

                update-grub just gathers the current information. Since
                Ubuntu will be gone, it will build a grub menu with only
                Xubuntu on it. However, it does not install it on the
                disk until you tell it to. This is done through grub-install.
                I missed one thing. It should be:

                sudo grub-install /dev/sda

                This is assuming your boot drive is a SATA drive and it
                is the first drive in the system. If your boot drive is
                PATA (IDE) then it would be

                sudo grub-install /dev/hda

                You can figure this out using the following method when
                in Xubuntu. From the command line type:

                df -h

                This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                here is mine:

                $ df -h
                Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare

                Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                on which to install grub is /dev/sda.

                >
                > This will make the change in grub permanent.
                > *
                >
                > Why there is:
                > sudo update-grub
                > AND
                > sudo grub-install
                >

                Explained above

                >
                >> You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
                > *
                > Thank You.
                >
                >> One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
                > *
                > On my Linux Systems
                > I have a Desktop.
                > In this Desktop there is a directory
                > userfiles.
                > This directory contains:
                > dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
                > usefiles (files from other computers)
                > backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
                > computer is on another computer)
                > downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
                > So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
                > and once a week I burn it on CD.
                >
                > Is this a good way to save files?
                >

                It will work, however, the way I have it set up is that data is
                a separte partition. That means when I install a new OS on the
                system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                without having to restore from backup to see my documents.

                >
                >
                >> I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
                > *
                > I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
                > computer.
                > Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
                > Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
                > directory dailyfiles.
                >

                That is certainly commendable and you should do that.

                >
                >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition. I
                >> would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
                >> to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
                >> me know.
                >
                > Thank You.
                > If I really would destroy my os
                > before I do dangerous things
                > I am copying dailyfiles
                > and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
                > from www.
                >
                >
                > Regards
                > Sophie
                >
                > Again Thank You.
                >


                Hope this helps!

                Regards
                Loyal
              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013 Good morning Thank You for email and help. ... Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like delete a partition, it does
                Message 7 of 24 , Mar 16, 2013
                • 0 Attachment
                  So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                  Good morning
                  Thank You for email and help.

                  > 4. Apply changes
                  > *
                  > What does this mean?

                  Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like
                  delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead
                  it waits until you apply your changes. Now on Mint, the
                  apply occurs as a button on the button bar at the top. In
                  Mint that is a check mark.
                  *
                  OK

                  >
                  > 5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
                  > do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
                  > here.
                  > *
                  > OK
                  >
                  > 6. Apply changes
                  > *
                  > How can I do this?

                  See above.
                  *
                  Thank You.


                  >
                  > 7. From the command line type:
                  >
                  > sudo update-grub
                  > *
                  > I understand.
                  >
                  > This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
                  > 8. From the command line type:
                  >
                  > sudo grub-install
                  > *
                  > This I dont understand.

                  update-grub just gathers the current information.
                  *
                  OK

                  Since
                  Ubuntu will be gone, it will build a grub menu with only
                  Xubuntu on it.
                  *
                  OK

                  However, it does not install it on the
                  disk until you tell it to.
                  *
                  OK

                  This is done through grub-install.

                  *
                  OK

                  I missed one thing. It should be:

                  sudo grub-install /dev/sda
                  *
                  OK

                  This is assuming your boot drive is a SATA drive and it
                  is the first drive in the system. If your boot drive is
                  PATA (IDE) then it would be

                  sudo grub-install /dev/hda
                  *
                  How can I check this?
                  Can I find in www
                  the difference between SATA abd PATA?


                  You can figure this out using the following method when
                  in Xubuntu. From the command line type:

                  df -h
                  *
                  OK



                  7p:~$ df -h
                  Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                  /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                  udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                  tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                  none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                  none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                  none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                  7p:~$


                  Did I do it right?


                  This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                  *
                  A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


                  Now I am using
                  Xubuntu
                  maybe it is important to know.

                  There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                  which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                  get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                  here is mine:

                  $ df -h
                  Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                  /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                  udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                  tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                  none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                  none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                  none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                  /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                  /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                  //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                  *
                  Thank You.

                  Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                  on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                  *
                  I did not understand this.

                  >
                  > This will make the change in grub permanent.
                  > *
                  >
                  > Why there is:
                  > sudo update-grub
                  > AND
                  > sudo grub-install
                  >

                  Explained above
                  *
                  Thank You.


                  >
                  >> You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
                  > *
                  > Thank You.
                  >
                  >> One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
                  > *
                  > On my Linux Systems
                  > I have a Desktop.
                  > In this Desktop there is a directory
                  > userfiles.
                  > This directory contains:
                  > dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
                  > usefiles (files from other computers)
                  > backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
                  > computer is on another computer)
                  > downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
                  > So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
                  > and once a week I burn it on CD.
                  >
                  > Is this a good way to save files?
                  >

                  It will work, however, the way I have it set up is that data is
                  a separte partition.
                  *
                  I understand.
                  This is the same like
                  C: windows and programmes
                  d: all data files

                  I did this this way on windows.

                  That means when I install a new OS on the
                  system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                  /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                  without having to restore from backup to see my documents.

                  *
                  So You could change vom
                  Debian to Fedora
                  and keep You partition with data files unchanged?


                  >
                  >
                  >> I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
                  > *
                  > I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
                  > computer.
                  > Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
                  > Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
                  > directory dailyfiles.
                  >

                  That is certainly commendable and you should do that.
                  *
                  Thank You for reading it.
                  But Your idea with the partition
                  is a little bit more easy.


                  >
                  >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                  >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                  >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
                  *
                  OK
                  Good idea.

                  I
                  >> would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
                  >> to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
                  >> me know.

                  *
                  Can I do this later?

                  >
                  > Thank You.
                  > If I really would destroy my os
                  > before I do dangerous things
                  > I am copying dailyfiles
                  > and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
                  > from www.


                  Regards
                  Thank You
                  Sophie
                  +
                • loyal_barber
                  ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes ... I take the line where Mounted on is /. That partition or Filesystem as in the
                  Message 8 of 24 , Mar 18, 2013
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                    --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                    >
                    >
                    > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                    > Good morning
                    > Thank You for email and help.

                    <snip>

                    > How can I check this?
                    > Can I find in www
                    > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                    Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

                    >
                    >
                    > You can figure this out using the following method when
                    > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                    >
                    > df -h
                    > *
                    > OK
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > 7p:~$ df -h
                    > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                    > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                    > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                    > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                    > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                    > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                    > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                    > 7p:~$
                    >
                    >
                    > Did I do it right?

                    yes

                    >
                    >
                    > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                    > *
                    > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
                    >
                    >
                    > Now I am using
                    > Xubuntu
                    > maybe it is important to know.
                    >
                    > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                    > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                    > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                    > here is mine:
                    >
                    > $ df -h
                    > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                    > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                    > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                    > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                    > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                    > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                    > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                    > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                    > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                    > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                    > *
                    > Thank You.
                    >
                    > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                    > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                    > *
                    > I did not understand this.

                    I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                    "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                    case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                    means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.

                    Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
                    Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder. For
                    example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
                    /dev/fd1 etc. fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
                    would be the second. /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.
                    The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
                    would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
                    powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
                    designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
                    Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
                    For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                    6 listed as /dev/sda6.

                    <snip>
                    > That means when I install a new OS on the
                    > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                    > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                    > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
                    >
                    > *
                    > So You could change vom
                    > Debian to Fedora
                    > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

                    Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
                    of each. In fact I do exactly this.

                    <snip>
                    > Can I do this later?

                    Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                    before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                    under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                    on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                    be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                    My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                    the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.

                    Loyal

                    <snip>
                  • westmi
                    ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! Darrin
                    Message 9 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
                    • 0 Attachment
                      > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                      > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                      > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                      > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                      > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                      > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                      > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                      >
                      > Loyal
                      >
                      > <snip>
                      >
                      I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
                      Darrin
                    • Pascal
                      ... [snip] ... You could also use $ mount | -column -t This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier
                      Message 10 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
                      • 0 Attachment
                        --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:

                        [snip]

                        > How can I check this?
                        > Can I find in www
                        > the difference between SATA abd PATA?
                        >
                        >
                        > You can figure this out using the following method when
                        > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                        >
                        > df -h
                        > *
                        > OK
                        >
                        > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                        > *
                        > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


                        You could also use

                        $ mount | -column -t

                        This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.


                        You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

                        $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

                        This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
                        The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

                        $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

                        in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

                        Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned above.


                        [snip]


                        > >
                        > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                        > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                        > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.

                        Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?

                        Pascal
                      • Paul
                        ... I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any
                        Message 11 of 24 , Mar 20, 2013
                        • 0 Attachment
                          --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "westmi" <west.mi420@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
                          > Darrin
                          >

                          I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any time.

                          I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage
                        • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                          Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive.
                          Message 12 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Good afternoon
                            Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                            Thank You for help.



                            > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                            > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                            > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                            > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                            > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                            > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                            > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                            >
                            > Loyal
                            >
                            I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                            external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                            time....good luck!
                            Darrin
                            *
                            Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and all is fine.
                            *
                            Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and noting is ok then
                            I can update all my private files by USB
                            this is no problems.
                            But it is a lot of work to install again
                            Blender Chrome Chromium Opera
                            or can I save also the programmes?

                            Regards
                            Sophie
                          • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                            Good afternoon Do M�r 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes * What is the difference between
                            Message 13 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Good afternoon
                              Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                              Thank You for help.


                              --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...>
                              wrote:
                              >
                              >
                              > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                              > Good morning
                              > Thank You for email and help.

                              <snip>

                              > How can I check this?
                              > Can I find in www
                              > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                              Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

                              >
                              >
                              > You can figure this out using the following method when
                              > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                              >
                              > df -h
                              > *
                              > OK
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > 7p:~$ df -h
                              > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                              > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                              > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                              > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                              > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                              > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                              > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                              > 7p:~$
                              >
                              >
                              > Did I do it right?

                              yes


                              *
                              What is the difference between SATA and PATA?

                              >
                              >
                              > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                              > *
                              > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
                              >
                              >
                              > Now I am using
                              > Xubuntu
                              > maybe it is important to know.
                              >
                              > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                              > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                              > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                              > here is mine:
                              >
                              > $ df -h
                              > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                              > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                              > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                              > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                              > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                              > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                              > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                              > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                              > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                              > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                              > *
                              > Thank You.
                              >
                              > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                              > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                              > *
                              > I did not understand this.

                              I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                              "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                              case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                              means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                              *

                              Sorry
                              I cannot understand.
                              So I did not deleted the lines above.



                              Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
                              Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder.
                              *
                              OK

                              For
                              example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
                              /dev/fd1 etc.
                              *
                              OK

                              fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
                              would be the second.
                              *
                              OK

                              /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                              This I dont understand.


                              The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
                              would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
                              powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
                              designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
                              Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
                              For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                              6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                              *
                              Is that the operatin system?


                              <snip>
                              > That means when I install a new OS on the
                              > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                              > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                              > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
                              >
                              > *
                              > So You could change vom
                              > Debian to Fedora
                              > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

                              Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
                              of each. In fact I do exactly this.
                              *
                              I understand.


                              <snip>
                              > Can I do this later?

                              Absolutely you can do this later.*
                              OK
                              But thank You for Your long explanation.
                              Because I want to learn Linux.


                              I understand running
                              before you walk.
                              *
                              YES

                              I started out keeping everything Linux
                              under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                              on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                              be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                              My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                              the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                              *
                              What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?


                              Regards
                              Sophie
                            • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                              Message 14 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Am 19.03.2013 15:24, schrieb westmi:
                                > > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                                > > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                                > > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                > > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                > > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                > > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                > > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                > >
                                > > Loyal
                                > >
                                > > <snip>
                                > >
                                > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                                > external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                                > time....good luck!
                                > Darrin
                                >
                                >
                              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help $ mount | -column -t mount | -column -t Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie
                                Message 15 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  Good afternoon
                                  Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                  Thank You for help



                                  $ mount | -column -t

                                  mount | -column -t
                                  Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                                  Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                                  -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                                  ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$

                                  Sorry
                                  there was a mistake
                                  Sorry the reaction is German.



                                  This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted
                                  nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.

                                  You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

                                  $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

                                  :~$ df -PhT | sort -nk6
                                  Dateisystem Typ Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                                  none tmpfs 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                                  none tmpfs 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                                  tmpfs tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                                  udev devtmpfs 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                                  none tmpfs 1,9G 26M 1,9G 2% /run/shm
                                  /dev/sda1 ext3 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                                  /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                                  /dev/sda6 ext4 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                                  ~$


                                  I did.



                                  This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage
                                  the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does
                                  that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
                                  The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for
                                  each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

                                  $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

                                  df -Ph | sort -nk5
                                  Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                                  none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                                  none 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                                  tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                                  udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                                  none 1,9G 27M 1,8G 2% /run/shm
                                  /dev/sda1 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                                  /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                                  /dev/sda6 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                                  p:~$

                                  I did.




                                  in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

                                  Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned
                                  above.
                                  *
                                  Thank You.
                                  ]


                                  Regards
                                  Sophie
                                • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                  Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help ... external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! ... I take this
                                  Message 16 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    Good afternoon
                                    Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                    Thank You for help

                                    > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                                    external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                                    time....good luck!
                                    > Darrin
                                    >

                                    I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an
                                    NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my
                                    machines at any time.

                                    What is the meaning of NFS?



                                    I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage

                                    *
                                    Thank You
                                    Regards
                                    Sophie
                                  • loyal_barber
                                    ... ... Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and replaces them
                                    Message 17 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
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                                      --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "Pascal" <pascal.bernhard@...> wrote:
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@> wrote:
                                      >
                                      > [snip]
                                      <snip>
                                      > > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                                      > > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                                      > > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
                                      >
                                      > Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?
                                      >
                                      > Pascal
                                      >
                                      Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on
                                      each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and
                                      replaces them with symbolic links to the directories on my /data
                                      partition. No files lost, no problem.

                                      Loyal
                                    • loyal_barber
                                      ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and Parallel ATA
                                      Message 18 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
                                      • 0 Attachment
                                        --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                                        >
                                        >
                                        > Good afternoon
                                        > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                        > Thank You for help.
                                        >
                                        >
                                        > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@>
                                        > wrote:
                                        >
                                        > <snip>
                                        >
                                        > > How can I check this?
                                        > > Can I find in www
                                        > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                                        Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                                        by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                                        Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                                        PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers. It has a
                                        theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was communicating
                                        with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of interference
                                        between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                                        a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the limitations
                                        of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                                        come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                                        wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                                        the interference issue.

                                        A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                                        of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                                        SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                                        SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                                        SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                                        Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                                        eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                                        things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a performance
                                        penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the specification
                                        for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The limit
                                        for eSATA cables is 2 meters.

                                        Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                                        connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                                        PATA connectors at all.
                                        <snip>

                                        > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                                        > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                                        > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                                        > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                        > *
                                        >
                                        > Sorry
                                        > I cannot understand.
                                        > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                                        >

                                        OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                                        the operating system. This is an oversimplification but will
                                        work for now. When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                                        The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with / also known as
                                        the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                                        All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                                        partition (6) on that drive.


                                        <snip>
                                        >
                                        > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                                        > This I dont understand.

                                        It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                                        They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                                        drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                                        harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                                        /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                                        drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                                        be /dev/hda3.

                                        <snip>
                                        > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                                        > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                                        > *
                                        > Is that the operatin system?
                                        >

                                        Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                                        more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.

                                        > <snip>
                                        > I started out keeping everything Linux
                                        > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                        > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                        > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                        > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                        > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                        > *
                                        > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                                        >

                                        Let me define three phrases here:
                                        Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                                        installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                                        Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                                        running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10. When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                                        you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                                        new version. Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                                        means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                                        without a complete reinstallation.
                                        Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                                        modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                                        installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.

                                        Regards,
                                        Loyal
                                      • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                        Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. Hallo Sophie, I am answering in English so all users can understand. Yes I understand German. The
                                        Message 19 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
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                                          Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                                          Good evening.
                                          Thank You for help.
                                          Hallo Sophie,


                                          I am answering in English
                                          so all users can understand.
                                          Yes
                                          I understand German.

                                          The computer is using German language.


                                          > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                          > Thank You for help
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > $ mount | -column -t
                                          >
                                          > mount | -column -t
                                          > Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                                          > Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                                          > -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                                          > ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$
                                          >
                                          > Sorry
                                          > there was a mistake
                                          > Sorry the reaction is German.

                                          Ich gehe jetzt mal davon aus, dass Du Deutsch sprichst. Mein
                                          Debian-System ist auch auf Deutsch, es gibt schlimmeres.
                                          *
                                          OK


                                          Gerade eben habe ich mal nachgesehen, ob ich auf meiner Maschine das
                                          Paket 'badmainutils' installiert habe:

                                          $ dpkg -l | grep [b]sdmainutils
                                          ii bsdmainutils 9.0.3
                                          i386 collection of more utilities
                                          from FreeBSD

                                          Yo, ist installiert. Die beiden ii am Anfang des Outputs bedeuten, dass
                                          das Paket installiert. Diese Information gibt aptitude auch aus, wenn
                                          ich nach einem Paket suche, apt-get tut dies hingegen nicht, dort
                                          funktioniert aber trotzdem dpkg -l | grep PACKET, dies zeigt ja explizit
                                          alle installierten Pakete an.
                                          *
                                          What does that mean?


                                          Is

                                          mount | -column -t


                                          wrong?



                                          Wieso ich den ersten Buchstaben in [eckigen Klammern] gesetzt habe? Dann
                                          wird die Suche mit grep nach bsdmainutils nicht auch in den Ergebnissen
                                          aufgeführt.

                                          Es lohnt sich bestimmt das Paket bsdmainutils zu installieren. Die
                                          Darstellungsoption column -t macht viel deutlich übersichtlicher, z.B.
                                          cat /etc/fstab | column -t

                                          What is the meaning of
                                          bsdmainutils?


                                          Vielleicht lassen meine Erläuterungen die eine oder andere eventuell
                                          Unklarheit verschwinden.

                                          Beste Grüße,

                                          Pascal


                                          Sorry
                                          no.


                                          Regards
                                          Sophie
                                        • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                          Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short,
                                          Message 20 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
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                                            Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                                            Good evening.
                                            Thank You for help.

                                            > > How can I check this?
                                            > > Can I find in www
                                            > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                                            Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                                            by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                                            Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                                            *
                                            OK


                                            PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers.
                                            *
                                            OK

                                            Can I see this with lspci?


                                            It has a
                                            theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was
                                            communicating
                                            with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of
                                            interference
                                            between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                                            a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the
                                            limitations
                                            of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                                            come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                                            wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                                            the interference issue.
                                            *
                                            Pata
                                            and sata
                                            are description of the hardware?



                                            A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                                            of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                                            SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                                            SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                                            SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                                            Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                                            eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                                            things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a
                                            performance
                                            penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the
                                            specification
                                            for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The
                                            limit
                                            for eSATA cables is 2 meters.
                                            *
                                            OK

                                            Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                                            connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                                            PATA connectors at all.
                                            <snip>
                                            *

                                            Where is it important to know
                                            this pc is sata that pc is pata?


                                            > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                                            > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                                            > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                                            > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                            > *
                                            >
                                            > Sorry
                                            > I cannot understand.
                                            > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                                            >

                                            OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                                            the operating system.
                                            *
                                            OK

                                            This is an oversimplification but will
                                            work for now.
                                            *
                                            OK

                                            When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                                            The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with /
                                            *

                                            Like a root?


                                            also known as
                                            the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                                            All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                                            partition (6) on that drive.
                                            *
                                            OK


                                            <snip>
                                            >
                                            > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                                            > This I dont understand.

                                            It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                                            They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                                            drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                                            harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                                            /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                                            drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                                            be /dev/hda3.

                                            <snip>
                                            > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                                            > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                                            > *
                                            > Is that the operatin system?
                                            >

                                            Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                                            more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.
                                            *
                                            OK



                                            > <snip>
                                            > I started out keeping everything Linux
                                            > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                            > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                            > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                            > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                            > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                            > *
                                            > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                                            >

                                            Let me define three phrases here:
                                            Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                                            installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                                            *
                                            OK


                                            Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                                            running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10.*
                                            I am using now 13.04
                                            and I do not know why
                                            I updated and there there is 13.04.

                                            It is my mistake.



                                            When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                                            you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                                            new version.
                                            *
                                            Question.
                                            I was reading I have to upgrade.

                                            Why.

                                            There is an upgrade
                                            from Pangolin to Quantal

                                            but there is no update
                                            from Hardy to Pangolin
                                            because it is said
                                            only one step is possible.

                                            Is this wrong?



                                            Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                                            means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                                            without a complete reinstallation.
                                            *
                                            Is upgrade an new install?



                                            Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                                            modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                                            installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.
                                            *
                                            OK

                                            Thank You.



                                            Regards
                                            Sophie
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