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Re: grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistribution,I want to delete one distribution;gparted?

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  • Pascal
    ... The program gparted should already be included in your Xubuntu installation. Check via: $ dpkg -l | grep gparted This command (dpkg -l) lists all
    Message 1 of 24 , Mar 5, 2013
      --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistributions,I want to delete
      > one distribution;gparted?
      >
      > Di Mär 05 08:38:01 2013
      > Good morning
      >
      > I did install
      > Ubuntu
      > 40gb
      > and
      > Xubuntu
      > 40 gb
      > on one hd.
      > How can I delete Ubuntu now?
      > Should I use gparted?
      > How can I download gparted?

      The program 'gparted' should already be included in your Xubuntu installation.
      Check via:
      $ dpkg -l | grep gparted

      This command (dpkg -l) lists all installed packages and grep filters it for the term 'gparted' which is what we are interested in

      In case it is not installed:
      apt-cache search gparted (You don't need root permissions to search for packages)
      sudo apt-get install PACKAGE (Put the exact package of gparted name here)

      Then you could start gparted, you will be asked your root password. When the Ubuntu partition is no mounted, you can delete it and than add the freed up disk space to your Xubuntu partition(s). Depending on the filesystem you chose for Xubuntu can do that online (That is the Xubuntu partitions (Do you have separate ROOT- and HOME-partitions?) are mounted while running Xubuntu (EXT4) or use a live-system to do that while they are not mounted (necessary when they are formatted EXT3)). Probably you will only be able to extend the HOME-partition (In case you have not set up Logical Volumes). You could unmount your HOME-partition (You would have to leave the graphical environment via CTRL+ALT+F2 and login as root) and then extend it. If possible, you could also resize your ROOT-partition on a running system (EXT4 only, maybe some other file systems too, have a look at Wikipedia). Please search for some online tutorials before you proceed, you can totally break your system and corrupt your data!! Backup first and then do fsck to verify that the file system in the enlarged new partition(s) is in order (Partition has to be unmounted!!!)

      Resizing partitions while in a running system should only be done on the commandline, no gparted here. Maybe easiest to use a live-CD to have the GUI available. These are just brief hints on how to do what you want. You will definitively have to look for more information!

      Pascal
    • loyal_barber
      ... I have done this sort of thing recently. gparted should already be installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the command line)
      Message 2 of 24 , Mar 5, 2013
        --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        > grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistributions,I want to delete
        > one distribution;gparted?
        >
        > Di Mär 05 08:38:01 2013
        > Good morning
        >
        > I did install
        > Ubuntu
        > 40gb
        > and
        > Xubuntu
        > 40 gb
        > on one hd.
        > How can I delete Ubuntu now?
        > Should I use gparted?
        > How can I download gparted?
        >
        > WHY?
        > I want to use the whole 80gb hd with Xubuntu.
        >
        > Regards
        > Sophie
        >

        I have done this sort of thing recently. gparted should already be
        installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the
        command line) type:

        sudo apt-get install gparted

        Once that is installed, do the following:
        1. Backup your Xubuntu partition just to be on the safe side
        2. Run gparted from the menu. I do not know the specific location
        on xubuntu but it should be under something like "Administration"
        or "System" or "System Tools."
        3. Using gparted, delete ONLY the Ubuntu partition.
        4. Apply changes
        5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
        do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
        here.
        6. Apply changes
        7. From the command line type:

        sudo update-grub

        This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
        8. From the command line type:

        sudo grub-install

        This will make the change in grub permanent.

        You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
        One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
        I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
        I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
        with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
        settings then save all of my information on my /data partition. I
        would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
        to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
        me know.

        Loyal
      • highskywhy@yahoo.de
        Do Mär 07 17:59:40 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. It is best to set the desired partition size at the time of installation. * Yes I know Thank You.
        Message 3 of 24 , Mar 7, 2013
          Do Mär 07 17:59:40 2013
          Good afternoon
          Thank You for help.


          It is best to set the desired partition size at the time of
          installation.
          *
          Yes
          I know
          Thank You.
          But I did it to try
          what Ubuntu is better: Ubuntu or Xubuntu.
          So I like Xubuntu more and so I want to delete Ubuntu.

          If I understand you correctly, you currently have two
          partitions, one for Ubuntu, and One for Xubuntu.
          *
          Yes
          both 40 gb.

          hd=80 gb



          Gparted should be included in the Live CD/disc of UBUNTU (unless that
          has changed significantly since Version10.04). You could use that
          program to delete the Xubuntu partition and change the size of the
          Ubuntu partition.
          *
          I want to delete Ubuntu so I can see with
          gparted
          where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu?
          When I would delete Ubuntu, what will happen with grub and booting?



          My reccomendation though, is it would be better to have a separate
          partion for Ubuntu where you can store files.
          *
          I do not understand.
          I only want to use now Xubuntu.

          Many users have one
          partition for the system ( ~ 20-25 GB would be a good size these
          days?), and then allocate the rest of the hard drive to a seprate
          partition.
          *
          What did I install:
          First Ubuntu with 80 gb.
          Then I installed one month later Xubuntu.
          And during install Xubuntu
          PC splitted hd to 49 gb Xubuntu and 40 gb Ubuntu.
          In the morning when the PC is booting
          it is offering to me Ubuntu or Xubuntu.
          Last three months I always booted Xubuntu
          this is the reason I want to delete Ubuntu.


          On this partition, the "/home" userspace folders are
          mounted. In this manner, most all setting files as well as any
          downloads and created documents stay safe there. Now you can
          completely uninstall and reinstall the OS without loosing all of your
          data and configuration settings (of course you would still need to
          back up /home just in case).
          *
          OK


          So I guess I am recommending either leaving the partitions as is or
          shrinking one by about half and increasing the other, then migrate
          /home to mount on the separate partition.
          *
          I think
          40 gb are enough for Xubuntu.
          But how can I use 40 gb more for files without destroying Xubuntu?


          Here are two guides (one more gui friendly) if you decide you want to
          go that route.
          https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Partitioning/Home/Moving
          *
          OK
          Thank You.

          http://www.howtogeek.com/116742/how-to-create-a-separate-home-partition-after-installing-ubuntu/
          *
          OK
          Thank You.

          And here is a similar howtogeek link that should give you whatever
          info you need if you just want to delete Xubuntu and have a big single
          partition (like you indicated).
          http://www.howtogeek.com/114503/how-to-resize-your-ubuntu-partitions/
          *
          OK
          As far as I understood
          is this the best way for a clean hd?


          Regards
          Sophie
        • highskywhy@yahoo.de
          Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. ... The program gparted should already be included in your Xubuntu installation. Check via: $
          Message 4 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
            Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
            Good afternoon
            Thank You for help.


            > grub and how to delete "Ubuntu";two Linuxdistributions,I want to delete
            > one distribution;gparted?
            >
            > Di Mär 05 08:38:01 2013
            > Good morning
            >
            > I did install
            > Ubuntu
            > 40gb
            > and
            > Xubuntu
            > 40 gb
            > on one hd.
            > How can I delete Ubuntu now?
            > Should I use gparted?
            > How can I download gparted?

            The program 'gparted' should already be included in your Xubuntu
            installation.
            Check via:
            $ dpkg -l | grep gparted
            *
            I found gparted in the software-center.
            So it is easy to install for me.
            Thank You.


            This command (dpkg -l) lists all installed packages and grep filters it
            for the term 'gparted' which is what we are interested in
            *
            So if gparted is in the software-center:
            Can I do sudo apt-get install gparted
            or install it with the gui-software-center?

            In case it is not installed:
            apt-cache search gparted (You don't need root permissions to search for
            packages)
            sudo apt-get install PACKAGE (Put the exact package of gparted name here)
            *
            Thank You.


            Then you could start gparted, you will be asked your root password.
            *
            OK

            When the Ubuntu partition is no mounted, you can delete it and than add
            the freed up disk space to your Xubuntu partition(s).
            *
            OK

            Depending on the filesystem you chose for Xubuntu can do that online
            (That is the Xubuntu partitions (Do you have separate ROOT- and
            HOME-partitions?)*
            I think so.
            Why?
            Because I installed Ubuntu Hardy and Xubuntu Pangolin independent.
            First Ubuntu
            later Xubuntu.

            are mounted while running Xubuntu (EXT4) or use a live-system to do
            that while they are not mounted (necessary when they are formatted
            EXT3)). Probably you will only be able to extend the HOME-partition (In
            case you have not set up Logical Volumes).
            *
            I do not understand.
            Sorry.

            You could unmount your HOME-partition (You would have to leave the
            graphical environment via CTRL+ALT+F2 and login as root) and then extend
            it.*
            Can gparted unmount?
            Can gparted lead the grub or the booting process?

            If possible, you could also resize your ROOT-partition on a running
            system (EXT4 only, maybe some other file systems too, have a look at
            Wikipedia). Please search for some online tutorials before you proceed,
            you can totally break your system and corrupt your data!! Backup first
            and then do fsck to verify that the file system in the enlarged new
            partition(s) is in order (Partition has to be unmounted!!!)
            *
            Yes
            Thank You.


            Resizing partitions while in a running system should only be done on the
            commandline, no gparted here.
            *
            OK

            Maybe easiest to use a live-CD to have the GUI available. These are
            just brief hints on how to do what you want. You will definitively have
            to look for more information!
            *
            So it is difficult
            to boot with the hd-Xubuntu
            and then
            start gparted and then clean Ubuntu?


            Regards
            Sophie
          • highskywhy@yahoo.de
            Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. I have done this sort of thing recently. * I saw it is not installed but I could see it in the
            Message 5 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
              Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
              Good afternoon
              Thank You for help.



              I have done this sort of thing recently.
              *
              I saw
              it is not installed
              but I could see it in the software-center.
              So I am sure
              it is easy to install for me.

              gparted should already be
              installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the
              command line) type:

              sudo apt-get install gparted
              *
              Thank You.


              Once that is installed, do the following:
              1. Backup your Xubuntu partition just to be on the safe side
              *
              OK

              2. Run gparted from the menu. I do not know the specific location
              on xubuntu but it should be under something like "Administration"
              or "System" or "System Tools."

              *
              OK

              3. Using gparted, delete ONLY the Ubuntu partition.
              *
              OK

              4. Apply changes
              *
              What does this mean?

              5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
              do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
              here.
              *
              OK

              6. Apply changes
              *
              How can I do this?

              7. From the command line type:

              sudo update-grub
              *
              I understand.

              This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
              8. From the command line type:

              sudo grub-install
              *
              This I dont understand.



              This will make the change in grub permanent.
              *

              Why there is:
              sudo update-grub
              AND
              sudo grub-install


              You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
              *
              Thank You.

              One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
              *
              On my Linux Systems
              I have a Desktop.
              In this Desktop there is a directory
              userfiles.
              This directory contains:
              dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
              usefiles (files from other computers)
              backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
              computer is on another computer)
              downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
              So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
              and once a week I burn it on CD.

              Is this a good way to save files?



              I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
              *
              I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
              computer.
              Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
              Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
              directory dailyfiles.


              I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
              with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
              settings then save all of my information on my /data partition. I
              would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
              to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
              me know.

              Thank You.
              If I really would destroy my os
              before I do dangerous things
              I am copying dailyfiles
              and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
              from www.


              Regards
              Sophie

              Again Thank You.
            • highskywhy@yahoo.de
              Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. ... Ah, that is an important question. You would first need to figure out where grub is at to know
              Message 6 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
                Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
                Good afternoon
                Thank You for help.


                > I want to delete Ubuntu so I can see with
                > gparted
                > where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu?
                > When I would delete Ubuntu, what will happen with grub and booting?

                Ah, that is an important question. You would first need to figure out
                where grub is at to know if you are going to have an issue..
                *
                OK
                I only
                know how to do this on Grub Legacy, and you should be using Grub2 if
                you installed from a disk version of ubuntu 9.10 or higher. *
                I did install
                first Ubuntu Hardy and no update.
                Then I installed
                Xubuntu Pangolin
                and now with updates there is
                Xubuntu 13.04.

                Hopefully
                someone can help you. I can tell you that it is not too complicated
                to reinstall Grub or another bootloader from a live CD if you destroy
                it.
                *
                OK

                But it would be a better option to get it installed and booting
                from the MBR and the partition you want to keep I think. If you know
                that you use Grub-Legacy, just let me know and I will try to provide
                some details.
                *
                Is this more easy then to use gparted?


                > My reccomendation though, is it would be better to have a separate
                > partion for Ubuntu where you can store files.
                > *
                > I do not understand.
                > I only want to use now Xubuntu.

                Sorry I got confused and thought you wanted to get rid of Xubuntu, not
                Ubuntu.
                *
                No
                I like more Xubuntu then Ubuntu.
                So I want to delete Ubuntu because the last three months I only used
                Xutuntu.

                Should still be the same, just switch those two words in
                everything I wrote! Essentially, you have the root directory of
                Xubuntu on one smaller partition. This is where system files live and
                where programs are installed. A separate larger partition can be used
                to mount "/home". All of the user files and most
                setting/configuration files live here (for example, browser bookmarks,
                your theme GUI, font preferences, etc.).
                *
                Is this more easy then to use gparted?

                With this setup, it is
                possible to upgrade, or even uninstall your operating system without
                touching all of the documents and settings you currently use.
                *
                Ubuntu is empty
                does mean there is only os and Firefox and so on
                but no data files created by me.
                So I can "destroy" the whole Ubuntu distribution means all 40 gb can be
                cleaned.


                This is easiest to set up during a new installation, but it is
                possible for you to do the following:

                1) delete your ubuntu partition
                *
                With gparted?
                2) shrink your existing Xubuntu partition to ~18 GB
                *
                Ok

                3) Create a new 62 GB partition
                *
                OK

                4) Migrate the /home directory of your Xubuntu partition to your new
                60 GB partition.
                *
                OK

                Now the 60 GB partition is used exclusively for your file storage.
                *
                OK.

                What does a Linux System need?

                5 gb for Linux itself?
                5 gb for tmp?
                And
                the rest is for private files, isnt it?


                As
                you guess, this is not the most efficient use of space, because the 20
                GB partition will not be completely full (to save space for upgrades,
                extra kernels, and programs that will be installed in the future.
                *
                OK.

                On
                the other hand, it does give you less to worry about setting up next
                time you upgrade your operating system or installing a new one. The
                migration of /home is a little involved, but you can find current
                instruction on the internet that support Grub2.
                *
                OK
                Question:
                If I install a Linux on an empty PC
                and alway look
                there are 5 gb free
                should I have a problem with upgrades?

                > Many users have one
                > partition for the system ( ~ 20-25 GB would be a good size these
                > days?), and then allocate the rest of the hard drive to a seprate
                > partition.
                > *
                > What did I install:
                > First Ubuntu with 80 gb.
                > Then I installed one month later Xubuntu.
                > And during install Xubuntu
                > PC splitted hd to 40 gb Xubuntu and 40 gb Ubuntu.
                > In the morning when the PC is booting
                > it is offering to me Ubuntu or Xubuntu.
                > Last three months I always booted Xubuntu
                > this is the reason I want to delete Ubuntu.


                I can only tell you how the system would behave with Grub_legacy,
                which won't help you much.
                *
                How about:

                gparted.


                Then
                sudo update-grub
                AND
                sudo grub-install


                but I would guess that most of the
                important grub files reside on your ubuntu partition since you
                installed that first.
                *
                OK

                You should be able to install grub2 to your
                current Xubuntu partition, then boot with it first to make sure it is
                working, then get rid of Ubuntu. Maybe check the first explanation on
                this link if you don't get help here...:

                <http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1014708>


                This is sounding a little bit difficult.


                > And here is a similar howtogeek link that should give you whatever
                > info you need if you just want to delete Xubuntu and have a big single
                > partition (like you indicated).
                > http://www.howtogeek.com/114503/how-to-resize-your-ubuntu-partitions/
                > *
                > OK
                > As far as I understood
                > is this the best way for a clean hd?

                I think of "clean" as freshly formatted and without any data.
                *
                Sorry
                this was wrong:
                is this the best way for a clean 40 gb Ubuntu-hd?

                The
                guide linked above will attempt to allow you to resize your existing
                partitions without destroying any of the data on that partition.
                *
                Is there still the Ubuntu and the Xutuntu.
                Why not.
                If I could have:
                40 gb Xubuntu
                10 GB Ubuntu without private files.
                and then 30 GB hd I am adding to the Xubuntu-os
                is this possible?





                It
                will typically destroy MS windows booting process though (if Windows
                is installed on the same hard disk).
                *
                There is no windows.
                Is to clean windows different then to clean a Linux-os?

                The best way for "clean" is to
                delete and format, followed by a scrub program if you are concerned
                about data recovery.
                *
                Does this mean:
                A new pc with a new os?


                Regards

                Sophie
              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013 Good afternoon Thank You for help. ... * OK ... * OK ... * OK Now I do in Xubuntu: mount ~$ mount /dev/sda6 on / type ext4
                Message 7 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
                  Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
                  Good afternoon
                  Thank You for help.


                  >> I want to delete Ubuntu so I can see with
                  >> gparted
                  >> where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu?
                  >
                  > I forgot to respond to this. I don't think so with gparted. To see
                  > where there is Ubuntu and Xubuntu, first boot into Ubuntu. open a
                  > terminal and type:
                  >
                  >>> mount
                  > (the ">>" is my prompt, don't type that part)
                  *
                  OK

                  >
                  > The response would be something like
                  > /dev/hda2 on / type ext4 (options)
                  > proc on /proc (info and options
                  > /dev/hda3 on /mnt/media (option)
                  > and so on.
                  *
                  OK


                  > you will look for what is mounted on "/", in the example, /dev/hda2 is
                  > that one and that is where your ubuntu operating system is at. You
                  > can repeat in Xubuntu.
                  *
                  OK
                  Now I do in Xubuntu:

                  mount




                  ~$ mount
                  /dev/sda6 on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
                  proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
                  sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
                  none on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
                  none on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw)
                  none on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw)
                  udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
                  devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=0620)
                  tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,size=10%,mode=0755)
                  none on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=5242880)
                  none on /run/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
                  none on /run/user type tmpfs
                  (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=104857600,mode=0755)
                  gvfsd-fuse on /run/user/ah/gvfs type fuse.gvfsd-fuse
                  (rw,nosuid,nodev,user=ah)
                  :~$


                  >
                  > As with a lot in Linux, there are many ways to accomplish the same
                  > thing. Another option would be to use the terminal and concatenate
                  > the file that contains the relevant information to display on your
                  > screen:
                  >
                  >>> cat /etc/fstab
                  *
                  I do not understand.
                  Sorry.
                  >
                  > The line that had a single foward slash "/" under <mount point> will
                  > be the partition Ubuntu is installed to. It will be something like
                  > /dev/hda2. Note, the table columns are separated with <tabs>. listing
                  > of long options and ids can cause some weird word wrapping in the
                  > terminal. If you find it hard to read, you could redirect the
                  > information to a text file instead of standard out:

                  >>> mkdir temporary
                  >>> cat /etc/fstab > temporary/mnt.txt
                  >
                  > Then read that text file
                  >
                  >>> gedit temporary/mnt.txt
                  >
                  > This will then open a text file with the information in it where you
                  > can turn off word wrapping to better read your info. replace "gedit"
                  > with the name of your text editor of choice if you use something
                  > different. XFCE/Xubuntu maybe uses "leaf" or "nano" I think...
                  >
                  > Then delete those files and directory if you no longer need them.
                  >
                  >>> rm temporary/mnt.txt && rmdir temporary
                  *
                  OK

                  >
                  > There is probably aless confusing way to do this,
                  *
                  Yes
                  I am printing this email and then I am reading it again.


                  but those are the
                  > two ways I can currently remember that would let you find out which is
                  > which in GParted.
                  >

                  Regards
                  Sophie
                  Thank You.
                • loyal_barber
                  ... Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead it waits until you apply your
                  Message 8 of 24 , Mar 9, 2013
                    --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                    >
                    >
                    > Sa Mär 09 13:19:41 2013
                    > Good afternoon
                    > Thank You for help.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >> I have done this sort of thing recently.
                    > *
                    > I saw
                    > it is not installed
                    > but I could see it in the software-center.
                    > So I am sure
                    > it is easy to install for me.
                    >
                    >> gparted should already be
                    >> installed with xubuntu. If not, from the terminal (also known as the
                    >> command line) type:
                    >>
                    >> sudo apt-get install gparted
                    > *
                    > Thank You.
                    >
                    >
                    >> Once that is installed, do the following:
                    >> 1. Backup your Xubuntu partition just to be on the safe side
                    > *
                    > OK
                    >
                    >> 2. Run gparted from the menu. I do not know the specific location
                    >> on xubuntu but it should be under something like "Administration"
                    >> or "System" or "System Tools."
                    >
                    > *
                    > OK
                    >
                    >> 3. Using gparted, delete ONLY the Ubuntu partition.
                    >> *
                    >> OK
                    >
                    > 4. Apply changes
                    > *
                    > What does this mean?

                    Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like
                    delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead
                    it waits until you apply your changes. Now on Mint, the
                    apply occurs as a button on the button bar at the top. In
                    Mint that is a check mark.

                    >
                    > 5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
                    > do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
                    > here.
                    > *
                    > OK
                    >
                    > 6. Apply changes
                    > *
                    > How can I do this?

                    See above.

                    >
                    > 7. From the command line type:
                    >
                    > sudo update-grub
                    > *
                    > I understand.
                    >
                    > This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
                    > 8. From the command line type:
                    >
                    > sudo grub-install
                    > *
                    > This I dont understand.

                    update-grub just gathers the current information. Since
                    Ubuntu will be gone, it will build a grub menu with only
                    Xubuntu on it. However, it does not install it on the
                    disk until you tell it to. This is done through grub-install.
                    I missed one thing. It should be:

                    sudo grub-install /dev/sda

                    This is assuming your boot drive is a SATA drive and it
                    is the first drive in the system. If your boot drive is
                    PATA (IDE) then it would be

                    sudo grub-install /dev/hda

                    You can figure this out using the following method when
                    in Xubuntu. From the command line type:

                    df -h

                    This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                    There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                    which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                    get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                    here is mine:

                    $ df -h
                    Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                    /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                    udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                    tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                    none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                    none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                    none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                    /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                    /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                    //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare

                    Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                    on which to install grub is /dev/sda.

                    >
                    > This will make the change in grub permanent.
                    > *
                    >
                    > Why there is:
                    > sudo update-grub
                    > AND
                    > sudo grub-install
                    >

                    Explained above

                    >
                    >> You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
                    > *
                    > Thank You.
                    >
                    >> One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
                    > *
                    > On my Linux Systems
                    > I have a Desktop.
                    > In this Desktop there is a directory
                    > userfiles.
                    > This directory contains:
                    > dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
                    > usefiles (files from other computers)
                    > backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
                    > computer is on another computer)
                    > downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
                    > So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
                    > and once a week I burn it on CD.
                    >
                    > Is this a good way to save files?
                    >

                    It will work, however, the way I have it set up is that data is
                    a separte partition. That means when I install a new OS on the
                    system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                    /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                    without having to restore from backup to see my documents.

                    >
                    >
                    >> I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
                    > *
                    > I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
                    > computer.
                    > Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
                    > Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
                    > directory dailyfiles.
                    >

                    That is certainly commendable and you should do that.

                    >
                    >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                    >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                    >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition. I
                    >> would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
                    >> to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
                    >> me know.
                    >
                    > Thank You.
                    > If I really would destroy my os
                    > before I do dangerous things
                    > I am copying dailyfiles
                    > and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
                    > from www.
                    >
                    >
                    > Regards
                    > Sophie
                    >
                    > Again Thank You.
                    >


                    Hope this helps!

                    Regards
                    Loyal
                  • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                    So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013 Good morning Thank You for email and help. ... Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like delete a partition, it does
                    Message 9 of 24 , Mar 16, 2013
                      So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                      Good morning
                      Thank You for email and help.

                      > 4. Apply changes
                      > *
                      > What does this mean?

                      Gparted has a nice feature where when you do something like
                      delete a partition, it does not do this immediately. Instead
                      it waits until you apply your changes. Now on Mint, the
                      apply occurs as a button on the button bar at the top. In
                      Mint that is a check mark.
                      *
                      OK

                      >
                      > 5. Using gparted, resize the Xubuntu partition. If it won't let you
                      > do this, come back and let me know. We can still get there from
                      > here.
                      > *
                      > OK
                      >
                      > 6. Apply changes
                      > *
                      > How can I do this?

                      See above.
                      *
                      Thank You.


                      >
                      > 7. From the command line type:
                      >
                      > sudo update-grub
                      > *
                      > I understand.
                      >
                      > This will update the grub menu so only Xubuntu exists
                      > 8. From the command line type:
                      >
                      > sudo grub-install
                      > *
                      > This I dont understand.

                      update-grub just gathers the current information.
                      *
                      OK

                      Since
                      Ubuntu will be gone, it will build a grub menu with only
                      Xubuntu on it.
                      *
                      OK

                      However, it does not install it on the
                      disk until you tell it to.
                      *
                      OK

                      This is done through grub-install.

                      *
                      OK

                      I missed one thing. It should be:

                      sudo grub-install /dev/sda
                      *
                      OK

                      This is assuming your boot drive is a SATA drive and it
                      is the first drive in the system. If your boot drive is
                      PATA (IDE) then it would be

                      sudo grub-install /dev/hda
                      *
                      How can I check this?
                      Can I find in www
                      the difference between SATA abd PATA?


                      You can figure this out using the following method when
                      in Xubuntu. From the command line type:

                      df -h
                      *
                      OK



                      7p:~$ df -h
                      Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                      /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                      udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                      tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                      none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                      none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                      none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                      7p:~$


                      Did I do it right?


                      This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                      *
                      A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


                      Now I am using
                      Xubuntu
                      maybe it is important to know.

                      There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                      which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                      get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                      here is mine:

                      $ df -h
                      Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                      /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                      udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                      tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                      none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                      none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                      none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                      /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                      /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                      //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                      *
                      Thank You.

                      Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                      on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                      *
                      I did not understand this.

                      >
                      > This will make the change in grub permanent.
                      > *
                      >
                      > Why there is:
                      > sudo update-grub
                      > AND
                      > sudo grub-install
                      >

                      Explained above
                      *
                      Thank You.


                      >
                      >> You should at this point have the entire 80 GB available to Xubuntu.
                      > *
                      > Thank You.
                      >
                      >> One more note. I always keep all of my data on a separate partition.
                      > *
                      > On my Linux Systems
                      > I have a Desktop.
                      > In this Desktop there is a directory
                      > userfiles.
                      > This directory contains:
                      > dailyfiles (new created or downloaded)
                      > usefiles (files from other computers)
                      > backupothers (backup files from other computers and the backup from this
                      > computer is on another computer)
                      > downloads (programs like Opera I did download from internet)
                      > So every evening I am copying the directory dailyfiles on USB Stick
                      > and once a week I burn it on CD.
                      >
                      > Is this a good way to save files?
                      >

                      It will work, however, the way I have it set up is that data is
                      a separte partition.
                      *
                      I understand.
                      This is the same like
                      C: windows and programmes
                      d: all data files

                      I did this this way on windows.

                      That means when I install a new OS on the
                      system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                      /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                      without having to restore from backup to see my documents.

                      *
                      So You could change vom
                      Debian to Fedora
                      and keep You partition with data files unchanged?


                      >
                      >
                      >> I always mount it as /data when I install a new or updated Linux OS.
                      > *
                      > I copy all files from directory dailyfiles to usb-stick and another
                      > computer.
                      > Only problem are the directories from mail-programmes.
                      > Claws is very easy to save files there is a subdirectory in the
                      > directory dailyfiles.
                      >

                      That is certainly commendable and you should do that.
                      *
                      Thank You for reading it.
                      But Your idea with the partition
                      is a little bit more easy.


                      >
                      >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                      >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                      >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
                      *
                      OK
                      Good idea.

                      I
                      >> would suggest this to you while you are doing this. If you want me
                      >> to modify this to make a scheme such as this work for you, just let
                      >> me know.

                      *
                      Can I do this later?

                      >
                      > Thank You.
                      > If I really would destroy my os
                      > before I do dangerous things
                      > I am copying dailyfiles
                      > and so I loose only program-files and these files I can download again
                      > from www.


                      Regards
                      Thank You
                      Sophie
                      +
                    • loyal_barber
                      ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes ... I take the line where Mounted on is /. That partition or Filesystem as in the
                      Message 10 of 24 , Mar 18, 2013
                        --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                        >
                        >
                        > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                        > Good morning
                        > Thank You for email and help.

                        <snip>

                        > How can I check this?
                        > Can I find in www
                        > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                        Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

                        >
                        >
                        > You can figure this out using the following method when
                        > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                        >
                        > df -h
                        > *
                        > OK
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > 7p:~$ df -h
                        > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                        > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                        > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                        > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                        > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                        > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                        > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                        > 7p:~$
                        >
                        >
                        > Did I do it right?

                        yes

                        >
                        >
                        > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                        > *
                        > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
                        >
                        >
                        > Now I am using
                        > Xubuntu
                        > maybe it is important to know.
                        >
                        > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                        > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                        > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                        > here is mine:
                        >
                        > $ df -h
                        > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                        > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                        > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                        > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                        > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                        > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                        > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                        > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                        > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                        > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                        > *
                        > Thank You.
                        >
                        > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                        > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                        > *
                        > I did not understand this.

                        I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                        "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                        case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                        means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.

                        Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
                        Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder. For
                        example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
                        /dev/fd1 etc. fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
                        would be the second. /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.
                        The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
                        would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
                        powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
                        designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
                        Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
                        For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                        6 listed as /dev/sda6.

                        <snip>
                        > That means when I install a new OS on the
                        > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                        > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                        > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
                        >
                        > *
                        > So You could change vom
                        > Debian to Fedora
                        > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

                        Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
                        of each. In fact I do exactly this.

                        <snip>
                        > Can I do this later?

                        Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                        before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                        under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                        on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                        be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                        My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                        the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.

                        Loyal

                        <snip>
                      • westmi
                        ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! Darrin
                        Message 11 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
                          > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                          > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                          > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                          > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                          > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                          > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                          > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                          >
                          > Loyal
                          >
                          > <snip>
                          >
                          I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
                          Darrin
                        • Pascal
                          ... [snip] ... You could also use $ mount | -column -t This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier
                          Message 12 of 24 , Mar 19, 2013
                            --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:

                            [snip]

                            > How can I check this?
                            > Can I find in www
                            > the difference between SATA abd PATA?
                            >
                            >
                            > You can figure this out using the following method when
                            > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                            >
                            > df -h
                            > *
                            > OK
                            >
                            > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                            > *
                            > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h


                            You could also use

                            $ mount | -column -t

                            This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.


                            You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

                            $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

                            This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
                            The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

                            $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

                            in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

                            Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned above.


                            [snip]


                            > >
                            > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                            > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                            > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.

                            Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?

                            Pascal
                          • Paul
                            ... I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any
                            Message 13 of 24 , Mar 20, 2013
                              --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "westmi" <west.mi420@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck!
                              > Darrin
                              >

                              I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my machines at any time.

                              I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage
                            • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                              Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an external 1TB hard drive.
                              Message 14 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                Good afternoon
                                Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                Thank You for help.



                                > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                                > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                                > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                >
                                > Loyal
                                >
                                I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                                external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                                time....good luck!
                                Darrin
                                *
                                Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and all is fine.
                                *
                                Maybe I shall delete Ubuntu and noting is ok then
                                I can update all my private files by USB
                                this is no problems.
                                But it is a lot of work to install again
                                Blender Chrome Chromium Opera
                                or can I save also the programmes?

                                Regards
                                Sophie
                              • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                Good afternoon Do M�r 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help. ... ... Keep reading. I explained how to know below. ... yes * What is the difference between
                                Message 15 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                  Good afternoon
                                  Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                  Thank You for help.


                                  --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...>
                                  wrote:
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > So Mär 17 07:24:40 2013
                                  > Good morning
                                  > Thank You for email and help.

                                  <snip>

                                  > How can I check this?
                                  > Can I find in www
                                  > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                                  Keep reading. I explained how to know below.

                                  >
                                  >
                                  > You can figure this out using the following method when
                                  > in Xubuntu. From the command line type:
                                  >
                                  > df -h
                                  > *
                                  > OK
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > 7p:~$ df -h
                                  > Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                                  > /dev/sda6 30G 14G 14G 50% /
                                  > udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                                  > tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                                  > none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                                  > none 1,9G 19M 1,9G 1% /run/shm
                                  > none 100M 24K 100M 1% /run/user
                                  > 7p:~$
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Did I do it right?

                                  yes


                                  *
                                  What is the difference between SATA and PATA?

                                  >
                                  >
                                  > This will give you a list of all partitions currently mounted.
                                  > *
                                  > A litte bit I can understand the result of df -h
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Now I am using
                                  > Xubuntu
                                  > maybe it is important to know.
                                  >
                                  > There should be one mounted to /. This is the partition on
                                  > which Xubuntu is loaded. Remove the final number and you
                                  > get the proper disk on which to install grub. For example
                                  > here is mine:
                                  >
                                  > $ df -h
                                  > Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                                  > /dev/sda3 39G 5.8G 31G 16% /
                                  > udev 3.9G 4.0K 3.9G 1% /dev
                                  > tmpfs 1.6G 1.1M 1.6G 1% /run
                                  > none 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
                                  > none 3.9G 1.1M 3.9G 1% /run/shm
                                  > none 100M 12K 100M 1% /run/user
                                  > /dev/sda4 39G 7.9G 29G 22% /alt_boot
                                  > /dev/sda5 834G 517G 275G 66% /data
                                  > //10.100.1.202/OracleRetail$ 40G 16G 24G 40% /data/alsshare
                                  > *
                                  > Thank You.
                                  >
                                  > Notice that / is /dev/sda3. Removing the number, the proper disk
                                  > on which to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                  > *
                                  > I did not understand this.

                                  I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                                  "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                                  case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                                  means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                  *

                                  Sorry
                                  I cannot understand.
                                  So I did not deleted the lines above.



                                  Here is what all this means. All "devices" on a Linux or
                                  Unix system are always listed under the /dev folder.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  For
                                  example a floppy device would be listed as /dev/fd0 or
                                  /dev/fd1 etc.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  fd0 would be the first floppy drive and fd1
                                  would be the second.
                                  *
                                  OK

                                  /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                                  This I dont understand.


                                  The first would be /dev/hda, etc. The first SCSI device
                                  would be /dev/sda. When SATA devices came along, the
                                  powers that be in Linux decided just to use the SCSI device
                                  designation. The first SATA device would be /dev/sda.
                                  Partitions on a device are listed with a trailing number.
                                  For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                                  6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                                  *
                                  Is that the operatin system?


                                  <snip>
                                  > That means when I install a new OS on the
                                  > system, I just have to add that partition to the new OS as
                                  > /data WITHOUT FORMATTING and all of my data files are there
                                  > without having to restore from backup to see my documents.
                                  >
                                  > *
                                  > So You could change vom
                                  > Debian to Fedora
                                  > and keep You partition with data files unchanged?

                                  Yes, so long as we are talking about the latest version
                                  of each. In fact I do exactly this.
                                  *
                                  I understand.


                                  <snip>
                                  > Can I do this later?

                                  Absolutely you can do this later.*
                                  OK
                                  But thank You for Your long explanation.
                                  Because I want to learn Linux.


                                  I understand running
                                  before you walk.
                                  *
                                  YES

                                  I started out keeping everything Linux
                                  under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                  on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                  be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                  My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                  the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                  *
                                  What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?


                                  Regards
                                  Sophie
                                • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                  Message 16 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                    Am 19.03.2013 15:24, schrieb westmi:
                                    > > Absolutely you can do this later. I understand running
                                    > > before you walk. I started out keeping everything Linux
                                    > > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                    > > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                    > > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                    > > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                    > > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                    > >
                                    > > Loyal
                                    > >
                                    > > <snip>
                                    > >
                                    > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                                    > external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                                    > time....good luck!
                                    > Darrin
                                    >
                                    >
                                  • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                    Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help $ mount | -column -t mount | -column -t Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie
                                    Message 17 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                      Good afternoon
                                      Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                      Thank You for help



                                      $ mount | -column -t

                                      mount | -column -t
                                      Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                                      Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                                      -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                                      ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$

                                      Sorry
                                      there was a mistake
                                      Sorry the reaction is German.



                                      This displays all mounted devices along with their mount point sorted
                                      nicely in columns. Makes it easier to read.

                                      You can achieve the same with the df-command though:

                                      $ df -PhT | sort -nk6

                                      :~$ df -PhT | sort -nk6
                                      Dateisystem Typ Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                                      none tmpfs 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                                      none tmpfs 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                                      tmpfs tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                                      udev devtmpfs 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                                      none tmpfs 1,9G 26M 1,9G 2% /run/shm
                                      /dev/sda1 ext3 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                                      /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                                      /dev/sda6 ext4 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                                      ~$


                                      I did.



                                      This prints all partitions currently mounted, sorted by the percentage
                                      the partition space is used in ascending order (the option -nk 6 does
                                      that, it sort the 6th column, witch usage in percent)
                                      The option 'T' means it displays the respective file systems, too, for
                                      each partition. Leaving that out, you would have the change to command to:

                                      $ df -Ph | sort -nk5

                                      df -Ph | sort -nk5
                                      Dateisystem Größe Benutzt Verf. Verw% Eingehängt auf
                                      none 5,0M 0 5,0M 0% /run/lock
                                      none 100M 40K 100M 1% /run/user
                                      tmpfs 748M 780K 748M 1% /run
                                      udev 1,9G 4,0K 1,9G 1% /dev
                                      none 1,9G 27M 1,8G 2% /run/shm
                                      /dev/sda1 38G 6,8G 30G 19%
                                      /media/ah/1b8c42c0-1f30-4158-8787-a708a4f7d4e2
                                      /dev/sda6 30G 14G 15G 48% /
                                      p:~$

                                      I did.




                                      in order to get same sorting according to disk usage.

                                      Note: You do not need root permission to execute the commands mentioned
                                      above.
                                      *
                                      Thank You.
                                      ]


                                      Regards
                                      Sophie
                                    • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                      Good afternoon Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013 Thank You for help ... external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any time....good luck! ... I take this
                                      Message 18 of 24 , Mar 21, 2013
                                        Good afternoon
                                        Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                        Thank You for help

                                        > I take this one step further...I keep all my important files on an
                                        external 1TB hard drive. This enables me to re-program at any
                                        time....good luck!
                                        > Darrin
                                        >

                                        I take this one step further...I keep all of my important files on an
                                        NFS share. This enables me to have access to those files on any of my
                                        machines at any time.

                                        What is the meaning of NFS?



                                        I'm basically doing this, just without the specialized computer:

                                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network-attached_storage

                                        *
                                        Thank You
                                        Regards
                                        Sophie
                                      • loyal_barber
                                        ... ... Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and replaces them
                                        Message 19 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
                                          --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "Pascal" <pascal.bernhard@...> wrote:
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
                                          > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@> wrote:
                                          >
                                          > [snip]
                                          <snip>
                                          > > >> I don't use /home because some settings for one distro will not work
                                          > > >> with another distro. In this way, I keep my home partition just for
                                          > > >> settings then save all of my information on my /data partition.
                                          >
                                          > Do you create symlinks to the data partition so you do not have the specify the unusual place where your files get saved?
                                          >
                                          > Pascal
                                          >
                                          Yes. A simple, portable bourne shell script will do the trick on
                                          each new OS I install. It removes the current directories and
                                          replaces them with symbolic links to the directories on my /data
                                          partition. No files lost, no problem.

                                          Loyal
                                        • loyal_barber
                                          ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and Parallel ATA
                                          Message 20 of 24 , Mar 24, 2013
                                            --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@..." <highskywhy@...> wrote:
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > Good afternoon
                                            > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                            > Thank You for help.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > --- In LINUX_Newbies@yahoogroups.com, "highskywhy@" <highskywhy@>
                                            > wrote:
                                            >
                                            > <snip>
                                            >
                                            > > How can I check this?
                                            > > Can I find in www
                                            > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                                            Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                                            by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                                            Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                                            PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers. It has a
                                            theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was communicating
                                            with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of interference
                                            between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                                            a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the limitations
                                            of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                                            come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                                            wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                                            the interference issue.

                                            A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                                            of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                                            SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                                            SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                                            SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                                            Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                                            eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                                            things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a performance
                                            penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the specification
                                            for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The limit
                                            for eSATA cables is 2 meters.

                                            Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                                            connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                                            PATA connectors at all.
                                            <snip>

                                            > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                                            > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                                            > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                                            > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                            > *
                                            >
                                            > Sorry
                                            > I cannot understand.
                                            > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                                            >

                                            OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                                            the operating system. This is an oversimplification but will
                                            work for now. When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                                            The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with / also known as
                                            the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                                            All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                                            partition (6) on that drive.


                                            <snip>
                                            >
                                            > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                                            > This I dont understand.

                                            It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                                            They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                                            drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                                            harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                                            /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                                            drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                                            be /dev/hda3.

                                            <snip>
                                            > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                                            > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                                            > *
                                            > Is that the operatin system?
                                            >

                                            Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                                            more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.

                                            > <snip>
                                            > I started out keeping everything Linux
                                            > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                            > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                            > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                            > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                            > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                            > *
                                            > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                                            >

                                            Let me define three phrases here:
                                            Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                                            installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                                            Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                                            running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10. When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                                            you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                                            new version. Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                                            means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                                            without a complete reinstallation.
                                            Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                                            modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                                            installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.

                                            Regards,
                                            Loyal
                                          • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                            Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. Hallo Sophie, I am answering in English so all users can understand. Yes I understand German. The
                                            Message 21 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
                                              Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                                              Good evening.
                                              Thank You for help.
                                              Hallo Sophie,


                                              I am answering in English
                                              so all users can understand.
                                              Yes
                                              I understand German.

                                              The computer is using German language.


                                              > Do Mär 21 13:34:19 2013
                                              > Thank You for help
                                              >
                                              >
                                              >
                                              > $ mount | -column -t
                                              >
                                              > mount | -column -t
                                              > Der Befehl »-column« wurde nicht gefunden, meinten Sie vielleicht:
                                              > Befehl »column« aus dem Paket »bsdmainutils« (main)
                                              > -column: Befehl nicht gefunden.
                                              > ah@ah-ThinkCentre-M57p:~$
                                              >
                                              > Sorry
                                              > there was a mistake
                                              > Sorry the reaction is German.

                                              Ich gehe jetzt mal davon aus, dass Du Deutsch sprichst. Mein
                                              Debian-System ist auch auf Deutsch, es gibt schlimmeres.
                                              *
                                              OK


                                              Gerade eben habe ich mal nachgesehen, ob ich auf meiner Maschine das
                                              Paket 'badmainutils' installiert habe:

                                              $ dpkg -l | grep [b]sdmainutils
                                              ii bsdmainutils 9.0.3
                                              i386 collection of more utilities
                                              from FreeBSD

                                              Yo, ist installiert. Die beiden ii am Anfang des Outputs bedeuten, dass
                                              das Paket installiert. Diese Information gibt aptitude auch aus, wenn
                                              ich nach einem Paket suche, apt-get tut dies hingegen nicht, dort
                                              funktioniert aber trotzdem dpkg -l | grep PACKET, dies zeigt ja explizit
                                              alle installierten Pakete an.
                                              *
                                              What does that mean?


                                              Is

                                              mount | -column -t


                                              wrong?



                                              Wieso ich den ersten Buchstaben in [eckigen Klammern] gesetzt habe? Dann
                                              wird die Suche mit grep nach bsdmainutils nicht auch in den Ergebnissen
                                              aufgeführt.

                                              Es lohnt sich bestimmt das Paket bsdmainutils zu installieren. Die
                                              Darstellungsoption column -t macht viel deutlich übersichtlicher, z.B.
                                              cat /etc/fstab | column -t

                                              What is the meaning of
                                              bsdmainutils?


                                              Vielleicht lassen meine Erläuterungen die eine oder andere eventuell
                                              Unklarheit verschwinden.

                                              Beste Grüße,

                                              Pascal


                                              Sorry
                                              no.


                                              Regards
                                              Sophie
                                            • highskywhy@yahoo.de
                                              Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013 Good evening. Thank You for help. ... Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here by searching the web. In short,
                                              Message 22 of 24 , Mar 28, 2013
                                                Do Mär 28 19:19:49 2013
                                                Good evening.
                                                Thank You for help.

                                                > > How can I check this?
                                                > > Can I find in www
                                                > > the difference between SATA abd PATA?

                                                Yes. You can find out a better definition than I will give here
                                                by searching the web. In short, the difference between Serial ATA (SATA) and
                                                Parallel ATA (PATA) is how the computer communicates with the hard drive.
                                                *
                                                OK


                                                PATA is older technology that is still found in many computers.
                                                *
                                                OK

                                                Can I see this with lspci?


                                                It has a
                                                theoretical limit of 133 MB per second. Because the computer was
                                                communicating
                                                with the hard drive in parallel and because of the possibility of
                                                interference
                                                between the 80 wires used to connect PATA to a computer, a PATA cable can be
                                                a maximum of 45 cm long. The need for additional speed without the
                                                limitations
                                                of parallel communication and possible interference drove the designers to
                                                come up with a new standard which turned out to be SATA. Note: of the 80
                                                wires in PATA, only 40 are actually used. The other unused wires help with
                                                the interference issue.
                                                *
                                                Pata
                                                and sata
                                                are description of the hardware?



                                                A SATA device uses only 7 wires for the interface cable. Just getting rid
                                                of all of those wires helps tremendously. SATA comes in three speeds:
                                                SATA 1 is limited to 150 MB/s
                                                SATA 2 is limited to 300 MB/s
                                                SATA 3 is limited to 600 MB/s

                                                Cables are limited to 1 meter. With SATA came an additional standard called
                                                eSATA which is meant to convey "external SATA." These devices are used for
                                                things such as external hard drives where you don't want to pay a
                                                performance
                                                penalty. Because these are designed to run to external devices, the
                                                specification
                                                for the cables is much stricter. Better wire sheilding is required. The
                                                limit
                                                for eSATA cables is 2 meters.
                                                *
                                                OK

                                                Most computers manufactured in the last 5 years offer 2 to 4 or more SATA
                                                connectors. Many offer at most 1 PATA connector and many no longer offer
                                                PATA connectors at all.
                                                <snip>
                                                *

                                                Where is it important to know
                                                this pc is sata that pc is pata?


                                                > I take the line where "Mounted on" is /. That partition or
                                                > "Filesystem" as in the listing above is /dev/sda3. In your
                                                > case, it is /dev/sda6. Removing the trailing number that
                                                > means the disk where you want to install grub is /dev/sda.
                                                > *
                                                >
                                                > Sorry
                                                > I cannot understand.
                                                > So I did not deleted the lines above.
                                                >

                                                OK, let me try again. You can think of the "/" partition as
                                                the operating system.
                                                *
                                                OK

                                                This is an oversimplification but will
                                                work for now.
                                                *
                                                OK

                                                When you select Xubuntu from the grub menu,
                                                The Xubuntu operating system is loaded with /
                                                *

                                                Like a root?


                                                also known as
                                                the root file system being mapped to /dev/sda6 in your case.
                                                All that means is the first SD drive (a) and the 6th
                                                partition (6) on that drive.
                                                *
                                                OK


                                                <snip>
                                                >
                                                > /dev/hd* is for IDE or ATA devices.*
                                                > This I dont understand.

                                                It is just a standard developed by the creators of Linux.
                                                They refered to PATA (also known as IDE and ATA and ATAPI)
                                                drives using the two characters "hd" I think meaning
                                                harddisk device. So the first PATA hard drive would be
                                                /dev/hda. The partition number is then added after the
                                                drive. The third partition on the first PATA drive would
                                                be /dev/hda3.

                                                <snip>
                                                > For example, on your system, Xubuntu's / is on partition
                                                > 6 listed as /dev/sda6.
                                                > *
                                                > Is that the operatin system?
                                                >

                                                Yes, but as I mentioned above when you get to know a bit
                                                more about Linux you will realize this is an over simplification.
                                                *
                                                OK



                                                > <snip>
                                                > I started out keeping everything Linux
                                                > under a single partition. When I found out from suggestions
                                                > on this list that keeping a separate data partition would
                                                > be a good idea, I incorporated that in my next install.
                                                > My suggestion would be that you might want to do this
                                                > the next time there is a Xubuntu upgrade.
                                                > *
                                                > What is the relationship between update and and change the partition?
                                                >

                                                Let me define three phrases here:
                                                Update: Usually a change for bug fixes or security to the OS or software
                                                installed under your Xubuntu operating system.
                                                *
                                                OK


                                                Upgrade: When a new version of Xubuntu comes out. I assume you are
                                                running Xubuntu 12.04 or 12.10.*
                                                I am using now 13.04
                                                and I do not know why
                                                I updated and there there is 13.04.

                                                It is my mistake.



                                                When 13.04 comes out in April this year
                                                you will have the opportunity but NOT the requirement to upgrade to the
                                                new version.
                                                *
                                                Question.
                                                I was reading I have to upgrade.

                                                Why.

                                                There is an upgrade
                                                from Pangolin to Quantal

                                                but there is no update
                                                from Hardy to Pangolin
                                                because it is said
                                                only one step is possible.

                                                Is this wrong?



                                                Xubuntu may have the option of upgrading in place which
                                                means the OS will present you with the ability to get the new version
                                                without a complete reinstallation.
                                                *
                                                Is upgrade an new install?



                                                Change the partition. Any time you take a section of a hard drive and
                                                modify that section by shrinking its size, expanding its size, or
                                                installing a completely different OS or OS version on it.
                                                *
                                                OK

                                                Thank You.



                                                Regards
                                                Sophie
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