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Re: [LINUX_Newbies] Re: NEWBIE with first question

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  • highskywhy@yahoo.de
    Fr Dez 28 17:23:26 2012 Good evening. Thank You for help. ... security exploits do crop up from time to time. Also some new features may be rolled out during a
    Message 1 of 53 , Dec 28, 2012
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      Fr Dez 28 17:23:26 2012 Good evening.
      Thank You for help.

      >> Is it necessary to update every Linux System?
      >
      > I can only answer it depends. Some software is genuinely buggy, and
      security exploits do crop up from time to time. Also some new features
      may be rolled out during a release's lifetime that are desirable too. I
      used to update religiously and I have to admit I never really noticed
      any big improvements. A couple of times I even got "improvements" that I
      did not want too. There really is no guarantee that an update will not
      introduce new bugs, or weaknesses to a system. People make mistakes
      after all.
      *
      Is there a difference between Slitaz and Ubuntus and Siduction?

      >
      >> Is it possible to use Linux offline?
      >
      > Yes. Although you will not be able to use some features like online
      software updating of course.
      *
      Yes, sure no online software.
      But for example is it possible a new Blender to an old Ubuntu
      or should I update with a new Live CD every 6 months the whole system?
      >
      >> For example can I install Blender 2.63, which is new, with
      >> an offline-Ubuntu-Hardy?
      >
      > Out of repository software installation can be a complicated task.
      There is a way to make your own software packages that you can then
      install using the package manager but I generally do not go through all
      of the trouble myself.
      *
      Thank You.



      >
      > For software that is not packaged other rules apply. The Linux
      filesystem has a few places where locally installed software is supposed
      to go, /usr/local, /opt, and you can place things into your home
      directory too. Theoretically software installed those places is
      segregated from the rest of the system but still available. Negative
      interactions can still occur if say multiple shared libraries are
      installed in /usr/lib and /usr/local/lib
      *
      This is special for a newbie.
      But maybe later I can manage that.
      I want to learn "Linux".

      >
      > I don't want to alarm you but Linux has its own version of DLL hell.
      Fortunately we have a few tools we can use to deal with it when it crops
      up though. Here are some words you can read about in man pages for more
      information:
      >
      > ldconfig
      > ldd
      > nm
      >
      > lsof is also a handy tool to track down system anomalies too. It is
      something you should be aware exists. I used it recently to fix my web
      browser. Turns out a bad cached font file was really messing it up.
      >
      > Now back to software packages that come from sources other than your
      installation's repository. Generally users are discouraged from using
      packages that aren't supposed to be used with their operating system
      release. But that is not to say that it always fails, or causes system
      problems. The trouble people get into here is sometimes it does work, it
      depends on the package.
      >
      > There are other ways of installing software that are more
      recommended. Using your Blender example for instance I've installed
      blender-2.63 from source code I downloaded directly off their website.
      Doing that I avoided my package manager's dependency requirements all
      together, and also kept my installation from tainting my system too.
      >
      > It took me a long time to learn how to build large software packages
      though so I'm afraid the best I can tell you is doing that is something
      you are going to have to work on yourself to get better at. I'm still
      not great at it myself, but I usually manage to do what I want to. Not
      all of the time though.
      >
      > Pro Tip: Whenever you attempt to do anything really challenging in
      Linux make a text file of process notes. It'll help you organize your
      thoughts in the moment and it is good reference if you ever need to
      perform the same task again, or go back and fix something you may have
      done wrong. In the file you can gather information about the task,
      record the exact commands you used, any output etc. I'd be lost without
      my notes. My notes are usually pretty rough but they keep me on track
      here is a sample of me building my kernel for instance:
      *
      Thank You for help.
      I only use Linux online now.
      There is an offline Windos PC.
      I am just thinking about the offline PC to Linux.

      Regards
      Sophie


      >
      > -------- copy -----
      >
      > Linux buck 2.6.34.13 #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Sep 29 19:22:46 EDT 2012 i686
      GNU/Linux
      >
      >
      > pfred1@buck:/usr/src/linux$ grep CONFIG_SENSORS_F71882FG .config
      > # CONFIG_SENSORS_F71882FG is not set
      >
      > I need to dump my old kernel vmlinuz-2.6.320
      >
      > dpkg --purge linux-image-2.6.320
      >
      > Now select the module in the menu
      >
      > save this just in case:
      > pfred1@buck:/usr/src/linux$ cp .config ~/KernelConfig.txt
      >
      > -rw-r--r-- 1 pfred1 pfred1 68282 Sep 29 19:18 .config
      >
      > make-kpkg clean
      >
      > that didn't touch .config
      >
      > make menuconfig
      >
      > OK found it selected it as a module
      >
      > export CONCURRENCY_LEVEL=2
      >
      > or:
      > CONCURRENCY_LEVEL=$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)
      > echo $(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)
      > 2
      >
      > /usr/src/linux$ time fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --revision=02
      kernel_image modules_image
      >
      >
      > Perhaps I should be using this --append-to-version switch?
      > make-kpkg --append-to-version -5custom01-686 \
      > --revision 2.6.32-46 --initrd --rootcmd fakeroot \
      > kernel_image modules_image
      >
      > I'm going with this:
      > /usr/src/linux$ time fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --append-to-version
      -2x686 kernel_image modules_image
      >
      > --------- end of copy -----
      >
      > Some of that is pretty dense stuff that doesn't roll around in my
      head too comfortably. So putting it into a text file helps me out a lot.
      Keeping notes files is kind of like a lever that allows me to lift
      heavier weight than I could on my own. This simple technique transformed
      what I was capable of doing in Linux. Anyhow I'm just putting it out
      there. Do it, don't do it, it is what I do. Instead of wishing someone
      wrote a manual for doing some of this stuff I kind of write my own? Oh
      by the way that paste isn't the definitive correct way to build a kernel
      in Debian, it is just one way I did it. I always manage to do it a
      little differently. It isn't a bad start though.
      >
      > Anyhow learning the package management system is pretty important and
      I'm sure Ubuntu has their own documentation that covers the topic, but
      it is the same system Debian uses and Debian's documentation is the
      definitive reference, so here is a link to it:
      >
      > http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch02.en.html
      >
      > I wish this stuff was easier, but it isn't. Piloting a rocket ship to
      the Moon probably only looks easy too. Modern computers are more
      complicated than that! When you go out of your distribution's repository
      things do tend to get a little complicated.
      >
      > I don't want to discourage you, I build and install some software I
      really want, but mostly I stick with what I can get with my package
      manager too. I know with Blender in order to follow along with a lot of
      the online tutorials you need the newer version. That is why I built a
      local copy of it for myself. So sometimes we don't have a choice. Some
      kind people do build custom packages for popular distributions and offer
      them, and there is another service called backports that can be checked
      too. Backports are newer versions of software packaged for older
      distribution releases. All of that is done to make it easier for users
      to avoid the hassles of trying to build their own software.
      >
      > So search the Internet because someone might have the version of
      Blender you want packaged for your distribution that you can download
      and install. If you can find it it would be the easiest thing for you to
      do. Installing it would be a simple dpkg -i command.
      >
      > I do recommend that you do learn how to compile software though. I
      mean that is one of the big benefits of running Linux, that we can do
      that. It offers the ultimate in flexibility. It's as good as Mom's home
      cooking!
      >
      > pfred1@buck:~$ uname -a
      > Linux buck 2.6.34.13-2x686 #1 SMP PREEMPT Tue Dec 11 21:23:45 EST
      2012 i686 GNU/Linux
      >
      > I built that! The Debian way of building kernels (that Ubuntu can do
      too) is really nice. I personally wouldn't have it any other way. How to
      do that exactly right is as I'm sure you can imagine pretty involved
      though. But building your own custom kernel is something the Windows
      crowd will never get to do now will they? I mean if we're going to run
      Linux we might as well take advantage of the situation.
      >
      > This is a lot to digest but you asked some pretty big questions. I
      also have a habit of digressing. Take things one step at a time and
      you'll manage.
      >
      >>
      >> Regards
      >> Sophie

      Yes.

      I am saving all these emails and later on I am studying this.

      Thank You again.

      Sophie
    • highskywhy@yahoo.de
      Do Okt 10 14:18:36 2013 Good afternoon! Thank You for email and help. Well if Xubuntu works anything like Debian you have to edit the file:
      Message 53 of 53 , Oct 10, 2013
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        Do Okt 10 14:18:36 2013
        Good afternoon!
        Thank You for email and help.



        Well if Xubuntu works anything like Debian you have to edit the file:

        /etc/apt/sources.list
        *
        Is this the most easy way?


        Find all of the instances of the old version you want to switch from and
        change them to the new version you want to switch to, and save that.
        Then do an aptitude update and after that aptitude full-upgrade


        I don't use apt-get myself as it is depreciated in favor of aptitude
        today in Debian. Apt-get still kind of works, but it is just old junk today.


        Although there sometimes are other steps you need to take first. It
        depends what you're upgrading from. Sometimes there are specific
        packages you have to upgrade first, before you upgrade the whole system.
        So you are best off following specific instructions that pertain to the
        distribution, and version you are currently running.


        Unfortunately with Xubuntu the upgrade page is a 404


        http://xubuntu.org/upgrading/


        http://i.imgur.com/YygQP3b.png


        So that is kind of junky.


        You are upgrading BTW, not updating. It is a bit different.
        *
        Thank You for help.
        Sophie
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