Re: [LINUX_Newbies] Re: NEWBIE with first question
- Fr Dez 28 17:23:26 2012 Good evening.
Thank You for help.
>> Is it necessary to update every Linux System?security exploits do crop up from time to time. Also some new features
> I can only answer it depends. Some software is genuinely buggy, and
may be rolled out during a release's lifetime that are desirable too. I
used to update religiously and I have to admit I never really noticed
any big improvements. A couple of times I even got "improvements" that I
did not want too. There really is no guarantee that an update will not
introduce new bugs, or weaknesses to a system. People make mistakes
Is there a difference between Slitaz and Ubuntus and Siduction?
>software updating of course.
>> Is it possible to use Linux offline?
> Yes. Although you will not be able to use some features like online
Yes, sure no online software.
But for example is it possible a new Blender to an old Ubuntu
or should I update with a new Live CD every 6 months the whole system?
>There is a way to make your own software packages that you can then
>> For example can I install Blender 2.63, which is new, with
>> an offline-Ubuntu-Hardy?
> Out of repository software installation can be a complicated task.
install using the package manager but I generally do not go through all
of the trouble myself.
>filesystem has a few places where locally installed software is supposed
> For software that is not packaged other rules apply. The Linux
to go, /usr/local, /opt, and you can place things into your home
directory too. Theoretically software installed those places is
segregated from the rest of the system but still available. Negative
interactions can still occur if say multiple shared libraries are
installed in /usr/lib and /usr/local/lib
This is special for a newbie.
But maybe later I can manage that.
I want to learn "Linux".
>Fortunately we have a few tools we can use to deal with it when it crops
> I don't want to alarm you but Linux has its own version of DLL hell.
up though. Here are some words you can read about in man pages for more
>something you should be aware exists. I used it recently to fix my web
> lsof is also a handy tool to track down system anomalies too. It is
browser. Turns out a bad cached font file was really messing it up.
>installation's repository. Generally users are discouraged from using
> Now back to software packages that come from sources other than your
packages that aren't supposed to be used with their operating system
release. But that is not to say that it always fails, or causes system
problems. The trouble people get into here is sometimes it does work, it
depends on the package.
>recommended. Using your Blender example for instance I've installed
> There are other ways of installing software that are more
blender-2.63 from source code I downloaded directly off their website.
Doing that I avoided my package manager's dependency requirements all
together, and also kept my installation from tainting my system too.
>though so I'm afraid the best I can tell you is doing that is something
> It took me a long time to learn how to build large software packages
you are going to have to work on yourself to get better at. I'm still
not great at it myself, but I usually manage to do what I want to. Not
all of the time though.
>Linux make a text file of process notes. It'll help you organize your
> Pro Tip: Whenever you attempt to do anything really challenging in
thoughts in the moment and it is good reference if you ever need to
perform the same task again, or go back and fix something you may have
done wrong. In the file you can gather information about the task,
record the exact commands you used, any output etc. I'd be lost without
my notes. My notes are usually pretty rough but they keep me on track
here is a sample of me building my kernel for instance:
Thank You for help.
I only use Linux online now.
There is an offline Windos PC.
I am just thinking about the offline PC to Linux.
> -------- copy -----
> Linux buck 188.8.131.52 #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Sep 29 19:22:46 EDT 2012 i686
> pfred1@buck:/usr/src/linux$ grep CONFIG_SENSORS_F71882FG .config
> # CONFIG_SENSORS_F71882FG is not set
> I need to dump my old kernel vmlinuz-2.6.320
> dpkg --purge linux-image-2.6.320
> Now select the module in the menu
> save this just in case:
> pfred1@buck:/usr/src/linux$ cp .config ~/KernelConfig.txt
> -rw-r--r-- 1 pfred1 pfred1 68282 Sep 29 19:18 .config
> make-kpkg clean
> that didn't touch .config
> make menuconfig
> OK found it selected it as a module
> export CONCURRENCY_LEVEL=2
> CONCURRENCY_LEVEL=$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)
> echo $(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)
> /usr/src/linux$ time fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --revision=02
>-2x686 kernel_image modules_image
> Perhaps I should be using this --append-to-version switch?
> make-kpkg --append-to-version -5custom01-686 \
> --revision 2.6.32-46 --initrd --rootcmd fakeroot \
> kernel_image modules_image
> I'm going with this:
> /usr/src/linux$ time fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --append-to-version
>head too comfortably. So putting it into a text file helps me out a lot.
> --------- end of copy -----
> Some of that is pretty dense stuff that doesn't roll around in my
Keeping notes files is kind of like a lever that allows me to lift
heavier weight than I could on my own. This simple technique transformed
what I was capable of doing in Linux. Anyhow I'm just putting it out
there. Do it, don't do it, it is what I do. Instead of wishing someone
wrote a manual for doing some of this stuff I kind of write my own? Oh
by the way that paste isn't the definitive correct way to build a kernel
in Debian, it is just one way I did it. I always manage to do it a
little differently. It isn't a bad start though.
>I'm sure Ubuntu has their own documentation that covers the topic, but
> Anyhow learning the package management system is pretty important and
it is the same system Debian uses and Debian's documentation is the
definitive reference, so here is a link to it:
>the Moon probably only looks easy too. Modern computers are more
> I wish this stuff was easier, but it isn't. Piloting a rocket ship to
complicated than that! When you go out of your distribution's repository
things do tend to get a little complicated.
>really want, but mostly I stick with what I can get with my package
> I don't want to discourage you, I build and install some software I
manager too. I know with Blender in order to follow along with a lot of
the online tutorials you need the newer version. That is why I built a
local copy of it for myself. So sometimes we don't have a choice. Some
kind people do build custom packages for popular distributions and offer
them, and there is another service called backports that can be checked
too. Backports are newer versions of software packaged for older
distribution releases. All of that is done to make it easier for users
to avoid the hassles of trying to build their own software.
>Blender you want packaged for your distribution that you can download
> So search the Internet because someone might have the version of
and install. If you can find it it would be the easiest thing for you to
do. Installing it would be a simple dpkg -i command.
>mean that is one of the big benefits of running Linux, that we can do
> I do recommend that you do learn how to compile software though. I
that. It offers the ultimate in flexibility. It's as good as Mom's home
>2012 i686 GNU/Linux
> pfred1@buck:~$ uname -a
> Linux buck 184.108.40.206-2x686 #1 SMP PREEMPT Tue Dec 11 21:23:45 EST
>too) is really nice. I personally wouldn't have it any other way. How to
> I built that! The Debian way of building kernels (that Ubuntu can do
do that exactly right is as I'm sure you can imagine pretty involved
though. But building your own custom kernel is something the Windows
crowd will never get to do now will they? I mean if we're going to run
Linux we might as well take advantage of the situation.
>also have a habit of digressing. Take things one step at a time and
> This is a lot to digest but you asked some pretty big questions. I
I am saving all these emails and later on I am studying this.
Thank You again.
- Do Okt 10 14:18:36 2013
Thank You for email and help.
Well if Xubuntu works anything like Debian you have to edit the file:
Is this the most easy way?
Find all of the instances of the old version you want to switch from and
change them to the new version you want to switch to, and save that.
Then do an aptitude update and after that aptitude full-upgrade
I don't use apt-get myself as it is depreciated in favor of aptitude
today in Debian. Apt-get still kind of works, but it is just old junk today.
Although there sometimes are other steps you need to take first. It
depends what you're upgrading from. Sometimes there are specific
packages you have to upgrade first, before you upgrade the whole system.
So you are best off following specific instructions that pertain to the
distribution, and version you are currently running.
Unfortunately with Xubuntu the upgrade page is a 404
So that is kind of junky.
You are upgrading BTW, not updating. It is a bit different.
Thank You for help.